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Full text of "Navigable Rivers of Great Britain (1831)"

6000093240 




"'i"'"i'n"ni»i»i!L'iJiiT7'"i'i'i'i'i'j' inij.'i'i'i'i'i'i'iTiljfi'i'iu'iTc 




HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 



NAVIGABLE RIVERS, CANALS, 



RAILWAYS, 

GREAT BRITAIN, 

AS A RBFBRBNCB TO 

NICHOLS, PRIESTLEY & WALKER'S 
NEW MAP OF INLAND NAVIGATION, 

DERIVED FROM ORIGINAL AND PARLIAMENTARY DOCUMENTS 

III TBI POS8ISSIOK OF 
I 

JOSEPH PRIESTLEY, Esq. 



i LONDON: 

LO.VGMAN, BEES, ORMB, BROWN ft GREEN, PATERNOSTER-ROW ; 

6. ASS J. CART, MAP AND GLOBE SELLERS, 86, ST. JAMES's-STRBET, 

AHD 
' RICHARD NICHOLS, WAKEFIELD. 

MDCCCXXXI. 



7/V. 



ENTERED AT STATIONER'S HALL. 



WAKBFIBLD ! 



RICHARD NICHOLS, TYPOGRAPIIRR, 
W ARKBT-PL4C R, 



THE 

LARGE SIX SHEET MAP 

Of THE 

INLAND NAVIGATION AND RAILWAYS, 

OF 

GREAT BRITAIN, 

THE r.llKTBBBCJTBD LA BOOB OF SEVEN TEARS, 

TO WHICH THIS VOLUME FORMS A REFERENCE, 

HAVING RECEIVED THK.MPBCIAL PATBONAOE OF TBE 

LATE KING, 

IS ROW, 

BT THE NATURAL COURSE OF STENTS, 

AND 

WITH PERMISSION, 

MOST GRATEFULLY DEDICATED TO 

KING WILLIAM THE FOURTH, 

BT his majesty's most obedient 

AND MOST DEVOTED SUBJECTS AND SERVANTS, " 

NICHOLS, PRIESTLEY & WALKER. 



THOMAS TELFORD, Esq. F.R.S.L.&E. 

PRESIDENT OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS; 

TO TUB 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

AID 

MEMBERS 

Of TBAT SCIENTIFIC AND HIGHLY TALENTED BODY, 

THIS WORK, 

IS 
MOST BE8PBCTF0LLT IRSCB1BKD, 

■ T THEIB OBEDIENT BBBVAHT, 

JO. PRIESTLEY. 



PREFACE. 



The Origin of Inland Navigation, like most other useful 
discoveries, is involved in great obscurity, and any attempt to 
ascertain the precise period of the invention or the name of him, 
wbo first pointed out the utility of these important adjuncts to the 
convenience and profit of commercial nations, would be merely to 
speculate on a subject, which has hitherto bid defiance to conjec- 
ture, and which will, in all human probability, fbr ever remain 
■without satisfactory elucidation. Not so, however, the results to 
which it has given rise — as the great Newtonian Si/stem of Grant* 
tation owed its existence to a trifling accident of almost daily 
occurrence, so the numerous canals, which intersect nearly every 
country of the civilized world, though they might possibly be 
traced to circumstances of the same trivial import, are no less 
remarkable fbr the astonishing effects they produce and the advan- 
tages they hold out, as well to the industrious artisan as to the 
enterprising trader. 

That the ancient inhabitants of every part of the globe, where- 
with history has made us acquainted, were alive in a greater or 
less degree to the benefits resulting from the adoption of inland 
navigation, is a fact that may without difficulty be substantiated. 

In India, particularly in that part of it known to us as the pro- 
vince of Bengal, the use of canals was early appreciated ; not later 
than 1355 the Emperor Ferose III. made a canal one hundred 
miles long, from the River Suttuluz to the River Jidger: in the 
following years of his reign the same illustrious monarch com- 
pleted no less than five other canals, all of which were of the 
greatest utility to the districts through which they passed, inas- 
much as they afforded a supply of water fbr the fertilising of the 



VIII PREFACE. 

lands upon their banks, and an easy conveyance for the produce 
thus obtained. Nor should the Ganges and Burrampooter pass 
unnoticed, since these rivers, with many tributary streams, form a 
series of natural canals, which, with little aid from the art of man, 
add at once to the convenience and prosperity of the extensive 
district through which they flow ; and which, we have substantial 
reasons for concluding, were a principal source of emolument to 
the people of India from a very early period. 

In Egypt, the great canal, whereby a communication was 
made between the Mle and the Red Sea, was commenced so 
early as the reign of A r ecoj, son of Psammetichus, and completed 
by the Second Ptolemy. Its breadth was such that two gallies 
abreast could easily be navigated thereon, and by it the riches 
and merchandize of the east were conveyed from the Red Sea to 
the Kile, from thence to the Mediterranean, and to all the com- 
mercial nations of that day. The JVt& also with its numerous 
branches, and if we may here use the term, its collateral cuts, 
afforded ample means of water carriage to the people both of 
Upper and Lower Egypt; the result of which was an astonishing 
increase in the commerce, and consequently in the prosperity, of 
every part to which this mode of conveyance extended. 

In China, particularly in the eastern provinces of that immense 
empire, multitudes of canals are every where met with ; most of 
which furnish undeniable evidence of their antiquity and of the 
skill of their original constructors. The Royal Canal which was 
completed in the year 980 and occupied the labour of thirty thou- 
sand men for forty-three years, is a most stupendous monument of 
the enterprise, ingenuity and perseverance of the ancient Chinese. 
Its length of main line is upwards of eight hundred and twenty- 
five miles, and innumerable collateral branches are cut from it in 
every direction. Upon the surface of this canal and its subsidiaries 
many thousand families live in vessels, which form their travelling 
habitations, and which they seldom quit from their birth till their 
decease. And some idea may be formed of the traffic upon it, 
when it is stated that the Emperor alone has ten thousand vessels 
constantly employed upon the different parts of its line. 

The utility of inland navigation was hardly likely to have 
escaped the notice of Greece, skilled as her ancient people were 



PBBFACB. IX 

b every branch of art and science, we aenordiagly find in history, 
that though well supplied with riven, many canals and aqueducts 
were constructed, or at least begun, in the days of her prosperity. 
And here it may not be out of place to offer as a conjecture, that 
canals were in many instsnrvw originally adapted to other purposes 
than thaw of cummeroe, and that this latter object was rather aft 
adaption than an invention. Thus the canals, which Strabo in- 
forms us were cut in Beotia for drawing off and keeping at a 
certain level the. waters of Lake Copou, were afterwards used for: 
the purposes of. commerce and formed a commodious line of navi- 
gation. A navigable wwwnunkarfionbetween the tenia* Sea and 
As Archipelago was early attempted by the Greeks, who designed 
a hae of canal ecr«B the Itthtotu of CoWatf, but failed in the 
execution. 

Their rivals and, in most cases, successful imitators, the Jfo» 
new, were equally alive to the advantages of inland .navigation. 
No less than three of the Soman Emperors renewed the attempt 
of catting a canal acres* the irtjwav*, but weee obliged to abandon; 
the project. 

Drums, who cowmaaded, under Augustve, an army which 
wai to march into Germany, had a canal made from the river, 
now called the Rhine to the Ittel, for the sole purpose of con* 
reyiag his army upon it. By this canal he lessened the .waters of 
th« right branch $f the Rhine, and in the course of.his; work formed 
a third mouth of that river into the sea, as. is mentioned by Pliny, 
i«w» Vents, when the Roman Army under: bis .command was in 
Gmdj attempted a canal between the Moselle end the" Rhine; 
mother canal twenty^hree miles, in length was made by .the 
Senas* in the reign of Claudius^ between the Rhine and Moese, 
■pposed to be the canal, which now commences at - Leyden and 
psKsby Delfi to its junction, with the Mcuua at Slvsja. Thesis 
is instance of adoption, the canal being originally cut for the pur- 
pose of draining the country when overflowed by inundations from. 
the sea, but subsequently applied to the purposes of navigation. 
He canal, which is still used for the purposes for which it was 
constructed, vis. that of draining Lake Celano, formerly the Fuetna 
bike, into the Idris, was executed by Claudius,, who empjoyed 
&irty thousand men thereon for no less a period than twelve years. 



X PREFACE. 

In France the history of inland navigation may be traced back- 
ward for a long succession of years. The great canal of Burgundy, 
better known as the canal of Briare, commencing at that town in 
the River Loire, and passing on to Montargis, proceeds to a junc- 
tion with the canal of Orleans, and falls into the Seine at Fontain- 
bleau. This work was commenced under Henry the Fourth. The 
famous canal of Languedoc, forming a junction between the Ocean 
and the Mediterranean, was projected in the reign of Francis I. in 
1661, and finished in fifteen years; it is remarkable for being the 
first canal whereon tunnels were used, having one of considerable 
length under a mountain in the neighbourhood of Belgiers. We 
could easily enlarge the list of French Canals, but the above will 
be sufficient to prove the length of time, during which the utility 
of such modes of conveyance has been known and acted upon in 
that country. 

In Russia the Czar Peter, ever alive to projects for the im- 
provement of his vast empire, became soon convinced of the utility 
of navigable canals ; in his tour of Europe he had means of ascer- 
taining the extent, to which the various countries he visited were 
enriched by the instrumentality of these modes of conveyance, and 
he was not slow to profit by the example. One of his principal 
projected canals was that from the Caspian Sea to Petersburg, 
whereby he proposed to open a mercantile communication between 
that place and Persia. This project, however, he did not live to 
accomplish. But what he had designed was carried on by his 
successors with so much zeal, that there is not a country in the 
world, where inland navigation is more extensively employed than 
in Russia. And here, by the way, we must not omit noticing the 
high compliment paid by foreign countries to the talents of our 
English engineers, an instance of which occurred in the reign of 
the illustrious Catherine, who offered a large sum of money and 
many local advantages to our countryman, Mr. Smeaton, on con- 
dition of his accepting the office of chief engineer in her dominions. 

We cannot within our present limits enumerate all the canals 
existing in Russia at the present day, it may therefore suffice to 
remark, that with a trifling interruption of only sixty miles, goods 
may be conveyed from the frontiers of China to Petersburg, being 
no less a distance than four thousand four hundred and seventy-two 



PBBFACE. xi 

wb; the same advantages of transit by water are experienced 
by the- traders be tw ee n Petertbttrg end Crimea*, whose merehan- 
due is conveyed in that dneotion one thousand fomr hundred and 
tbo«y*mur miles. . . 

That Engiatd, pre-eminent a*, the is in commerce, should 

bnve promptly: availed herself of tins method of conteying her 

■Mmdaetuns from one part of the island to another, is hardly 

to.be wondered at. Her- first canals were, however, the works 

of fheeignen, end amongst these, the most remarkable one on 

accord is the CWdaie, out by the JZdnons wiw a view of forming 

a.' conunntteation between the Rivers JKyM or Name and the 

Witktmt the length of this stapendons work, for saeh it then was, 

however it has •been exceeded by those of more recent date, was 

forty mike front' its commencement in the, Ntne near Ptttrberough 

to its opening into the Witham three miles below Lined*. For 

what. has been -effected from that time to the present day, we 

refon to the, following pages, and shall now proceed to consider 

the other branch of commercial transit, the rail and tramroad. 

,Qf-4he-<fnw. adoption of the conreyance of goods on Railways, 

we hare' no distinct eeoemtt; by whom they were originally 

h as nght into use, and in what part they obtained their celebrity, 

are facts ehke unknown. To a certain degree they no doubt 

haver been introduced many years ago; indeed it is not too much 

to soppose that the first workers of mines, not only in Britain 

bat hi. other countries also, were acquainted with the method of 

kying a kind of tram for the sledge to ran upon, afterwards 

fitted win wheels and converted into small waggons; to which 

we .may trace the origin of our present improved mode of con- 

snnoting them. But whatever may have been their origin, it 

appeaas that they were soon generally adopted— to a trifling ex- 

teat, it is true, for during a great part of the time that they have 

been known, they have been limited to the conveyance of minerals 

hum various parts ef a mine to its mouth, in places where horses 

esald not find room, and where the labour of propelling by manual 

■ feme would have* been particularly tedious and oppressive without 

thriraidl 

As their use became more apparent, the mode of applying 
h husine more extensivel y sought into. From their former 



Xll PREFACE. 

situation in the mine, they became a part of the machinery on 
the surface, making a communication between one mine and 
another, or between a series of mines and the place for depositing 
the minerals dug from them ; as they became better understood, 
they were made more generally useful, till at last combined with 
inclined planes and other machinery connected therewith, they 
formed a communication not only between the mines and their 
depots, but also between these latter and the vessels, whereon the 
minerals were to be embarked for the purpose of conveyance to 
distant parts. Here the railway or tramroad appeared to have 
reached the extreme point of application, and here for several 
years it remained unaltered, except as to some trifling changes in 
the materials of which it was constructed, and the form into which 
those materials were shaped. But as the other branches of mecha- 
nical science became more extended, and particularly when the 
application of that powerful agent, Steam, became so generally 
practicable, a new era commenced with respect to railways and 
tramroads. 

"We believe we are correct in assigning to Mr. TreventhicA, of 
Cornwall, the honour of first applying the steam engine to the 
propelling of loaded waggons on railways; his scheme was im- 
proved upon by Mr. John Blenkinsop, manager of the collieries at 
Middleton, near Leeds, belonging to the late Charles Brandling, 
Esquire, of Gosforth House, Northumberland, who obtained a 
patent for the construction of the railway, and the steam carriage 
thereon, which he immediately put in practice on the road from 
Middleton to the coal staith at Leeds, a distance of about four 
miles, on which road the coals for supplying that town are daily 
conveyed by steam. Since his application of the principle, most 
of our eminent engineers have turned their attention to the subject, 
and the consequence is, that in a few years we may expect travelling 
in steam carriages to be of as common occurrence as the convey- 
ance of co al by the same means is now. The late experiments, 
made with the carriages of Messrs. Gurney, Stephenson, Emckson, 
Braithwait e, and other celebrated engineers, on the Liverpool and 
Mancliester Railway, have proved with what speed the distance 
between different places may be traversed, and the numerous 
application s to parliament, for acts to legalize the construction of 



PBXFACK. Xlii 

railway* in many parts of the country, sufficiently prove the interest 
with which the subject is taken up; whilst from the very circum- 
rtanee of the rapidity wherewith carriages have -been propelled 
oa this railway, it is now probable that ere long his Majesty's 
msib wiH be conveyed on the plan introduced by Mr. Dick. 

It ■ not our intention in the present work to enter into a detail 
of the nature and mode of construction of canalafrailways, locks, 
aqueducts or other works connected with them. Having pre- 
voted our readers with a brief account of the progress of canals 
sad railways from their first adoption to the present day, we must 
refer to the following sheets for a more particular detail of pro- 
ceedings in all works of either description, already executed or 
b course of execution in England; and it now only remains for 
as to discharge a most pleasing part of our duty, that of acknow- 
ledging, which we do with most heartfelt gratitude, the support 
lad encouragement we have received in the progress of our ardu- 
ous undertaking. The work has presented numerous difficulties, 
of which at the outset we had formed no adequate ideas, whilst 
the expenses, attendant on the whole, have been materially in- 
creased by various circumstances, over which we had no con- 
trol Cheered, however, by the gratifying list of our subscribers, 
amongst whom we are proud to number many of exalted rank 
ud distinguished talent in every branch of science, we have sur- 
fflotmted great difficulties and feel confident of having brought 
car design to a successful termination. In a work of such a 
nature, the materials whereof were so widely scattered, it is im- 
potable entirely to guard against error or mistake, yet this we 
nay assert, that every care has been taken to state each particular 
connected with our plan, on as good authority as the most diligent 
attention and careful reference to original and parliamentary do- 
contents could produce, we are, therefore, willing to hope, that 
few mistakes of material import will be found in any of the 
•aeceeding pages. 

In order to bring down the list of Canals and Railways to the 
time of the dissolution of the late parliament and thereby to 
famish the particulars of every act at present in existence, the 
publication of the map has been delayed, at a great loss indeed 
to the proprietors, who have a large capital embarked in the 



XIV PREFACE. 

undertaking, but, as they are well aware, to the advantage of 
their subscribers, and to the increased value of the work itself! 

To many valued friends the compiler of the following pages 
has to express his gratitude for information and assistance in various 
parts within their immediate knowledge. To none of them are 
his thanks more jostly due than to Mr. John Walker, civil engi- 
neer, one of thefproprietors of the map and the surveyor by whom 
it has been executed. This gentleman, in the course of his survey 
of the kingdom, devoted a considerable portion of time to the 
collection of materials, which have added greatly to the value 
and interest of the volume now most respectfully presented to 
the public 



JO. PRIESTLEY. 



AIRE* C ALDER NAVIGATION OFFICE, 
April, 1S31. 



HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 



NAVIGABLE RIVERS, CANALS, AND RAILWAYS, 



GREAT BRITAIN. 



ABERDARE CANAL. 

33 George 1H. Cap. 93, Royal Anent 38th March, 1783. 

This canal, though limited in its extent, is amongst the fust of 
such as may be adduced in proof of the advantages attendant upon 
inland navigation. The act for the formation of it is entitled, ' An 
' Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the 
' Glamorganshire Canal, to or near the village of Aberdare, in the ' 
1 county of Glamorgan, and for making and maintaining a Rail- 
1 vay or Stone Road, from thence to or near Abernaut, in the parish 
1 of Cadoxtone-Juxta-Neath, in the said county! By this act the 
company were empowered to raise £22,500, in shares of £100 
each, and a further sum of £11,000 was in like manner to be 
raised, should the expenditure on the works require it 

The Aberdare is connected with the Glamorganshire Canal, 
at a short distance from the aqueduct, conveying the latter over 
the River Taff. Its course from the Glamorganshire Canal is along 
the western side of the Cynon Valley, nearly parallel to the river 
of that name, and having passed Aberrammon it terminates at 
Ynys Cynon, about three quarters of a mile from Aberdare, the 
village from which it derives its name, being from commencement 
to termination about six miles and a half in length. At the head 
of the canal near Aberdare there is a railroad, two miles long, to 
the Llwydcoed Furnaces, from which branches extend to Godleys 
and Abernaut Furnaces. 

The canal is nearly level, to the distance of four miles from its 
commencement; in the remaining two miles and a half, to its 
head or termination, there is a rise of 40 feet The country through 
which it passes abounds in iron, coal and lime ; numerous furnaces 
and mines are in its immediate vicinity, for the export of the pro- 
dace of which it was originally undertaken, and which purpose it 
completely answers, to the evident advantage oi the adjoining 
property. 



2 ABERDEENSHIRE CANAL. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

For bon. Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, &c 5 per Ton, per Mile. 

For iron-stone. Iron-ore, Coal, Coke, Charcoal, Bricks, Brick- > „ j,,, j:,, 

tile and Slate i 

For Limestone, Building-stone. Stone, Tile, Lime, Sand, Clay > ,, ..... ..... 

and all Kinds of Manure ......i i '» d,tta ditto - 

For Cattle, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts S ditto. ditto. 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile. 

TRAVELLING ON THE RAILWAYS. 

<f. 

Forerery Horse, Mule or Ass 1 per Day. 

For Cows and all other Cattle i ditto. 

For Sheep, Swine and Calves 4 per Score. 

The chief object of this navigation is the export of the produce 
of the iron furnaces, coal mines and limestone quarries, which 
abound in the immediate vicinity. 



ABERDEENSHIRE CANAL. 

36 George HI. Cap. 68, Royal Assent 26th April, 1796. 
41 George I1L Cap. 3, Royal Assent 24th March, 1801. 
49 George III Cap. 3, Royal Assent 13th March, 1809. 

This navigation was executed by a company, incorporated by 
the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the Aberdeenshire 
w Canal Navigation," and was opened for the passage of vessels in 
June, 1805. Its commencement is in the harbour of Aberdeen, 
on the north bank of the Dee, and in the tideway at the mouth of 
that river. For a short distance it takes a northern direction, and 
then proceeds to the east, past the town of Aberdeen, to Wordside, 
at which place it approaches the southern bank of the River Don, 
nearly parallel to which it continues its course by Fintray to the 
town of Kintore : leaving that town to the west, and keeping the 
western side of the valley of the Don, it opens into that river at 
Inverurie, near its junction with the water of Urie, The length of 
this canal is about nineteen miles, and the fall from Inverurie, to 
low-water-mark in the harbour of Aberdeen, is 168 feet, by seven- 
teen locks. The width of the canal is 23 feet, and its depth aver- 
ages S feet 9 inches. 

The first act for executing this useful work is entitled, l An Act 
'for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Harbour 
* of Aberdeen, in the parith of Aberdeen, or St. Nicholas, into the 



ABERDEENSHIRE CANAL. 3 

' River Don, at or near the South End of the Bridge over the same, 
1 ( adjacent to the Royal Burgh of Inverurie J in the parish ofKin- 

* tore, all within the county of Aberdeen, North-Britain.' 

By this act the company were authorized to raise £90,000 in 
£50 shares, no person to be holder of less than one share, or of 
more than forty ; and it was further provided that in case of need 
£10,000 more might be raised amongst themselves, by the ad- 
mission of new subscribers or by mortgage : it appears, however, 
that the original projectors of the work did not meet with the 
anticipated success, for in the year 1801, an application was made 
to parliament for an additional act for raising money to complete 
the undertaking. 

In their application the proprietors stated, that of the £90,000 
which they were authorized by their former act to obtain, only 
£17,800 had been subscribed, all of which had been expended, 
and several debts incurred, 

A second act was passed in the 41st George III. cap. 3, (24th 
March, 1801), in consequence of the company being unable to 
raise more than £17,800 under the former act, and had for its 
title, * An Act for better enabling the Company of Proprietors of 
1 the Aberdeenshire Canal Navigation, to finish and complete the 

* same,' which was to be effected by creating one thousand new 
shares of £20 each, bearing an interest of five per cent 

But the proprietors were compelled to apply for a third act, 
which was granted in the 49th George III. cap. 3, (13th March, 
1800), entitled, i An Act for better enabling the Company of Pro- 
1 prietors of the Aberdeenshire Canal Navigation to raise the neees- 
' sary Fund to complete the same! By this act the company were 
empowered to raise a farther sum of £45,000, upon promissory 
notes, under the common seal of the company, bearing interest, 
with a power in the holders to become shareholders of £100, in 
the ratio of the amount of their respective notes ; or, at their option, 
they are empowered to raise the said sum by mortgage of 
the rates authorized to be collected ; or by the granting of 
annuities. 

The tolls which were granted by the first act, (and which have 
not been altered by any subsequent act), are recited in the follow- 
ing page:— 

a 2 



4 ADUR RIVKR. 

TONNAGE KATES. 

i. 
For Hay, Straw, Dung, Peat and Peat Ashes, and for all} 
other Ashes intended to be used for Manure, and for all f 
Lime, Chalk, Marl, Clay, Sand, and all other Articles > 4 per Ton, per Mile, 
intended to be used for Manure, and for all Materials for \ 

the Repair of Roads ■' 

For Corn, Flour, Bark, Wood Hoops, Coal, Culm, Coke, Cm- j 

ders, Charcoal, Iron, Lime, (except what shall be intended J. 5 ditto. ditto, 
to be used for Manure) Stone, Bricks, Slate and Tiles . . ) 
For Timber and other Goods, Wares or Merchandize, not i g di(t0 djtto 

hereinbefore specified ' 

Tolls to be taken for any greater or less Quantity than a Ton, or greater or less 
Distance than a Mile. 

The chief article of conveyance on this canal is granite, great 
quantities of which are annually exported from the quarries on its 
banks to London and other parts of the country, by means of its 
communication with the harbour of Aberdeen, for the improve- 
ment of which Mr. Srneaton, and afterwards Mr. Telford, made 
surveys, preparatory to applications to parliament for powers to 
execute the same. Acts were accordingly passed in the 13th, 35th, 
37th, and 50th of George III. and the harbour is now capable of 
receiving ships of from 18 to 20 feet draught, adding thereby con- 
siderably to the facilities of shipment and consequently increasing 
the traffic on the canal which opens into it. 



ADUR RIVER. 

47 George HI. Cap. U7, Royal Assent 13th August, 1807. 

The Adur River rises about four miles from Horsham, in Sussex, 
at a distance of thirty-six miles from the Metropolis, and takes a 
south-easterly course by West Grinstead, and the Baybridge Canal, 
to Binesbridge, to which place it was rendered navigable for bar- 
ges drawing 4 feet water, by an act, entitled, ' An Act for im- 
' proving the Navigation of a certain part of the River Adur. and 
' for the better draining the Lowlands lying in the Levels above 
1 Beeding-bridge, and below Mock-bridge and Bines-bridge, all in 
' the county of Sussex.'' 

From the Bavbridge Canal, at Binesbridge. the river takes a 
southerly course, passing about a mile to the east of the town of 
Stevninsr, from thence to New Shoreham ; when, passing to the 
south of the town, it takes an easterly course running parallel with 



AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 5 

the shore of the English Channel, until it falls into the same at 
Shoreham Harbour, a distance of about fourteen miles from Bines- 
bridge. 

This river was a very imperfect tideway navigation, previous 
to the passing of this act, but it is now made navigable for barges 
drawing 4 feet, although the act only authorizes the trustees, for 
carrying the same into execution, to make it a 3 feet navigation. 
Seventy-nine trustees, together with the commissioners of sewers 
of the Rape of Bramber, were appointed to carry the act into 
execution. The qualification was the possession of a clear annual 
rental of £SO, or of a personal estate of £1,000. 

The funds for carrying on the works for the improvement of this 
navigation and drainage, were raised by an assessment of two shil- 
lings per acre on all lands lying in the level above Beeding-bridge, 
during the years 1807, 1808, and. 1809, under the authority of an 
act of the 23rd of Henry VIII. and after that such sum as the 
trustees and commissioners shall deem necessary. They are also 
empowered to borrow money on security of the tolls, rates, &c. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Between Shoreham Bridge and Beeding Bridge, all Goods, > , „_-„ 

Wans or Merchandize J IperTon. 

Between Shoreham Bridge and the End of the Navigation at } 

SS^SE" f °T ^i • Du ?F ' £"%. f° U .V C0mp< l?. 0r t i dlt«o. P" Mile, 
other Articles (except Lime) to be used for the manuring \ 

of Land } 

For all other Goods, Wares, Commodities or Merchandize.... 1 ditto. ditto. 

The Biter Ufrtt of toll J 'roa Shorthorn Harbour to Shortkam Bridgt. 



AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 

10JtllWiLULC.19,R.A. 4thMay,1889. 14 Geo. III. C. 96, R. A. I4fh June, 1774. 
I Geo. IV. C. 39, R.A. 30th June, 1820. 9 Geo. IV. C. 93, B. A. 19th June, 1838. 

The rendering these rivers applicable to the purposes of com- 
merce forms one of the most important features in the history of 
our inland navigation, and as they were made navigable under an 
act of parliament, passed above fifty years prior to the date of any 
enactment for a canal navigation, a brief outline of this extensive 
and taseful undertaking may not prove unacceptable to our readers. 

The source of the Aire is in Malham Tarn, a fine sheet of 
water belonging to Lord Ribblesdale, situate a few miles east of 



6 AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 

Settle, in that district of the county of York which is called Craven. 
After running underground for near a mile from its source, it 
issues from the base of a perpendicular rock 286 feet high, at the 
centre of a romantic amphitheatre of limestone called Malham Cove. 
The stream is at first inconsiderable, and from the magnificent sce- 
nery of the cove, whence it emerges, would be little noticed, 
particularly in dry seasons ; but in winter, or when the tarn above 
is swollen by rains, the aperture at the base of the rocks is insuffi- 
cient for the stream, and the water pours over the top of the cove 
in a vast sheet, little if at all inferior to many of the falls of 
America. From Malham Cove, the Aire runs directly south, by 
the village of Aire Town, to Cold Coniston, thence turns easterly 
till it reaches Gargrave ; from which place, having been conside- 
rably augmented by several lesser streams, now united with it, it 
pursues an easterly direction parsing near to Skipton, by Kildwick, 
within a short distance of the town of Keighley, through Bingley 
and Shipley, which latter place is within three miles of Bradford ; 
whence it proceeds, by the picturesque remains of Kirkstall Abbey, 
to Leeds, having given the name of Aire-dale to the beautiful 
valley through which it passes. Under the provisions of the act of 
William III. the date of which is given above, this river was made 
navigable to the tideway. The act is entitled, ' An Act for the 
' making and keeping navigable the Rivers Aire and Calder, in the 
' county of York^ 

From Leeds the Aire continues in an easterly direction by 
Temple Newsam, the seat of the Marchioness of Hertford, and 
Swillington Hall, the seat of Sir John Lowther, Bart, to Castleford, 
where it unites with the Calder. The two rivers, after their 
junction, continue to bear the name of Aire, and passing by 
Fryston Hall, Ferrybridge, Knottingley, Beal, Haddlesey, Wee- 
land, Snaith and Rawcliffe, join the Ouse a little below the village 
of Annin, at a short distance from the town of Howden. The 
authority of the first act extending only to Weeland, the subse- 
quent continuation of the navigation to the Ouse River was under 
a second act, the title of which will be recited in its proper place. 
The Aire is not navigable above Leeds ; the length of the naviga- 
tion, from Leeds to the junction with the Calder, is about eleven 
miles and a quarter, in which distance there is a fall of 43| feet by 



AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. <f 

bx locks. From the junction of the two riven to Weebod, the 
diBtancw is eighteen miles and a quarter, with a fell of S4J feet by 
fear locks, making the total length of navigation from Leeds to 
Weelaad near thirty miles. On this part of the line of navigation 
are several short canals, railroads, &c the property of individuals, 
who have made them for the easier conveyance of the produce of 
their estates to the banks of the river; as for instance, at Fairburn, 
a canal, the property of Lord Palmerston, a quarter of a mile 
long, level with the river, for the use of his lordship's extensive 
Erne and gypsum quarries. Mr. Watson and Mr. Haxby, at 
Brotherton, have each one, about one furlong and one chain in 
length ; from Mr. Haxby's canal a short railway is carried to the 
lime-quarries, north of Brotherton ; near to the west end of Crier 
Cut, dose to the Leeds Race Course, there is a railway and staith 
for conveying and shipping the coal from Lord Stourton's collieries 
on Rothwell Heigh; near Knowstrop there is a railway from the 
Marchioness of Hertford's collieries, at Waterloo, for the supply 
of Leeds: there are also railroads at Crier Cut and opposite the 
Leeds Race Course, for the delivery of coals from this colliery 
going eastward ; near to Methley, a staith and railway from Sir 
John Lowther's collieries, at Astley ; and in the township of 
Methley, there is a railway for conveying to the river the coals 
from the Earl of Mexbro's works ; considerable quantities of 
building-lime are also shipped at Weldon and Fryston. At a 
short distance above Leeds Bridge is the basin of the Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal, which locks down at this place into the River 
Aire, thereby connecting the two navigations. 

The source of the Calder is above Todmorden, amongst the 
hills which constitute the grand ridge, or, as it is popularly 
termed, the back bone of England, in the same field where the 
West Calder takes its rise, which in its course westwards, joins the 
Bibble and enters the Irish Sea. Leaving the hills in which it 
rises, the Calder pursues an easterly course through the romantic 
valley of Todmorden, passing the populous hamlets of Hebden 
Bridge and Sowerby Bridge, to within two miles of Halifax; 
thence by Elland, Brighouse, Kirklees Park, the seat of Sir 
George Armytage, Bart, in the vicinity of which a considerable 
stream, the Colne, folk into it; proceeding thence by Mil-field, 



8 AIRE AND CALDER NAV1UAT10N. 

the market-town of Dewsbury, and Horbury to Wakefield; at 
which place this branch of the Aire and Calder Navigation com- 
mences. From the navigation warehouse, at Wakefield Bridge, 
the course of the Calder is by Heath, Newland Park, formerly a 
preceptory of Knights Templars, but now the seat of Sir Edward 
Dodsworth, Bart and Methley, where the Earl of Mexborough 
has a seat, to its junction with the Aire near Castleford ; mean- 
dering for the distance of twelve miles and a half through a fertile 
and delightful valley. The fall from Wakefield Bridge to the 
union of the two rivers is 28j feet by four locks, viz. at the Old 
Mills, Kirkthorpe, Lakes and Penbank. The total length of the 
navigation from Wakefield to Weeland is thirty-one miles and a 
half, and the total fall is 62| feet A little above Wakefield 
Bridge are the Calder and Hebble Navigation Warehouses, and, 
on the opposite side of the river, the Earl of Cardigan's railway, 
which conveys the coal from his collieries at New Park, two 
miles from Wakefield. Haifa mile below Wakefield the Barnsley 
Canal locks down into the River Calder. At Bottom Boat, about 
five miles and a half from Wakefield by the course of the naviga- 
tion, the Lake Lock Railroad communicates with the river. This 
road, which was constructed about thirty years ago, by a company, 
without application to parliament, extends to the East Ardsley 
Coal-field, a distance of four miles from its junction with the navi- 
gation. When it was at first constructed, as its name imports, it 
joined the river at Lake Lock ; it was, however, in 1804, removed 
to Bottom Boat, a mile lower down the river, to which place from 
seventy to one hundred thousand tons of coal are now annually 
brought down by this railroad : and another belonging to the 
Duke of Leeds, communicating with his collieries on Wakefield 
Outwood, terminates within a short distance of the former, from 
which forty or fifty thousand tons of coal are shipped annually. 

Though the first act for making this navigation was passed in the 
year 1699, an attempt for the same purpose had been made long 
before, for on the 15th of March, 1625, the first year of Charles 
the First's reign, a bill was brought into the House of Commons, 
entitled, ' An Act for the making and maintaining the rivers of 
' Ayre and Cawldes, in the West Riding of the countyc of Yorke, 
' navigable and passable for Boats, Barges, and other Vessels, A/c' 



AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. g 

This biH was rejected, afler a long debate on the question of 
committing and engrossing; nor does it appear that any further 
attempt was made tor more than seventy years, when Lord Fairfax 
introduced a similar bill into the House of Commons, on the 18th 
of Jarmary, 1698. Petitions in favour of this bill were presented 
from the mayor, aldermen, and inhabitants of Leeds, the borough 
of Retford, King's Lynn, Lincoln, Manchester, the magistrates at 
the Quarter Sessions at Doncaster, Boroughbridge, the magistrates 
assembled at Wakefield Quarter Sessions, the clothiers of the town 
of Rochdale, Rotherham, Halifax, Kendal, clothiers of Wakefield, 
Bradford and Gainsbro' ; ' and against the bill, from the lord mayor 
and commonalty of York, also one from Francis Nevill, of Chevet, 
Esq. the owner of the Soke Milk, at Wakefield. 

It was not till the 3rd of April, 1609, that an act passed the 
House of Lords, and which received the royal assent on the 4th of 
May following. As some interesting particulars are contained in 
the petitions presented to the house in respect to the bill of 1698, 
they are briefly noticed below. 

In the Leeds petition it is stated " that Leeds and Wakefeild 
" are the principal trading towns in the north for cloth ; that they 
" are situated on the Rivers Ayre and Calder, which have been 
" viewed, and are found capable to be made navigable, which, if 
" effected, will very much redound to the preservation of the high- 
u ways, and a great improvement of trade ; the petitioners having 
u no conveniency of water carriage within sixteen miles of them, 
u which not only occasions a great expense, but many times great 
" damage to their goods, and sometimes the roads are unpassable, 
"Ac. &c n 

The clothiers of Ratchdale state that they are " forty miles 
u from any water carriage." The clothiers of Hailifax, in their 
petition, state "that they have no water carriage within thirty 
u miles, and much damage happens through the badness of the 
u roads by the overturning of carriages." 

The clothiers of Wakefield state " that the towns of Leeds and 
u Wakefeild are the principal markets in the north for woollen 
u cloth, &c. &c. ; that it will be a great improvement of trade to 
" all the trading towns of the north by reason of the conveniency of 
" water carriage, for want of which the petitioners send their 



10 AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 

" goods twenty-two miles by land carriage, (to Rawcliffe), the 
" expense whereof is not only very chargeable, but they are 
" forced to stay two months sometimes while the roads are 
" passable to market, and many times the goods receive consider- 
" able damage, through the badness of the roads by overturning." 

The petition of the lord mayor and commonalty of the ancient 
city of York, in opposition to the bill, sets forth, " that the said city 
" has chiefly its support and advantage by the River Ouze and 
" water of Humber, which is a passage for ships and boats from 
" York to Hull, and divers parts of this realm ; and that by letters 
"patent, 10th Edward IV. (1471) the said petitioners were 
" appointed conservators of the River Ayre from the River Ouze 
"to Knottingley Mill Dam; and have all along exercised their 
" power accordingly ; that if the bill pending in the house, for 
" making the Rivers Ayre and Calder navigable, should pass, the 
" River Ouze will be so drained by such navigation, that no boat 
" or vessels will be able to pass thereon, whereby the trade of the 
" city of York, carried on by the said River Ouze, will be quite 
" carried into other remote parts, and the petitioners' said power 
" of conservatorship destroyed, to the impoverishing the said city 
" and countries adjacent, and praying that the said bill may not 
" pass; the petitioners being ready to offer other reasons against 
" the same." The petition of Francis Nevill, of Chevet, Esq. 
against the bill, states, that " the petitioner is proprietor of several 
" corn, fulling, and rape mills, and dams, upon the River Calder, 
" and that by back water his mills will be inevitably stopped from 
" g ' 11 ^ a * a M? *° n ' s great prejudice." 

The tolls granted by this act were, from the 1st of May to the 
1st of October, any sum not exceeding ten shillings per ton ; and 
from the 1st of October to the 1st of May, any sum not exceeding 
sixteen shillings per ton, for the entire distance between Leeds or 
Wakefield, and Weeland, or vice versa, and proportionably for any 
greater or less weight, or for any less distance than the whole. 

In order to carry into execution the powers granted by this 
act for making the rivers of Aire and Calder navigable, the 
undertakers immediately advanced about £12,000, to which, in 
the course of a few years, other sums, to the amount of about 
£16,000 were lent and advanced ; these sums, with all the money 



AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 11 

which the tolk produced for the first twenty-four years, were hud 
oat in completing the works of navigation. So small was the 
trade of the country, that in the year 1730, the whole navigation, 
together with all the property attached thereto, was rented at 
£2,000 per annum, upon condition that the Undertakers them- 
selves should be at the risk of keeping all dams, on the said rivers, 
good against any accidents. 

As the trade of the country increased, it was found expedient 
to avoid many impediments that took place on several parts of the 
navigation, some by improperly drawing off the water at the 
mills ; but the most serious inconvenience arose on that part of the 
river between Weeland and Haddlesey Lock ; the course of the 
navigation to the Ouse, at Armin, was also found very inconvenient 
for the trade of York, Malton, Boroughbridge, Ripon, and other 
places in the same direction : a project was therefore commenced 
in the year 1771, for making an entire new canal from Leeds to 
Selby, which was surveyed by Mr. Whitworth, at the request of 
the Leeds and Liverpool Canal Company, and a few gentlemen 
in Leeds ; and an application was made to parliament, to carry 
the same into execution, by a new set of subscribers ; it was, 
however, successfully opposed by the undertakers of the Aire and 
Calder Navigation. 

In consequence of this application, and " of several memorials 
" signed by the principal merchants and traders of Leeds, 
" Wakefield, Halifax, Rochdale, York, Boroughbridge, Lincoln, 
u Gainsborough, and other places in Yorkshire, Lancashire, 
" Lincolnshire, and Nottinghamshire, and by many owners and 
u masters of vessels navigating the Rivers Aire and Calder, 
w complaining of the frequent and long stoppages in those rivers, 
u addressed to Sir William Milner and the rest of the undertakers," 
the undertakers of the Aire and Calder Navigation applied for and 
obtained a second act, to enable them to make a canal from 
Haddlesey to Selby, bearing date the 14th of June, 1774, entitled, 
' A* Act to amend an Act passed in the Tenth and Eleventh Years 
( of the Reign of William III. entitled, An Act for the making 
' and keeping navigable the rivers of Aire and Calder, in the county 
1 of York; and for improving the Navigation of the said River 
4 Aire, from Weeland, to the River Ovze ; and for making a 



12 AIHE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 

' navigable Canal from the said River Aire, at or near Haddlesey, 
' to the River Ouze at the old Brick Garth at Ouzegate End, 
' within the township of Selby, in the said county, and for other 
' Purposes. 7 The canal from Haddlesey to Selby, which was 
shortly afterwards executed, has been highly advantageous, from 
the great additional facilities afforded to the general trade of the 
country, as well as by the shortening of the distance to York, 
Malton, Boroughbridge, Ripon, and other places. In a short time 
after the passing, and by authority of the above-mentioned act, the 
following improvements took place upon the Aire, viz. a cut 
near Castlefbrd, to avoid the shoals there, near the mills ; a cut, 
called the Methley Cut ; another cut, near Thwaite Mill ; a cut, 
called Knostrop Cut; and a cut, called Leeds Cut. The canal 
from Haddlesey to Selby was opened for vessels to pass, on the 
29th of April, 1778; and all the cuts mentioned above, together 
with a new set of locks throughout the navigation, (except 
Haddlesey Old Lock), were completed by the year 1785. This 
work, and other improvements, entailed a debt upon the concern 
of above £70,000. 

Since the year 1 800, very considerable sums of money have 
been expended in building additional locks, of larger dimensions 
than the former ones, so as to admit vessels carrying eighty tons to 
navigate these rivers; and within the last ten years, a serious 
expenditure has been incurred by the undertakers, in the purchase 
of premises at Leeds, in forming a new dock, extending the 
wharfage room, and in erecting most spacious warehouses, highly 
advantageous to the trade of Leeds. On the Calder, in the same 
time, Kirkthorpe-Dam has been rebuilt in the most complete and 
substantial manner. 

The tolls on this navigation were very materially reduced by 
the second act, viz. from ten shillings per ton in summer, and 
sixteen shillings per ton in winter, on all articles, for the whole 
line, to the following rates : — 



AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 
Sale of Mb amUarixtd to be takm under the Act of 1774. 



13 



DUCBIPTION OF GOODS. 



or Stable Wanure, Coals, Cinders, Slack,? 



Culm, and Charcoal, any sum not exceeding .. 

Pigeon Dung and Rape Dust 

Lime, if carried apt he Rivers or Cuts 

Ditto if carried down the same 

Pack. Sheet, or Bag of Wool, Pelts or Spetches, not 1 
exceeding 31211* including Sheet i 

For every Quarter of Wheat, Rye, r Of Eight ^ 
Beans, bate, Barley and other) Bushels ( 
Grain ,. j Winchester f 

Halt, Rape, Mustard and Linseed....' Measure. ) 

Apples, Pears, Onions and Potatoes, for every Thirty , 
two Pecks J 

Chalk, Potter's-Earth, Pig-iron, Kelp, Flints, Pipe- 
Clay, Calais-Sand, and other Sands, (except got ) 
in the River) Stone, Bricks, Whiting, Rags and V 
OU Ropes, Lead, Plaister, Alum, Slate, Old Iron, S 
TUes, Straw, Hay, and British Timber, per Ton 

Fir, Timber, Deals, Battens, Pipe Staves, Foreign } 
Oak, Mahogany and Beech Logs, per Ton J 

FWr, Copperas, Wood, Tallow and Ashes, per Ton.. 

Bad Batter or Grease, per Ton 

Soap, per Ton 

Bar boo, per Ton 

Cheese, per Ton 

Powder Sugar, Currants, Prunes, Brass and Copper, , 
Argol or Tartar, per Ton $ 

Treacle, per Ton 

Madder, per Ton 

Cloth Bales, and all other Goods, Wares and Her- } 
ehandixe, per Ton j 



RATE. 






d. 
i 
1 

101 
6 
9 



HOW CHARGSD. 



perTon, per Mile. 

ditto, ditto, 
ditto. ditto, 
ditto, ditto. 



The length of the canal, from Haddlesey to Selby, is about 
fire miles, and is level, there being one lock only, at the extremity, 
into the tideway of the River Ouse, at Selby. The distance from 
Leeds, by this line of canal, to the Ouse, at Selby, is about thirty 
miles and a half, on which there are ten locks, and from Wakefield 
to Selby, the distance is thirty-one miles and a half, on which 
there are eight locks. The length of an old lock is from 58 to 60 
feet, and the width from 14 feet 6 inches to 15 feet, but adjoining 
to these, are new locks 18 feet wide. The depth of water admits 
of vessels drawing 5 feet 6 inches: and the improvements, now in 
execution, will enable vessels of one hundred tons burthen to 
navigate these rivers. 

In the year 1817, and again in 1818, a project was brought 
forward by a few landholders in that district, for making a canal 
from Knottingley, down the valley of the Went, to fall into the 



14 AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION 

River Don, a little above New Bridge ; and for extending a branch 
from the same at Norton, to Doncaster, which threatened serious 
injury to the trade upon the lower part of the Aire and Calder Navi- 
gation: but the hopes of the projectors were totally annihilated, 
by the undertakers of the Aire and Calder Navigation applying, 
in the year 1819, to parliament, for an act, to enable them to cut 
a canal from Knottingley to Goole, (now called the Goole Canal), 
but in consequence of the king's death, it was not obtained till the 
middle of June, 1820, as appears from its title, ' Jin Act to enable 
' the Undertakers of the Navigatioyi of the Rivers Aire and Calder 
' in the West Riding of the county of York, to make a navigable 
' Cut or Canal from and out of the said Navigation at Knottingley, 
' to communicate with the River Ouze, near Goole, with two 
' collateral Branches, all in the said Riding, and to amend the Acts 
' relating to the said Navigation.' This canal, projected" by that 
eminent engineer, the late Mr. Rennie, and surveyed, laid down, 
and executed, by Mr. G. Leather, was opened in July, 1826. 
At first it commenced at the Knottingley Cut, but was subsequently 
extended to Ferrybridge, from which town it passes through 
Knottingley, crossing the high road to Snaith, no less than three 
times in the short distance of three quarters of a mile. It is 
carried across the road in a very oblique direction, and some of the 
bridges exhibit that novel style of architecture (designed by 
Mr. G. Leather, the undertakers' engineer), popularly termed a 
skew-bridge. From the canal, at the end of the village of 
Knottingley, there is a short branch-cut to Bank Dole, with a lock 
of 6j feet fall into the river. The canal here takes a south- 
easterly direction, passing Egborough and Heck, (at which place, 
the Heck and Wentbridge Railway communicates with it), and 
runs to the south of Snaith, near a place called New Bridge ; 
thence running parallel to the River Dun, or Dutch River, until it 
reaches its termination at Goole, where it falls into the tideway of 
the River Ouse. 

All the works of this canal (the principal part of which have 
been executed by Jolliffe and Banks, under the direction of the 
company's engineer, Mr. G. Leather), are admirably executed; 
equalled by few and excelled by none in the kingdom. 

The original estimate made by Mr. Rennie, for this line of 



AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 15 

navigation, amounted to ^137,000, but a far greater sum has 
already been expended; yet the works are not fully completed. 
The length of the canal from Ferrybridge to Goole is about 
eighteen miles and a half; the fall to low-water-mark at Goole is 
28§ feet; hs width is 60 feet at top, and 40 feet at bottom ; the 
depth is 7 feet, and the locks 70 feet long by 1 9 feet wide. Goole 
was, when this work commenced, an obscure hamlet, containing 
only a few houses; but in the short period of four years, by the 
erection of extensive buildings, and the nature of the' works, 
connected with the circumstance of its being admitted to all the 
privileges of a port of the united kingdom, it has grown into a 
town : it possesses a ship dock 600 feet by 200, and a barge dock 
of 900 feet by 150. There is also a harbour 250 feet by 200, 
communicating with the above-mentioned docks, and by two looks 
with the tideway. These docks are constructed for ships drawing 
15 feet water. 

The rates of tonnage on the Goole Canal are the same per ton 
per mile as on the old river navigation ; and the accommodations 
of the port being so little known, from the rapidity with which it 
has arisen, will be best explained by the following letter :— 

CV8T0M.H0V8B, LONDON, Augatt 23»f, 1828. 

Whereas by an act of parliament made and passed In the sixth year of the reign 
of Bis present Majesty King George the Fourth, entitled, " An Act for the Ware- 
- homing of Good*," it is, amongst other things, enacted, that it shall be lawful for the 
ComnrisrtoDers of Us Majesty's Customs, subject to the authority and directions of the 
CommissionerB of his Majesty's Treasury, by their order, from time to time, to appoint 
in what warehouses or places of special security, or of ordinary security, as the case 
may require, in certain ports in the United Kingdom, and in what different parts or 
divisions of such warehouses or places, and in what manner any goods, and what sort 
of goods, may be warehoused and kept and secured without payment of any duty 
upon the first entry thereof, or for exportation only, in cases wherein the same may be 
prohibited to be imported for borne use; and it is by the same act further enacted, 
that every order made by the said Commissioners of the Customs, in respect of ware- 
houses of special security, as well those of original appointment, as those of revoca- 
tion, alteration or addition, shall be published in the London Oaxette, for such as shall 
be appointed in Great Britain j We, the undersigned Commissioners of his Majesty's 
Customs, in pursuance of the powers so vested in us, have appointed at the PORT OF 
GOOLE, a warehouse and vaults, on the east side of the Ship Dock belonging to the 
AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION COMPANY, situate in a yard, inclosed on the 
north, south, and east sides, by a wall of fifteen feet high, and on the west side (being 
that next to the lock at the said port) by a fence, consisting of a similar wall, for 
about fifty-seven feet from each side towards the centre, as warehouses of special secu- 
rity, for the deposit of all articles except tobacco and snuff, under the provisions of the 
•aid set 

By order of the Commissioners, 

T. WHTTMORE, Skcrstary. 



16 AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 

PORT OF GOOLE, 1st September, 18*8. 

u The undertaken of the Aire and Calder Navigation avail 
" themselves of the promulgation of the above notice, in the Lon- 
u don Gazette, to apprize the public, that the port of Goole is 
" thereby placed on a footing of equality with those of London, 
" Dublin, and Liverpool, and of superiority to all others in the 
" United Kingdom, warehouses of special security being to be 
u found in none other : the advantages derivable from bonding 
" merchandize in warehouses of special security, will be best un- 
u derstood by reference to the 6th of George IV. cap. 112, entitled, 
** i An Act for the Warehousing of Goods,' the 37th section of 
u which is hereto subjoined." 

Act 6. George IF. Sec. 37, Cap. IU.— "And whereat tome sorts of Goods are liable 
" te Time to decrease — and nw to increase — and some to fluctuation of Quantity 
" —by the efect of the Atmosphere or other natural Causa, and it may he necet- 
" sary in tome eases, that the Duties should not be charged upon the Deficiency 
" arising front such Comet ; he it therefore enacted, 

" That U thall be lawful for the taid Committionert of Hit Majesty' t Treasury to 
" mate Regulations for ascertaining the Amount of tuck Decrease or Increase •/ 
" Ike Quantity of any particular sort of Goods— and to direct in what Proportion 
" anu Abatement of Duty pantile under tkit Act for Deficiencies thall, upon the 
" Exportation of anu such Coodt, be mad*, on account of anu such Decrease, — 
" Provided always, that if tuch Goods be lodged in WAREHOUSES declared 
" in the Order of Appointment to be of SPECIAL SECURITY, no Dutg shall be 
" charged for anu Amount whatever of Deficiency of any tuch Goods, on the 
" Exportation thereof— Except in Casts where Suspicion shall arise that part of 
" tuch Goods has been clandestinely conveyed away, nor shall any nek Goods 
" (unless they be Wine or Spirits J be measured, counted, weighed or gauged for 
" Exportation, except in tuch Casts of Suspicion." 

" The undertakers have the satisfaction to announce, that their 
" establishments at Goole are now completed : they consist of the 
" warehouse above alluded to, which comprises upwards of seven 
" thousand superficial yards of vaults and floors, for the bonding 
" of every description of goods and merchandize ; of another ware- 
" house for the bonding of foreign grain, which comprises upwards 
" of five thousand superficial yards of flooring ; of a pond for the 
" reception of timber under bond, capable of receiving upwards 
« of three thousand loads ; of a range of deal yards, fourteen in 
" number ; together with spacious sheds, and every other accom- 
" modation that modem ingenuity could devise, to promote, as has 
" been officially reported by the highest authorities in the kingdom, 
" ' the despatch of business, combined with the most ample secu- 
u ' rity to the revenue and the merchant also.' " 



AIRE AND CALDER NAVIGATION. 17 

" For the warehouses and timber pond, general bonds have 
" been given, whereby a considerable saving of expense, as well 
" as trouble, will accrue to the merchant" 

" The undertakers will not now give themselves, or the public, 
" the trouble of entering upon a formal answer to the numerous 
u misstatements that have been made by interested parties." 

" It is sufficient to state, that two years have now elapsed since 
u the opening of Goole, and five months since it was declared a 
u port for foreign trade, and during that time no accident has 
u happened to any of the numerous ships or vessels which have 
" been there : every shipowner has manifested the most perfect 
u readiness to repeat his engagement with Goole, and the trade 
u there is daily increasing." 

" The approbation of the public is the best test of the security 
u and advantages of the port" 

" A steam towing boat, called the " Britannia," of fifty horse 
u power, is provided to facilitate the* navigation of the Rivers 
" Humber and Ouse : her usual station is off the port of Hull, 
u where vessels bound for the port of Goole are boarded by the 
" boats belonging to the officers of the revenue. The master of 
u the " Britannia" is at all times ready to take charge of any ves* 
" sel bound to Goole." 

In consequence of an application to parliament, by the projee* 
tors of another line of communication from Wakefield to Ferry- 
bridge, the undertakers of the Aire and Calder called in Mr. 
Telford, who surveyed the country and made an estimate for 
ibortening and improving the navigation between those two places, 
and also between Leeds and Castleford ; and on the 10th of June, 
1828, their projected improvements were sanctioned by an act, 
entitled, * An Act to enable the Undertakers of the Navigation of 
' the Rivers Aire and Calder, in the West Riding of the county of 
1 York, to make certain Cuts and Canals, and to improve the said 
' Navigation.' The estimate for this work, including £135,350, 
for extending the docks at the port of Goole, exclusive of land 
there, amounted to £462,430, and parliament granted a power to 
the undertakers to borrow at interest the sum of £750,000. This 
work is already in execution, and when completed, the navigation 
will be some miles shorter, and. the depth of water will be sufficient 



18 ALFORD CANAL. 

to admit vessels of one hundred tons burthen up to the towns of 
Leeds and Wakefield ; and will enable vessels from Leeds and 
Wakefield to reach Goole in eight hours, and from Manchester 
within forty-five hours ; these vessels are expedited by a steam 
tug. An elegant steam packet runs daily from Castleford to 
Goole for the conveyance of passengers. 



ALFORD CANAL. 

1 George IV. Cap. 44, Royal Assent 5th May, 1826. 

Alford, whence this canal takes its name, is a market town 
on the Lincolnshire coast, five miles in a direct line from the Ger- 
man Ocean, and about equi-distant from Louth and Wainfleet. 
The canal was designed by Mr. William Tierney Clarke, civil 
engineer, and the estimated cost of completing it was £36,924, 
15*. The act, which received the royal assent on the day quoted 
above, is entitled, ' An Act for making and constructing a Canal, 
'•from the town of Alford, in the county of Lincoln, to the Sea, at 
' or near the village of Anderby, in the said county, with a Basin, 
* Harbour, and Pier.' 

The canal is 8 feet deep, and is supplied with water from 
Holywell Spring, and from a drain, or stream, called Boy Grift, 
from which are feeders communicating with the canal. It enters 
the sea near the village of Anderby, about a quarter of a mile from 
low-water-mark ; it has a sea-lock, which keeps the surface of the 
water, in the pool next the sea, 14f feet above low-water at spring 
tides, which is equal to high-water-mark, neap tides, — the average 
spring tide being 18| feet. From the sea-lock, to another rising 
7| feet, it is level for three miles and a half; thence it is level to 
the basin of the canal, which terminates hall' a mile south of Alford, 
and is rather more than a mile and a half lon^, making the total 
length of the canal to low-water-mark six miles and a half. 

The subscribers to this canal were incorporated under the name 
and style of " The Alford Canal Company," and were empowered 
to raise among themselves a sum, not exceeding £38,000. of which. 
more than £30,000 was raised before the application to parliament. 
This sum was divided into seven hundred and sixty shares of £:0 



ALFORD CANAL. ' 19 

each. The proprietors are further empowered to raise a farther 
ram of £l 5,000, on mortgage of the canal and tolls, or they may 
borrow the above sum, or any part of it, on promissory notes, 
under the common seal ; or they may borrow exchequer bills of the 
commissioners for carrying into execution an act of George III. 
for authorizing the issue of exchequer bills for carrying on of 
public works, &c 

The management of this concern is in the hands of twelve 
of the company, who are chosen annually, five of whom are em- 
powered to act 



SCHEDULE OF DUTIES OR DUES, 

PagaHe for, or fa respect of. Boat; Craft, Barge*, Skip: and Vmatl*, fating 
Wo, or out of , or in, or along, the Harbour, Canal, or Barin. 

*. i. 

For every BoM, Craft, Barge, Ship, or Vessel, to load j 9 per Ton, as registered. 

or unload .., .........3 ' 

For every Foreign Boat entering the Harbour, or Basin,} , ditto. ditto. 

fbrahelter, waiting for Wind, or Repairs * 

For every Boat, Craft, Barge, Ship, or Vessel, belong. ) 

ing to the United Kingdom, entering the Harbour, V 4 ditto. ditto. 

for abetter, waiting for Wind, or Repairs ) 

For erery Fishing Boat, ditto, ditto, 3 ditto. ditto. 

For erery Boat, Craft, Barge, Ship, or Vessel, remain- ) 

tag in the Harbour, or Basin, more than Twelve > 4 per Ton, per Diem. 

Days, unless for Repairs ) 



SCHEDULE OF RATES, TOLLS, AND DUTIES, 

PagaHe for, or te respect of, any Good*, Ware*, merchandise, and Pattengeri, 4su 
forttd or exported ojr Boat*, Craft, Bargee, Skip; or Veutlt, patting into, or 
oat of, or in, or along, the Harlatr, Canal, or Barin. 

F wC oal,Coke,orCinder. { * °«E££££ m ^ 

Common or Undressed Bricks 4 per Thousand. 

Stone, State, Lime, Unwrought or Cast Iron, Manure, ) 

Bones, Dressed Bricks, Pan, Ridge and Draining > 4 perTon. 

Tiles, Tallow, Oil Cakes, Potatoes, Sandand Gravel ) 
Oak, Kim, Pine, Beech, Fir Timber, Deals, Battens, > 4 . j^ 

and Lath Wood * "^ 

Sugar, Salt, Soap, Candles, Clover Seed, Trefoil Seed, ) 

Raw Hides, Spirituous Liquors, Wines, Ale, Porter, > 4 6 per Ton. 

Glass and Earthenware 3 

Wheat, Beans and Peas 1 OperQoarter. 

Barley, Rape or Lineaeed 10 ditto. 

MattcrOats 8 ditto. 

Hay, Clover, Straw, Hops, Wool, Feathers, Hair, Tan- > . 0Der Ton- 

aed Hide*, Rags, Oak Bark and Household Goods..) " ^ 

For an other Goods, Wares or Merchandize 6 ditto. 

For every Passenger 1 

B 2 



20 ANCHOLME RIVER NAVIGATION'. 

SCHEDULE OF WHARFAGE DUES, 

For Goods laid on the Pur*, Jettien, Wharf, Quay, or landing placet — and of Duet 

on Good* deposited in Warehouse*. 

Wharfage Dues Warehouse Dues 
for every Twen- for t he ilrst Twen- 
ty-four Hours. ty-four Hours. 
d. d. 

Coals, Cinders, Coke, Lime, Sand, Gravel, \ 3 per Chaldron, 3 per Chaldron, and Id. 
Potatoes, Wheat, Beans, Peas, Barley,/ perTon for every lol- 

Malt, Oats, Clover, Line and Rapeseed, f lowing Twenty-lour 

or any other Grain or Seeds ) Hours. 

Timber, Deals, Battens or Lath Wood 3 per Load, 3 per Load, and \d. do. 

Hay, Clover, Straw, Hops, Wool, Feathers, j 

Hair, Tanned Hides, Rags, Oak Bark, V 6 per Ton, per Ton, and Id. do. 

and Household Goods ) 

For all other Goods, Wares or Merchandize 4 ditto. 4 ditto, and \d. do. 

This act does not extend. to any of his Majesty's ships of war, 
or any other ship, transport, or packet of his Majesty ; or any 
vessels employed in his Majesty's revenues of customs or excise ; or 
in the employment of the ordnance ; or to any ship, transport, or 
packet employed in carrying the mails of letters and expresses, 
under the authority of his Majesty's Post-Master General ; or any 
vessel in, or upon, his Majesty's service ; or in the conveyance of 
any officers or soldiers; or any horses, arms, ammunition, or 
baggage belonging to them ; and any person who shall take the 
benefit of this exemption, not being entitled to it, will incur a 
penalty of £5. • 

In 1805, it was in contemplation to effect a navigable com- 
munication between Wainfleet Harbour and Alford, a distance of 
twelve or thirteen miles; but the scheme is now superseded by 
this canal. 

Although this canal has not yet been executed, we may state 
that its projectors had for their object a more ready transmission of 
corn, wool, and other agricultural produce, from Alford, and its 
vicinity, to London and other ports on the eastern shore, and to 
facilitate the introduction of coals, wares, and merchandize, to 
Alford and its neighbourhood. 

ANCHOLME RIVER NAVIGATION. 

7 Geonre III. Cap. 98, Royal Assent 20th May, 1767. 

44 George III. Cap. 116, Royal Assent 26th June, 1802. 

6 George IV. Cap. lfii. Royal Assent 22nd June, 1825. 

The Ancholme Navigation commences from the River 
Humber, at Ferraby Sluice, one mile west of the village of South 



ANCHOLME RIVER NAVIGATION. 21 

Ferraby, and four miles from the market town of Bartoa-upon- 
Humber. Hence it proceeds in nearly a straight line south to 
Glamford Briggs (or Brigg) ; thence continuing this direction to 
Bishop Briggs, on the high road from Gainsbro' to Market Raisin. 
The distance from Ferraby Sluice to where the Caistor Canal falls 
into the Anchohne Navigation is fourteen miles and a quarter, and 
from thence to its termination at Bishop Briggs, five miles and a 
quarter, making the total length nineteen miles and a half, upon 
which, (with the exception of the sea-lock at Ferraby Sluice), 
there is only one lock, of 6 feet rise, near to the end of the 
Caistor CanaL 

The first act for completing this navigation, was passed, as 
stated above, on the 20th of May, 1767 ; it is entitled, * An Act for 
x the more effectual draining the Lands lying in the Level of 
1 Anchohne, in the county of Lincoln ; and making the River 
' Ancholme navigable from the River Humber, at or near a place 
4 called Ferraby Sluice, in the county of Lincoln, to the town of 
1 Glamford Briggs, and for continuing the said Navigation up or 
1 near to the said Rivers,from thence to Bishop Briggs, in the said 
' county of Lincoln.' 

A second act, for altering and enlarging the powers of this act, 
was passed in the 42nd George III. cap. 116, (June 26, 1802), 
and is entitled, ' An Act for altering and enlarging the Powers of an 
1 Act passed in the Seventh Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, 
' entitled, An Act for the more effectual draining the Lands lying in 
' the Level of Ancholme, in the county of Lincoln, and making the 
1 River Ancholme navigable from the River Humber, at or near a 
' place called Ferraby Sluice, in the county of Lincoln, to the town 
' of Glamford Briggs, and for continuing the said Navigation up or 
' mar to the said River, from thence to Bishop Briggs, in the said 
' county of Lincoln.' 

This act was succeeded by another, 6th George IV. cap. 165, 
(22nd June, 1825), entitled, 'An Act for altering and enlarging 
' the Powers of Two Acts of his late Majesty King George the Third, 
i for draining Lands within the Level of Ancholme, in the county of 
' Lincoln, and making certain parts of the River Ancholme navi- 
' gable.' 

From the reports of the late Mr. Rennie, made in 1801 and 



i 



22 ANCHOLME RIVER NAVIGATION. 

1802, he estimates that to improve this navigation and drainage, 
it would cost £63,921, but of which sum only £6,063 related to 
the navigation. 

In the year 1825, Mr.Rennie was again employed to examine 
this navigation and drainage, with a view to make further improve- 
ments. He directed that the sluice at Ferraby should be lowered 
3 feet, making it 4 feet above low-water-mark at spring tides ; 
that the river for three hundred yards from the sluice should be 
widened to 48 feet at bottom, and from thence to Cadney, 30 feet ; 
that a lock of 6 feet rise should be made at Thornton Beck, and 
the bottom of the navigation, from this lock to Bishop Briggs, to 
diminish from 20J feet broad to 1 5 feet. He estimated those im- 
provements at £69,200. 

The navigation and drainage is under the management of 
commissioners, who have power to raise £5,000, on security of 
tolls, to be applied for the improvement of the navigation and 
completing it to Bishop Briggs. 

By the act of 6th George IV. it is stated that the sum of 
£12,000 raised by virtue of the act of 42nd George III. had been 
expended, and that the commissioners, in addition to this sum, had 
also incurred a debt of £7,500. To liquidate which debt, and for 
the further purpose of improving the drainage and navigation, the 
commissioners have power of raising, by assessment, not more 
than £3,000 in any one year. 

TONNAGE RATES BY THE FIRST ACT. 

i. <f. 

For all Goods, Wares and Hercban- r „ „ „ , .. . , . .. 
d^ J 2 per Ton for the whole Length. 

c 2 per Chaldron, of Forty-eight Bushels 

Coal } (Winchester) being estimated and 

( taken as a Ton. 

Groceries 4 per Ton. 

Bricks or Tiles 1 8 per Thousand. 

I 10 per Ton for the whole Navigation, and 

Stone i so in proportion for any less Weight, 

' or less Distance. 

Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas or Lentils. . 2 per Quarter for the whole Length. 

Barley, Malt, Oats and other Grain.. 1 ditto. ditto. 



By the act of 42nd George III. die new rates and dues, sub- 
stituted in lieu of the above, are as follows : — 



ANDOVER CANAL. 23 

NEW RATES AND DUBS. 

On passing tie Lock at Ferraby Sluice, ( • ' » P» *"*?•■■? Ji.!* *£ "^ 

for Wheat, Rye, Beam, Pea. and) S2°±r? tf v ihe LKL th ? ,lgl, 

Lentils ' — — . ~j the other Lock, a further charge 

C of4d. per Quarter. 

f I per Quarter, and Jd. for every two 

Barky, Malt, Oats and other Grata, bx\ Mika-and if they pas through 

pawling Fenaby Lock. } the Second Lock, Jd. per Quar- 

( ter in addition. 

t 3 per Chaldron, and Id. per Mile— 

Coal*, ditto. ditto. ) and 3d. more if they pan the 

( Second Lock. 

Lime, ditto, ditto. S ° 3 P" 9?^ "5?": J*L MiIe - 

I and ^i. for toe Second Lock. 

( 4 per Thousand, and Id. per Mile— 

Bricks and Tilea, ditto 3 and 3d. through the Second 

( Lock. 

Timbtr, Iron, Lead, Slate and Plainer .. { ° 4 *!? oa '?* I l P ^ te ^ nd M ' 

j through the Second Lock. 

st __ I 3 per Ton, and fd. per Mile— and Jd. 

for the Second Lock. 

c^j i J per Ton per Mile through the aaid 

^^ I Navigation. 

Gr °SS^^ 1 S ^^ W ^S d 5 ° 8perTon,andal|d.perMile-and 
Merchandise* before enumerated,.* 4<L per Ton for the Second Lock, 

for passing Fenaby Lock ( r ^ 

Manure (when exported) passing through ( a Oper xon. 

Ferraby Sluice .... * 

The commissioners appointed for directing the affairs of this 
navigation and drainage are not to be less than eighty in number, 
whose qualification is a possession, in the level, of one hundred 
acres of land, or a mortgage upon the tolls, to the amount of 
£1,000. 

The quantity of land liable to be flooded, and consequently to 
the assessment for drainage, is 17,197a. 3r. 10p. 

It is recited in the act of 42nd George III. that the annual 
amount of tolls on the navigation, was £700. The spring tide at 
Ferraby Sluice rises 19 feet above the sill of the lock, which is 
placed 4 feet above low-water-mark, spring tides. 

Mr. John Rennie is the engineer to this navigation appointed 
by the act of parliament 



ANDOVER CANAL. 

39 George m. Cap. 73, Royal Assent 13th July, 1789. 

Thb Andover Canal commences at Barlowes Mill, near the 
town of Andover, and passing the village of Upper Clatford, 
proceeds on the western bank of the little River Anton to the 



24 ANDOVER CANAL. 

village of Fullerton ; thence, after crossing the river, it takes its 
direction for a short distance to the Test, which having crossed, it 
proceeds on the eastern bank of that river, by the village of 
Leckford, to the town of Stockbridge, thence by Compton House, 
the villages of Mitchelmersh and Tiinsbury, to the town of 
Roinsey ; from which latter place, its course is parallel with the 
Test River, by Nutshalling to Redbridge, where it enters the 
tideway of the Southampton Water. Its length is twenty-two 
miles and a half, and its fall from Barlowes Mill to Redbridge is 
176^ feet. The dues upon tills canal arise chiefly from the passage 
of coal and other fuel from the coast, and from the export of its 
surplus agricultural produce. 

The engineer employed was Mr. Robert Whitworth, and the 
act for completing the same, which received the royal assent, as 
stated above, is entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a 
' navigable Canal from or near the borough of Andover, in the 
' county of Southamptoii, to or near Redbridge, in the parish of 
' Millbrook, in the said county.' 

The owners of this navigation are incorporated under the 
name of " The Company of Proprietors of the Andover Canal 
" Navigation," and they are empowered to raise and contribute 
among themselves, for the execution of the work, a sum not 
exceeding £35,000, in three hundred and fifty shares of £100 
each, with power to raise a further sum of £30,000, if necessary, 
for the purpose of carrying on and finishing the work, in the 
following manner : — that is, by permitting the original shareholders 
to take additional shares to the amount of £10,000, not exceeding 
ten additional shares by any original subscriber, and the remaining 
£20,000 by mortgage on the credit of the canal rates, tolls, &c. 
with interest, not exceeding legal interest. The management of 
this concern is placed in the hands of a committee of fifteen 
persons annually chosen from among the proprietors. 

TOXNAGK RATES. 

d. 
For Coal, Stone, Timber, Com, Grain, Malt, Meal, Flour, and > _, „.. 

other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Commodities i 2 per 1 on, per M.le. 

And so in proportion for any less Quantity than a Ton. 
Vessels not to exceed Kijrht Feet in Breadth, and Sixty Feet in length, and not to 
draw more than Three Feet Six Inches Water No Boat or other \ 'easel to pass a 
Lock without paying Rates equal to Fifteen Tons. 



ARUN RIVER NAVIGATION. 25 

At the termination of the canal at Redbridge, and where the 
same enters the river called Southampton Water, there is a wharf 
and quay, with warehouses, storehouses, cranes, &c. which, at the 
time the act was obtained, belonged to the Rev. Sir Charles Mills, 
Bart. ; and, as it appears he was entitled to riverage, wharfage, 
and storehouse room, for the use of the same, certain rates, as 
under, were secured to him, or his tenants, by a clause in the act, 
for all articles conveyed or to be conveyed on the Andover 
Navigation. 

WHARFAGE RATES, PAYABLE AT REDBRIDGE. 

«. d. 

For Coals not landed, but taken out of, or put into, > „ „ __ r t.u„ 

VessebtobeconveyedontheCanal.......:. A ° 3 P erC! > al *°n- 

For all other Goods or Merchandize I per Ton. 

Per Coals landed on the Wharf 6 per Chaldron. 

Wheat, Flour and Beans so loaded 3 per Ten Sacks. 

Oats and Malt 3 per Ten Quarters. 

Barley- J per Quarter. 

Timber ( i nclu din g the expense of drawing the same on } j o per Load of SO Feet 

Stones, Bricks, and all other Goods landed on the Wharf, l q 3 per Ton. 

and not put into the Storehouse i 

For all Goods which are landed and warehoused for the space of One Month, the 

following Rates are allowed, (which includes the Wharfage above, together with 

the expense of Porterage of such Goods.) 

Wheat, Flour and Beans 6 per Quarter. 

Oats, Malt and Grass Seeds 3 ditto. 

Hogsheads of Sugar, Tallow, Soap, Starch and Tobacco 8 per Hogshead. 

Vinegar, Spirits, Beer and other Liquors 6 ditto. 

Batter I per Firkin. 

Larger Casks of Butter 1 J each. 

Hemp 3 OperTon. 

Paper 1 ditto. 

Woollen Rags for Manure 3 ditto. 

For all other Rags 1 ditto. 

And for all other Goods in the same proportion. 

N.B. Where Cranes are required for loading and unloading, an additional charge, 

not wording Three-pence per Ton. 

For patting the powers of the act into execution, one hundred 
and thirteen commissioners, together with the bailiff and approved 
men of Andover, were appointed, whose qualification was a clear 
annual rental of ^100, or personal property to the amount of 
£3,000, unless he be heir apparent to a peer, or be eligible to be 
elected as a Knight of the Shire. 

ARUN RIVER NAVIGATION. 

« George DL Cap. 100, Royal Assent 13th May, lies. 

The River Aran has its source on the eastern side of the High 
Downs, called Hind Head, a range of mountains, having an eleva- 



26 ARUN BIVE.R NAVIGATION. 

tion of 923 feet above the sea, at low water, and at a short distance 
north of the town of Haslemere, in the county of Surrey ; when, 
after taking an easterly course for some miles, it enters Sussex at 
Aldfold: whence it takes a southerly direction to New Bridge, 
near Billinghurst, where this navigation commences. In its course 
from Aldfold, to the last mentioned place, it is crossed several times 
by the Wey and Arun CanaL From New Bridge, a canal four 
miles and a half long has been cut, in a parallel course with the 
Arun, on its western bank, to near Haresfold, where it crosses to 
the east side, and continues in that course to Pallenham Wharf, 
when the river becomes navigable. From this place it pursues a 
southerly direction of two miles and three quarters, to Stopham, 
where the Rother, also a navigable river, falls into it : hence, 
taking a circuitous route, by Pulborough and Greathain, it reaches 
Greatham Bridge, to which place a canal, one mile and three 
quarters long, has been cut, in nearly a direct line, from the 
junction with the Rother. By this canal, the circuitous course, 
above described, is avoided, and five miles saved in the distance 
between Stopham and Greatham Bridge. From the latter place, 
the river makes several considerable bends to Houghton Bridge, 
(a distance of four miles, from the end of the canal), where this 
navigation, made under the powers of an act, passed in the 25th 
of George III. entitled, ' Jin. Act for amending and improving the 
' Navigation of the River Arun, from Houghton Bridge, in the 
' parish of Houghton, in the county of Sussex, to Pallenham Wharf, 
1 in the parish of Wisborough Green, in the said county ; and for 
' continuing and extending the Navigation of the said River Arun, 
l from the said Wharf, called Pallenham Wharf, to a certain 
1 Bridge, called New Bridge, situate in the parishes of Pulborough 
' and Wisborough Green, in the said county of Sussex,' ceases. 
The length of the river and cuts, belonging to this navigation, is 
thirteen miles ; but to the sea, at Arundel Port, it is twenty-six 
miles and a quarter. The lower portion of this, however, is made 
navigable under other powers, and with different provisions, which 
will be described under the head of Arun River. 

The subscribers to this work, thirty-one in number, were 
incorporated as " The Company of Proprietors of the River Arun 
" Navigation," within the limit* pointed out in the language of the 



ARUN RIVER NAVIGATION. 37 

tide of the net before recited, and were authorised to raise 
sasongst themselves, for carrying into execution the said act, the 
ma of £\OJXQ, by one hundred shares of jglOO each, which 
■bares are personal estate. 

This canal is navigable for vessels drawing 3 feet 1 inch water, 
and the following rates of tonnage are allowed: — 

TONNAQK RATES. 

«. 4. 
For Timber, Planks, Coal, Lime, Corn, Otiin and til j 

other Goods, Wares or Merchandise whatsoever (except ( g perTo,,. 

Firewood, Cbalk, Soil and Dung) from Houghton f "^ 

Bridge to PaUenbam Wharf J 

Firewood, Chalk. Soil and Dung 8 ditto. 

For the fame Article! (with the exception a* abore) passing ) 

between Palknbsan Wharf and the End of the Nartga, J. S 3 ditto 

ton at New Bridge ) 

The excepted Aiticleaasabore 8 ditto 

ForereryUghtBargepaasii^throughalloranyoftbeLoeka 1 ditto. 

In clanse 14, a novel mode is [resorted to for preve n ting im- 
poaruons, in regard to the quantity conveyed along this navigation; 
for it is there enacted, that all boatmen, Ac navigating this river, 
between Arundel Port and Pallenham Wharf, shall receive, for 
freight, including dues or rates, as fellows :— 

i. i. 

ForCoab.. * * 3 8 per Chaldron. 

Timber, Planks, Lone, Corn, Grain, Firewood and all other > 3 gpaTaa. 

Goods, Wart* and Merchandiie » 

t per Birgc LAJtd 
Cbeft, SoU «^D«i«,lromltoog»too Chalk PHa » ° I of Eight Tons. 

And so in proportion far erery Ton of Cbalk, Soil and Dong. 
& Penalty of « is recoverable ftom any Bargeman before a Justice of the Peace, 

should be claim any higher Sum than abore specified. 
No Tous to be taken to Vee** navigating the Old River Ana between Oreatbam 

and Stopham Bridges. 
Sea Gravel, brought to repair any of the Roads leading in the direction of New 
Brid^ Wharf, to be exempted torn ToU, excepting the Sum of One Shilling per 
Barge for any of the Locks upon the Navigation. 

The affairs of this navigation are managed by a committee of 
three proprietors, subject to the control of a general assembly of 
pro p rieto r s , held twice a year. 

The proprietors have a power, by public anction, to let or 
demise the rates and dues for any term not exceeding two years. 

The original, and chief; object of this navigation was the 
wppry of coal and fuel to the interior, and for the export of 
agricultural produce; but by the execution of the Wey and Arun 
Canal, which falls into the Wey, (and thence to the Thames), a 



28 ARUN RIVER. 

direct communication is made with London, and when the Ports- 
mouth and Arundel Canal is completed, a large additional revenue 
will doubtless be added to this concern, by the receipt of tolls upon 
marine stores, which, in time of war, may be safely transmitted 
from the Metropolis, by this conveyance, to the depot at 
Portsmouth. 

ARUN RIVER. 

6 George II. Cap. 12, Royal Assent 



33 George HI. Cap. 100, Royal Assent 30th April, 17 U3. 

The navigation, to which the above acts apply, extends from 
Arundel Port, at the mouth of the Arun, to the town of Arundel, 
a distance only of five miles and three quarters : but the object of 
the first act, entitled, ' An Act for erecting Piers in, and for 
' repairing and keeping in repair, the Harbour of Littlehampton, 
' called Arundel Port, in the county of Sussex,' was not so much 
the improvement of the navigation as for the harbour, and for the 
protection of shipping therein. 

By this act, commissioners were appointed to cut a new 
channel, through the sea-beach, at Littlehampton, and other works 
therein specified, which are here passed over as not coming 
within the object of the present publication. Tolls were granted 
for the purpose of repaying the monies which were borrowed for 
carrying into execution the works designed. 

When this was effected, and all arrears of interest paid oft^ 
one-half of the said duties were to be taken off, and the other half 
to be retained, for the purpose of preserving the harbour, and 
navigation of the river, to the town of Arundel. 

In the preamble of the second act, entitled, '■An Act to explain 
1 and amend an Act made in the Sixth Year of the Reign of his late 
1 Majesty King George the Second, entitled, An Act for erecting 
1 Piers in, and for repairing and keeping in repair, the Harbour of 
1 Littlehampton, called Arundel Port, in the county of Sussex ; and 
''for empoieering the Commissioners, acting under the said Act, to 
' improve the Navigation of the River Arun, from the said Harbour, 
' to the town of Arundel, in the said county,' 1 it is stated that the 
commissioners have repaid the sums of money, and interest, 



ARUN RIVER. 29 

expended in constructing the harbour of Littlehampton, under the 
act of 6th George II. and that half the duties, therein granted, 
have consequently ceased. Under the last act, the same com- 
missioners, as under the original act, are re-appointed to carry 
into effect the provisions of the same, and have power to borrow 
any sum, not exceeding £2,000, with interest, on an assignment. 
of the rates, tolls, or duties, authorized to be taken on the said 
navigation. 

In lieu of the rates granted by the first act, the following are 
allowed under the act of the 33rd George III. : — 



TONNAGE RATES. 

4. 
ForTan or Berk, which shaU be imported or exported, laid on board, ) 

landed or discharged out of any Ship or Vessel in the Port of {■ 6 per Ton. 

Arundel ) 

Spars or Uters 4 per Doxen. 

Pipe Stares 6 per Hundred. 

Hogshead Staves 4 ditto. 

Barrel Staves 2 ditto. 

Floor and Meal 1} per Quarter. 

The other Duties, not being enumerated, are according to the Act of the 
6th George n. 

The tolls and duties, after payment of principal and interest of 
money borrowed, are to be applied entirely to the keeping of the 
harbour and navigation in good preservation. Vessels belonging 
to the port of Arundel are exempt from toll or duties, in considera- 
tion of the inhabitants of that town and port having expended, on 
the harbour, &c the sum of £28,300. It is also worthy of remark 
that they are, on this account, by the above-mentioned act, made 
fiee of the harbours, ports, and havens of Dover, Rye, Ramsgate, 
and Sandwich. There is also a clause which reserves to the 
Duke of Norfolk, as water-bailiff of the River Aftin, all the 
privileges he before enjoyed. 

Though the powers of the two preceding acts extend only to 
Arundel Bridge, yet there is a good tideway navigation to 
Houghton Bridge, a distance of seven miles and a half, whence the 
Amu River Navigation commences. There is no act of parlia- 
ment relating to this portion of the river; it is free of toU. At 
Ford, about half way between Arundel Harbour and the town of 
Arundel, the Portsmouth and Arundel Canal commences, the 
particulars of which will be found in the proper place. 



30 ASHBV DE-LA-ZOUCH CANAL 

ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH CANAL. 

34 George HI. Cap 93, Royal Assent 9th May, 1794. 

This canal commences from the Coventry Canal, at Marston 
Bridge, three miles south of the town of Nuneaton, all in the 
county of Warwick, and after proceeding in a north-easterly 
direction, for about five miles, it crosses Watling Street, at the 
Plough Inn, where it enters the county of Leicester. A mile 
further, there is a cut of two hundred yards in length, to Hinckley 
Wharf, one mile from the town of Hinckley. Hence the canal 
proceeds in a northerly direction by Shenton Hall : crossing 
Bosworth Field, and leaving the town of Market Bosworth a mile 
to the east, it continues its course to Shackerston, where it crosses 
the River Sence, passing, on the north of Gopsall Hall, to 
Snareston Tunnel; a mile beyond which it enters a detached 
portion of the county of Derby : passing through the village of 
Measham, it makes a considerable detour, and again enters 
Leicestershire, near Donisthorpe, and terminates at Oakthorpe 
Fire Engine, on Ashby Wolds, one mile north-west of the Moira 
Baths, in the parish of Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 

This canal Is twenty-six miles and a half in length, and level 
throughout It was, together with several railways branching 
from it, constructed under the authority of an act of parliament, 
entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, 
'from the Coventry Canal, at or near Marston Bridge, in the parish 
' of Bedworth, in the county of Warwick, to a certain Close in the 
' parish of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in the county of Leicester ; and for 
' continuing the same from thence, in one Line, to the Lime Works, at 
' Ticknall, in the county of Derby ; and in another Line, to the Lime 
1 Works, at Cloudhill, in the said county of Leicester, with certain 
' Cuts or Branches from the said Canal.' 

The proprietors of this canal are incorporated under the name 
of " The Company of Proprietors of the Ashby-de-la-Zouch 
" Canal," with power to raise £\ 50,000, in fifteen hundred shares 
of £100 each, and a further sum of £50,000, if the proper execu- 
tion of the canal and other works should require it 



ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH CANAL. 31 

TONNAGE BATES. 

i. 

Far Coal, Lime and Slate lj per Ton, per Mile. 

fan-stone, Buil&ng-stone,Grinding-stone,Lime^one, Bricks) » Aitir . Mttri , 

aadTUes,aaaforaIlCattle,Sheep,Swineand other Beast*! * <ano- <uno - 

For Cotton, Wool, Hope, Corn, Timber, Bark, Wrought Iron, > 3 jjj^ d(tto> 

Cheese, Ac * 

Fractions to be paid as for Haifa Mile and at lor Haifa Ton. 

Dong, Ashes, Marl, Clay for Manure, GraTel, Sand, fcc. for the purpose of making or 
repairing any public or private Road, are exempt from TolL 

Boats, only half the Width of the Locks, are to pay for Twenty Tons, unless Tun 
shall pass together; then, not less than Ten Tons each. 

By a Clause in the Act, the Coventry Canal Company are entitled to Five-pence per 
Ton for all Coals, Goods, and Merchandize, carried out of, or into, tins Canal; 
trom the Coventry, Oxford, or Grand Junction Canals. 

Cora, or other Grata; Sheep, or other Cattle; Iron-stone or Wrought Iron, got or 
made upon the Banks of the Canal; Dung, Ashes, Marl for Manure, Gravel, Sand, 
and Stone for Roads, are exempt from the charge of Five-pence per Ton to the 
Coventry Canal Company. 

It appears, that by arrangement with the Leicester Navigation Proprietors, and as an 
Indemnification for the great Expense tbey have been at in coastrncting Rati, 
ways, *c- to the Coal Works on Thringstone Common, and to those in the pa- 
rishes of Swannington and Coleorton, that they shall receive Two Shillings and 
Sixpence per Ton for all Coal, which shall pass a certain place in the lordship of 
Blackfordby, about Three Miles west of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, to be carried on the 
Ashny-de-la-ZoDcb CanaL 

The estimate for the whole of the proposed works, made by 
Messrs. Jessop and Wbitworth, February 44th, 1794, amounted to 
£138,338; but the estimate from Ashby Wolds, to the Coventry 
Canal, was only £27,316, 11*. 4^d. 

The line was set out by Mr. Robert Wbitworth, and the whole 
length was opened in May, 1805. 

It is worthy of remark, that the level, from Ashby Wolds, 
continues uninterrupted along the whole length of this canal, the 
Coventry, and part of the Oxford Canal, to Hill Morton, a distance 
of full seventy miles. The company are under a penalty of 
£SO£O0 if they abstract any water from the Gopsall Park Estate, 
or in any way deteriorate the same. 

The principal object of this navigation is the export of the 
produce of die extensive coal and lime works in the neighbourhood 
of Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 

When authority was first obtained, for the making of this 
canal, h was the intention of the company to have continued the 
canal to the places mentioned in the title of the act, which would 
have made the total length of canal about fifty miles, with 253 feet 
of lockage. They, however, adopted railways for all the branches 
where lockage was necessary. 



32 ASHTON. UNDER. LYNE CANAL. 

RAILWAYS CONNECTED WITH THIS CANAL. 

The railway to Ticknall Lime Works, commences at the 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal, three quarters of a mile south-west of 
the village of Willesley, in the county of Derby, and at the 
distance of two miles and a half, passes through the town of 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch. One mile and a half further, the railway- 
passes under a tunnel, at the end of which the Cloudhill Branch 
commences; and one mile and three quarters further it enters 
Derbyshire : whence it is rather more than two miles and a half to 
Ticknall Lime Works, making the whole distance from the canal 
eight miles and a half. 

The Cloudhill Branch Railway, commencing from the tunnel 
on the Ticknall Railway, runs in a westerly direction for one mile 
and a quarter, where a railway, more than half a mile in length, 
branches northwards to a colliery. A quarter of a mile further, 
there is another branch, running southwards, about three hundred 
yards, to a colliery near Park Wood. From hence it takes a 
northerly course, passing to the west of the village of Worthington, 
to the Cloudhill Lime Works, a distance of two miles and three 
quarters, where it terminates. The total distance of this branch is 
four miles and a quarter. 

There is also a railway, of half a mile in length, from a 
colliery near Moira, to the canal, opposite the Moira Baths. 



ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE CANAL. 

32 Geo. HI. C. 84, R. A. 11th June, 1782. 33 Geo. III. C. 21, R. A. 28th March, 1793. 

38 Geo. III. C. 32, R. A. 26th May, 1798. 40 Geo. III. G. 24, R. A. llilh May, 1800. 

4.5 Geo. III. C. 11, R. A. 18th March, IbOS. 

The first act for making this canal, authorized the subscribers, 
who were incorporated under the name of " The Company of 
" Proprietors of the Canal Navigation, from Manchester to or 
" near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham," to make a canal from 
Manchester to Fairfield, with a branch to the town of Ashton- 
under-Lyne, and another branch from Fairfield, to a place called 
New Mill, near the town of Oldham. This act was entitled, ' Jin 
( Act for making a navigable Canal, from Manchester, to or near 



ASHTON.UNDKH-LYNE CANAL. 33 

1 Askton-vnder-Lyne and Oldham, m the county Palatine of 
1 Lancaster, and under it the company were empowered to raise 
jfOOjOOO, in six hundred shares of £\QO each, with further power 
to raise £30JXX) among themselves, should the former sum be 
insufficient; or they may raise the same by mortgage of the tolls 
and duties. 

In the following year the company applied again to parlia- 
ment, and obtained an act, entitled, l An Act to enable the Company 
1 of Proprietors of the Canal Navigation from Manchester, to or 
' near Ashton-under-Lyne, and Oldham, to extend the said Canal 
l from a place called Clayton Demesne, in the township of Droylsden, 
' m the parieh of Manchester aforesaid, to a place on the Turnpike- 
' Road inHeaton Norris, leading between Manchester and Stockport, 
'opposite to the House known by the Sign of the Three Boars' Heads, 
1 and from, or nearly from, a place called Taylor's Barn, m the 
1 township of Reddish, to Denton, at a place called Beat Bank, 
1 adjoining the Turnpike-Road leading between Stockport and Ashton- 
' under-Lyne ; and also from the intended Aqueduct Bridge, at 
' or near a place called Waterhouses, w the parish of Ashton-under- 
1 Lyne aforesaid, to a place called Stoke Leach, at HoUinwood, m 
' the township of Oldham aforesaid ;' under this act, they were 
authorized, in addition to the main line and branches above- 
mentioned, to make a branch from Clayton to near the town of 
8toekport; another branch from the last-mentioned branch, to the 
River Tame, near Beat Bank : and one other branch from the 
aqueduct over the Medlock near Waterhouses, to Hollinwood. 
Of those intended works, the branch to Beat Bank alone remains 
unexecuted. By this act, the company were authorized to raise 
an additional sum of £30,000, b shares, among themselves. 
After having executed, a considerable portion o( the works, which 
they were authorized to do, under the two preceding acts, and 
having expended the several sums of money which they were 
empowered to raise, the proprietors found it necessary again to 
•pply to parliament for further powers, when they obtained a 
third act, entitled, * An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors 
( ef the Canal Navigation from Manchester, to or near Ashton- 
' **dtr-Lyne and Oldham, to finish and complete the same, and the 
*eeeral Cuts and other Works authorized to be made and done by 



34 ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE CANAL. 

' them, by tlie several dcts passed for that Purpose, and for amending 
' the said Acts, and granting to the said Company further and other 
' Powers.'' By this act they were empowered to raise a further 
sum of £30,000, by mortgage of the canal and tolls, or on 
promissory notes under the common seal of the company, to be 
repaid in five years, or in default, the holders of the notes were to 
have the option of becoming shareholders to the same amount. 

This canal commences on the eastern side of the town of 
Manchester, at the end of Dale Street, and near to Piccadilly : 
thence passing through the suburbs, it crosses the River Medlock ; 
thence to near Clayton, where the Stockport Branch commences. 
From Clayton the canal proceeds to the village of Fairfield, where 
the main line terminates, as described in the act, at a distance from 
Manchester of three miles and three quarters, and with a rise of 
162 feet 6 inches, by eighteen locks. From Fairfield there is a 
branch to the Huddersfield Canal, at the Duckenfield Aqueduct, 
near the town of Ashton-under-Lyne. This branch is a little more 
than two miles and a half, and is level throughout. There is, 
also, a branch to Waterhouses, from Fairfield, where the canal 
again crosses the Medlock, by an aqueduct, after it has passed 
through a tunnel of considerable extent. This branch is in length 
two miles and a half, and is upon the same level as the Ashton 
Branch. From the aqueduct the branch is continued to Hollin- 
wood, and from thence by the Werneth Colliery Company, to their 
extensive works near to Oldham. The length from the aqueduct, 
at Waterhouses, to Hollinwood, is rather more than one mile and 
three quarters ; and the extension to the collieries is one mile. The 
branch from the aqueduct rises 83 feet, by means of eight locks. 
From the Hollinwood Branch, one-eighth of a mile from the 
aqueduct, is a collateral cut to Fairbottom Colliery, of little more 
than a mile in length, and level. The branch from Clayton leaves 
the main line between the tenth and eleventh lock from its com- 
mencement, and passing by Garton and Reddish, terminates at 
Lancashire Hill, on the high-road from Manchester to Stockport, 
and but half a mile from the latter place. 

In the town and suburbs of Manchester, several collateral cuts 
and basins, have been made from this canal to the various wharfs, 
quays, and manufactories ; thus affording increased facilities to the 



ASHTON.UNDRR-LYNE CANAL. 35 

trade of this populous and important town and neighbourhood; 
amongst which, we may enumerate one, a quarter of a mile in 
length, which proceeds from the west side of Great Ancoats 
Street, across Mill Street, to Kirby Street, and from which three 
collateral cats proceed. A short distance further, on the line of 
canal, there is another cut, nearly a quarter of a mile in length, 
which crosses Pollard Street, to the back of the large factories 
which front into Great Ancoats Street These short cuts are all 
on one leveL 

The canal and branches are made 31 feet wide at top and 16 
at die bottom, and in depth 5 feet The locks are 70 feet long 
and 7 feet wide. 

TONNAGE RATES ALLOWED BY THE FIRST ACT. 

d. 

For Lime, Limestone, Dung, Manure, Clay, Sand and Gravel.. § per Ton, per Milt 

Coals, Cannel Coal, Stone, and other Minerals, not passing > , .... ..„ 

through Locks J 1 d™ 0, dMa - 

On the same, passing through Locks 2J ditto. ditto. 

On Timber, and other Goods, not passing through Locks .... I ditto. ditto. 

On the same passing through Locks l{ ditto. ditto. 

By the act of the 38th George III. cap. 32, the proprietors are 
allowed die following 

RATES OF WHARFAGE. 

d. 
Vat Coal, Lime, Limestone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Timber, Stone, Brick, i • __ <r n. 

Tile, Slate, Flag, Sand and Gravel i ^ 

On ail other Goods 3 ditto. 

If such Goods remain more than Three Days $ ditto. 

If more than Ten Days 1 ditto. 

By the act, entitled, 'An' Act for amending the several Ads 
' pasted for making, extending, finishing, and completing the Canal 
' Navigation from Manchester, to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and 
1 Oldham, and the several Cuts and other Works authorized to be 
' made and done by the Company of Proprietors of the said Canal 
1 Navigation, and for granting to the said Company further and 
' other Powers] the proprietors are allowed the following 

ADDITIONAL RATES. 

4. 

For every Boat, passing a Lock, laden with Lime or Limestone 3 

For WhaVbge of such Goods as shall not have paid the Company Two-pence, per > 
Ton, Tonnage i 

In the preamble of the last act, relating to this navigation, 
entitled, < An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the 

c 2 



36 ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE CANAL. 

* Canal Navigation from Manchester, to or near Jlshton-under-Lyne 

* and Oldham, more effectually to provide for the discharge of their 
' Debts, and to complete the said Canal, and the Cuts and Works 
1 relating thereto j it is stated that the company have raised the 
several sums of £60,000, and £30,000, which they were empowered 
to do under the act of 32nd George III. ; also the further sum of 
£30,000, granted under the act of 33rd George III.; also the 
sum of £29,977, 17s. in part of the sum of £30,000, which they 
were empowered to raise, under the act of 38th George III. ; also 
the further sum of £8,677, in part of the further sum of £20,000, 
granted under the poweM of the act of 40th George III. It is 
further stated, that the company have expended all the monies 
they have been enabled to raise, amounting to £158,654, 17*. and 
that they have contracted debts to a large amount. By this act, 
they are, therefore, empowered to raise a further sum of £40,000, 
over and above the several sums already granted, amounting to 
£170,000, to enable them to discharge such debts and complete 
their works. The last-mentioned sum of £40,000 to be raised by 
creating new and additional shares, or by calls, on original share- 
holders, of sums not exceeding £10 per share at each calL 

This canal connects the towns of Manchester and Ashton-under- 
Lyne ; and by the Huddersfield Canal, it has communication with 
that town, Saddleworth, and the populous clothing districts in that 
part of Yorkshire, and is a portion of one of the lines of inland 
navigation, which connects the Irish Sea with the German Ocean ; 
on the one hand through the Huddersfield and Sir John Ramsden's 
Canab, the Cakler and Hebble and Aire and Calder Navigations, 
to the port of Goole, and from thence by the Rivers Ouse and 
Humber to the port of Kingston-upon Hull; and on the other 
hand, by entering the Rochdale Canal, near its junction with the 
Duke of Bridgewater's Canal, and by that navigation to Runcorn, 
and from thence, by the River Mersey, to Liverpool. 

The town of Manchester derives considerable advantage by the 
facility with which this canal and branches supply it with stone and 
coal at an easy rate ; an immense quantity of the latter article, in 
addition to what is required for ordinary purposes, being in daily 
requisition for innumerable steam engines in use in the various 
manufactories. 



AVON RIVER. 37 

. AVON RIVER. 

IT Charles 11. Cap. 19, Royal Aaaent and March, 1664. 

This river has its source three miles east of the town of 
Devizes, in Wiltshire, and after passing Park Shipton, and Rushall, 
H takes a southerly course along the east-end of Salisbury Plain, 
passing Enford Priory, Syrencot House, and the town of Ames- 
bury ; and two miles to the west of Stonehenge, it proceeds by 
Lake House, and the ruins of Old Sarum, to New Sarum, or 
Salisbury, where Hs stream is considerably augmented, by being 
united with the little Rivers Wily, the Nadder, and the Bourne. 
From Salisbury, its course fa nearly south, through a delightful 
country, to the town of Fording Bridge, thence to Ringwood, and 
to Christchurch Bay, where it falls into the sea. 

This river was made navigable, from Christchurch to Salisbury, 
under the powers of an act of the 17th Charles II. entitled, ' An 
* Act for making the River Avon navigable from Christchurch to 
' the city of New SarumJ but the whole of the works having been 
swept away by a flood, soon after its completion, it was suffered to 
continue in that ruinous condition until the year 1771, when the 
celebrated Brindley surveyed its course, and recommended a new 
canal to be cut parallel with the river. 

Though this suggestion of Mr. Brindley's was not carried into 
execution, some repairs of the old works were commenced; these, 
however, were so inefficient, as to give rise to the scheme of 8 
canal from Southampton to Salisbury. 

When the act was obtained for the above scheme, the River 
Avon, as a navigation, was abandoned; and it is now navigable 
only as a tide river, free of toll, for very small vessels only, for the 
distance of two miles from the sea, with 5j feet water at spring 
tides. At other times, the bar, at the entrance of Christchurch 
Harbour, is an insurmountable obstacle, which may be further, 
inferred from the circumstance that there are but four small vessels 
belonging to. Christchurch. 

The length of the original navigation, to Salisbury, was 
thirty-six miles, viz. from Christchurch to Ringwood, thirteen 
miles and a half; from thence to Fording Bridge, seven miles and 
a half; and from thence to Salisbury, fifteen miles. 



38 AVON K1VKR. 



AVON RIVER. 



24 George H. Cap. 39, Royal Assent 22nd May, 1751. 
33 George III. Cap. 23, Royal Assent 30th April, 1793. 

This River Avon commences a mile west of Warwick, where 
the Rivers Leame and Dove (having previously received the 
waters of the Sow and Watergall) unite, and take the name of 
Avon. From the junction of these rivers, the Avon runs close to 
Warwick, (the county town), washing the walls of the castle, and 
passing through the princely grounds attached to the same, it 
takes a circuitous course by The Hill, Charlecote House, Alveston 
House, and Welcombe, to Stratford-upon-Avon, where it first 
becomes navigable. A mile from Strutford, it is the boundary 
between Gloucester and Warwick for about a mile in length ; 
from thence its course continues through the county of Warwick, 
for the distance of a mile, and again becomes the boundary of 
Gloucester and Warwick, to Binton Bridges, to which place, from 
Stratford, the distance is five miles and one-eighth. From Binton 
Bridges, the Avon is still the county boundary, to Grange : it then 
passes through a portion of Warwick, to within three quarters of a 
mile of the junction with the Arrow River, where it again divides 
the counties of Warwick and Gloucester. The distance from 
Binton Bridges to the Arrow River is five miles and three quarters. 
From the Arrow Mouth, the Avon is the division for a mile and a 
half between Warwickshire and Worcestershire, when it enters the 
latter county, passing OfFenham, to the bridge, at the town of 
Evesham. The distance from the mouth of the River Arrow, to 
the latter place, is six miles and a half. From Evesham Bridge, 
the river almost makes the circuit of the town ; then proceeds, in a 
north-westerly direction, by the Manor-House, and Cracombe 
House, and by the villages of Fladbury and Wyre Piddle, to the 
bridge at the town of Pershore. The distance from the latter 
place to Evesham Bridge is eleven miles and three quarters. 
From Pershore, to Eckington Bridge, the river makes two or 
three considerable bends, so that though the distance by the river, 
between these places, is six miles and a half, yet, by a straight line, 
it is only two miles and a half. From Eckington Bridge, the river 



AVON RIVER. 39 

takes a southerly direction, passing Breedon, a little before which, 
it becomes the boundary between Gloucester and Worcester, and 
continues to be so to the town of Tewkesbury, where it falls into 
the River Severn, being in distance, from Eckington Bridge, 
seven miles and three quarters, and the total distance from 
Stratford-upon-Avon to the Severn is forty-three miles and three- 
eighths. 

In the preamble of the first act relating to this river, we learn 
that, for a considerable time previous, it had been navigated, from 
Stratford, to its junction with the Severn ; but that in consequence 
of frequent disputes between the proprietors of the navigation, and 
those using the navigation, it became necessary to apply to par- 
liament for an act which should determine the amount of rates 
and duties to be paid. 

The following rates have been paid ever since the river became 
navigable, and are still received, in addition to the rates which the 
proprietors of the navigation are empowered to collect, under the 
powers of the 24th George II. 

ANCIENT TOLLS. 

d. 

Forevery Barge passing through Tewkesbury Sluice, or Lock, into the Severn .. 6 

Forevery Boat, ditto. ditto.. ditto. 3 

For every Boat, (except Pleasure Boats), poring through Evesham Sluice 6 

For every Boat, Barge, or VeneL paging up or down the laid River— tor the J - 
letting and drawing of every Wear, and at every Wear upon the add River. . > 

The following act, 24th George II. cap. 39, 22nd May, 1751, 
entitled, l An Act for the better regulating the Navigation of the 
' River Avon, running through the counties of Warwick, Worcester, 
1 and Gloucester, and for ascertaining the Rates of Water Carriage 
' upon the said River f empowers the proprietors of the navigation 
to demand the following rates of tonnage : — 

TONNAGE RATES AND TOLLS. 

WineXider, or Merchant.- Goods, of every j j^,^ Ton - m Column marked ( ., 

Kind *.... * 

Wheat, Barley, Malt, Beans, Peas, Oats, ) 

Maattn, Linseed, CuUingii, Clover, Meal \ perWey, .ditto, marked (t) 

and Flour., ) 

Cut, or Pig Iron, Brick, Stone, Lftne, Coop- \ 

err. Carpenters', Wheelwrights', and V per Ton, ditto,, marked (t) 

other Timber, Boards and Firewood.. ) 

Coal, of every Kind ditto, ditto, marked (1) 

Bar Iron, Lead, Polished Stone, and all) 

other Things, not particularly sped- f ditto. ditto, marked (I) 

ted s 



40 



AVON RIVER. 
TONNAGE RATES AND TOLLS. 



From the Severn, near Tewkesbury, or any place ; 
between that and Strensham Sluice, to Stratford, 
or any place between that and Bidford ' 

From the Severn, near Tewkesbury, or any place . 
between that and Strensham Sluice, to Bidford, i 
or any place between that and Evesham j or from ! 
Bidford, or any place between Evesham and ' 
Bidford, to or below Tewkesbury ' 

From the Severn, near Tewkesbury, or any place • 
between that and Strensham Sluice, to or below ( 
Evesham Sluice, and any place between that j 
and Pershore ' 

From the Severn, near Tewkesbury, or any place ■ 
between that and Strensham Sluice, to Pershore ( 
Sluice, and any place between that and Nafford j 
Sluice ; 

From the Severn, near Tewkesbury, or any place • 
between that and Strensham Sluice, to NafTbrd ( 
Sluice, or any place between that and Strensham I 
Sluice ) 

From the Severn, near Tewkesbury, or any place ' 
between that and Strensham Sluice, to Breedon, ( 
or to anyplace between the Severn, or Strensham ( 
Sluice, provided the Vessel poises a Sluice - 

From Stratford, or any place between that and Bid- • 
ford, to the Severn, near Tewkesbury, or any ] 
place between that and Strensham Sluice ! 

From Stratford, or any place between that and Bid. ; 
ford, to Strensham Sluice, or any place between 
that and NafTbrd Sluice ] 

From Stratford, or any place between that and Bid. '] 
ford, to Naflbrd Sluice, or any place between 
that and Pershore Sluice ! 

From Stratford, or any place between that and Bid. j 
ford, to Pershore Sluice, or any place between 
that and Chadbury Mill, or Sluice ' 

From Stratford, or any place between that and Bid- j 
ford, to Chadbury Mill, or Sluice, and anyplace 
between that and Harvington Mill ! 

From Stratford, or any place between that and Bid- j 
ford, to Harrington Mill, and any place between 
that and Bidford I 

From Stratford, to Bidford. or any place between ] 
Bidford or Stratford i 

From Evesham, to Tewkesbury, cr the Severn, or to - 
Stratford, or any place between the Severn, or ( 
Tewkesbury, and Strensham Sluice ; or Strat- j 
ford, and Luddmgton Sluice ' 

From Evesham, to Slremsbam Sluice, or Cleeve. or , 
to any place between Strensham Sluice, and i 
Pershore Sluice, or Cleeve, ami Bidford I 

From Evesham, to Bidford. or lYrshvxe. and to anv i 
place between Bidford. and Hamu£ton Mill, or I 
KUdburr. and Pershore j 

From Evesham, to Hamnston Mill, or Fladburr. . 

From Evesham, to any pMce hetnetn Harvinct.-vn j 
MilL or Vtadburr, provided such Vesswl pas*s ] 
a Muice \ 



•) m 

d. j «. d. 

3 



3 4 2 4 



1 3 



1 8 



(*) 
~*Td. 
010 



«> 

T.d. 
1 6 



8 16 



C 1 6 



14,03 13 



1 i 4 j 010 



8 8 



4 3 

I 
I 

3 8 2 9 



2 ■ 4 



9 I 1 4 



3 4,26,0811 3 

I I 

I 



II) 
.. d. 
1 6 

1 3 

010 

8 



4 



010 j 1 6 1 6 



I 4 
I 3 



2 3 7 11 10 
! I 8 ' 6 ' 010 I 9 

! I • j 

01010I03 oajos 

! I i 

S 06 2 03 03 

! ; i i 

41 8,061 6 ' 9 

I I i | 

8 14 04 08108 

! ' I 

4 10,03 6.05 

I 

10 03 OS 04 
8 6 02 03 03 



AVON AND FROME RIVERS. 41 

For all Goods taken on board at an; place between Tewkesbury and Stratford, and 
unladen before they come to Stratford or Tewkesbury, lor which no provision ia 
herein made, the same Rates are hereby fixed from the Place where they are taken 
on board to Evesham, and from Evesham to the Place where the same shall be 
landed or unladen, and so in proportion lor any greater or less Quantity. 

Milieu, on the Avon, in consideration of the inconvenience they occasionally sustain, 
by having to draw off the Water, for the purpose of repairing Sluices, tec. are 
rvrmpteri from Payment of Toll, upon Coals used by their Mills, or for Materials 
used for Repairs of the same; but if they prefer paying Tonnage, they are en. 
titled to Twenty Shillings per Day, for drawing off Water and during such time 
the Water is drawn off 

Until the expenses of this act was paid, the extra toll of two 
■hillings and sixpence, for each loaded vessel, was paid at Tewkes- 
bury, Perahore, Evesham, or Stratford, or such other place as the 
vessel passed through. 

This valuable property belonged, originally, to George Perrott, 
Esq. but it was placed in the hands of trustees, under powers of an 
act, entitled, * An Act for vesting the Navigation of the River Avon, 
1 m the counties of Warwick, Worcester, and Gloucester, Sfc. and 
1 certain other Estates, late the Property of George Perrott, Esq. in 

I Trustees, £c' but die tolls and duties remain, as settled by the 
act of the 24th George II. 

This river is of infinite advantage to the towns of Perahore, 
Evesham, and Stratford, and the country adjacent, supplying them 
with coal and merchandize, and serving to export their surplus 
agricultural produce. 

AVON AND FROME RIVERS. 

II a: II Wit TO. C. 33, R. A. 11th May, 1700. 22Geo. It C. SO, R. A. 26thMay, 1749. 
43 Geo. HtC. 140, R. A. 11th August, 1803. 46 Geo. lit C— R. A.S3rdMay,1808. 
470eo.lltC. 33, B. A. 1st August, 1807. 48Geo.UI.C. 3, R. A. 21st Mar. 1808. 

49 Geo. lit C. 17, R. A. 28th April, 1809. 

Though the first act relating to the navigation of these rivers 
occurs in the reign of William the Third, and is entitled, '•An Act 
i for the better preserving the Navigation of the Rivers Avon and 
' Frame, and for cleansing, paving and enlightening the Streets of 
'the city of Bristol,' yet for several hundred years previous, this 
river, from the western end of the Avon River Navigation, at 
Hanham Milk, to the River Severn, King Road, has been, by 
ancient charters and grants from the crown, in the possession of 
the mayor, burgesses and commonalty of the city of Bristol, as 
conservators thereof, and they have, from time immemorial, 



42 AVON AND FROME RIVERS. 

received rates for wharfage, anchorage, moorage, &c. but as these 
have been but indifferently defined, several acts of parliament have 
been obtained for the determining the same, and for other purposes 
set forth in the respective titles, which will be briefly noticed in 
their place. The course of that part of the Avon under the 
jurisdiction of the corporation of Bristol, commencing at Haiiham 
Mills, is in a westerly direction by Crew's Hole, thence skirting the 
south side of the city of Bristol, through the parish of Bedminster 
to Redcliffe ; thence by Roundham Lodge and Abbots Leigh Park, 
to the River Severn at King Road. From Hanham Mills to King 
Road, is in length fifteen miles and a half. Its course formerly lay 
through the heart of the city, but a new channel for the river has 
been cut on the south side of Bristol, two miles in length, while the 
ancient course has been converted into an excellent floating-dock 
and harbour, which is productive of immense advantages to the 
commercial population of this enterprizing city. 

The River Frome is but a small stream, which rising near the 
town of Wickwar, in Gloucestershire, passes Iron Acton, and, in its 
course by Stoke Giffbrd House, supplies a number of mills and 
manufactories. It enters on the north side of Bristol, and passing 
through the centre of the city, falls into the floating-dock, or 
ancient course of the Avon. The last half mile of its course is used 
as a dock and harbour, (no other portion being navigable,) and 
as it is in the very heart of the city, its value may be easily 
appreciated. 

In the year 1749, the corporation obtained an act, entitled, 
' An Act for making more effectual an Act passed in the Eleventh 
' and Twelfth Years of the Reign of his late Majesty King William 
1 the Third, for the better preserving the Navigation of the Rivers 
1 Avon and Frome, Sfc. ;' but we forbear to enlarge upon the 
provisions of this act, as the rates of wharfage, anchorage, &c. 
were not finally ascertained and settled until 1 807, when parlia- 
mentary sanction was given to an act, entitled, ' An Act for 
ascertaining and establishing the Rates of Wharfage, Cannage, 
Plankage, Anchorage and Moorage, to be received at the lawful 
Quays in the Port of Bristol; for the regulation of the Cranckecpers 
in the said Port ; and for the better regulation of Pilots and 
Pilotage of Vessels navigating the Bristol Channel.' 



AVON AND FROME RIVERS. 43 

Under thi* act the powers granted to the mayor, burgesses and 
commonalty, by charter, grants from the crown and preceding 
acts of parliament, are set forth ; in which it appears they have 
jurisdiction down the Severn and Bristol Channel, to the two small 
islands called the Stipe Holmes and the Flat Holmes, distant from 
the mouth of the Avon about twenty-three miles; and that they 
and their lessees are also possessed of all the lawful wharfs and 
quays in the. city and port of Bristol 

RATES OF ANCHORAGE AND MOOBAQE. 

«. d. 

All Coasting Vesnii torn Port* to the Westward oftbe Holmes > . „ ... 

not exceeding Forty Tons Burthen i ° 9each Voyage. 

All Coasting Vessels, ditto, at and above Forty Tons I 6 ditto. 

AKCMOHAOB. JIOOSAOS. 
«. i. d. 

All Vessels (except Coasting Vessels) under Thirty Ton» 1 Beach, .. J per Ton, 

AD VesaeKabore Thirty Tons, and under One Hundred Tons 5 each, ..J ditto. 
AUVeatetoaboreOne Hundred Tom 3 Oeaeh,.. 1 ditto. 

Tlie rates of wharfage, cannage and plankage, are fixed and 
very particularly enumerated in the first schedule of this act, but 
as they are arranged under upwards of four hundred heads, our 
Emits will not permit us to do more than refer our readers to the 
act Also by the act separate rates are fixed for the landing or 
shipping, and landing and weighing of goods, wares and merchant 
dize, which are particularly set forth in the second schedule of this 
act, to which we likewise refer the reader; but the charges in the 
latter schedule are subject to the control of the magistrates 
assembled in quarter sessions, who can reduce the rates. 

By an act of the 43rd George III. entitled, ' An Act for 
' improving and rendering more commodious the Port and Harbour 
1 of Bristol,' the mayor, burgesses' and commonalty of the city of 
Bristol, and their successors ; the master, wardens and commonalty 
of merchant venturers of the said city, and their successors, and 
several other persons were incorporated by the name and style of 
"The Bristol Dock Company," and were empowered to raise 
among themselves £250,000, in shares of j?100 each ; and a 
farther sum of £50,000 to be borrowed on the credit of the rates 
and duties, for the purpose of improving the docks and harbour of 
Bristol, and for making a canal or entrance-basin in Rownham 
Mead, to the extent of six acres, with other works therein specified. 



44 AVON AND FROMli RIVERS. 

But in the preamble of an act which the company obtained in 
1806, entitled, ' An Act to alter and amend an Act passed in the 
1 Forty-third Year of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for 
' improving and rendering more commodious the Port and Harbour 
' of Bristol, and for extending the Powers and Provisions of the 
1 said Act,' it appears that of the ,£250,000 authorized to be raised 
among themselves, they only obtained £235,000, and were wholly 
unable to obtain any part of the £50,000 which they were 
authorized to borrow ori mortgage. This act, therefore, gives 
power to the directors nominated for managing the affairs of the 
Bristol Dock Company, or any five of them, to make a call of £35 
per cent on original shares, (which would increase the capital to 
£317,250,) to enable them to carry into execution the works 
recited in the act of 43rd George III. with the alterations and 
improvements authorized to be made by the last recited act. 

The works authorized to be done under the act of 46th George 
III. consist chiefly of a solid dam across the River Avon, at the 
Red Cliff, and another between the present course of the Avon, 
(now the floating-dock,) and the new intended course of the said 
river; also another dam over the Avon at Totterdown, and for 
making the westwardmost locks in the Rownham Mead Basin 33 
feet wide, instead of 45 and 33 feet 

The power in the act of 43rd Geo. III. to borrow £50,000 on 
mortgage, is repealed by the above recited act Persons holding 
ten shares in this undertaking, are qualified to serve as directors. 

Two other acts have been obtained by the Bristol Dock 
Company, one in the 48th George III. entitled, ' An Act for 
' completing the Improvements of the Port of Bristol;' and another 
in the following year, entitled, ' An Act to enable the Bristol Dock 
' Company to borrow a further Sum of Money for completing the 
' Improvements of the Port and Harbour of Bristol ;' but as these 
refer to matters which are not strictly within the limits of this 
work, we refrain from quoting the provisions of the same. 

The River Avon, by reason of the gradual contraction of the 
channel of the Severn, is subject to very high and rapid tides, and 
particularly so when the wind is from the west, or a point or two 
to the south. At the mouth of the Avon, where the Severn is six 
miles wide, the usual spring tide is 40 feet; but in November, 



AVON RIVER. 45 

1813, the spring tide there was ascertained by .Captain Andrew 
Livingstone, of Glasgow, to be full SO feet perpendicular rue. 
At Chepstow, situate upon the mouth of the River Wye, (where 
the channel of the Severn is little more than two mike wide,) the 
vertical rise of the spring tide is often 60 feet 

As the River Avon is the first link of one of the chains of the 
present inland communication between the ports of Bristol and 
London, this circumstance alone gives to it an importance that in 
former times it had no claim to ; and if ever the scheme, which is 
now in agitation, for making a canal between these two important 
places, capable of admitting ships of upwards of four hundred tons 
burthen, (the estimated expense of which is eight millions,) be 
carried into execution, this river will doubtless form an interesting 
portion of such a navigation. 

The celebrated Smeaton reported on the proposed floating- 
harbour, docks, &c so long ago as the year 1765; but William 
Jessop, Esq. was the engineer who carried into execution the 
works required under the authority of the last act of parliament 



AVON RIVER. 

10 Anne, Cap. 8, Royal Assent 22nd May, 1712. 

47 George Hi- Cup. 129, Royal Aawnt 14th Aogott, 1807. 

51 George HL Cap. 187, Royal Assent 15th June, 1811. 

.This is a continuation of the same River Avon as mentioned 
shore; but was made navigable to Bath, by different parties, and 
under separate authorities. The source of the River Avon is at a 
short distance west of Badminton Park, the seat of the Duke of 
Beaufort, in the county of Gloucester, and after meandering through 
these beautiful grounds, enters Wiltshire, taking a northerly direc- 
tion close to the town of Mahnsbury, and thence westward to 
Danntsey, a seat of the late Earl of Peterborough, where, chang- 
ing for the south, h passes Christian Malfbrd, winding to within 
a Kttle distance of Bo wood, the seat of the Marquis of Lansdowne ; 
thence to the town of Chippenham, to which place, a branch of the 
Wilts and Berks Canal is carried. In its course it runs by Lack- 
bam House, and Laycock Abbey, to the west of the town of 
MeUnham ; thence to the town of Bradford, a little below which, 



46 AVON RIVER. 

at Avon Cliff Aqueduct, it is crossed by the Kennet and Avon 
Canal; and again, a mile north-west of Monckton Combe, by 
another aqueduct, called Dundas Aqueduct ; from whence, it 
takes a circuitous route to Bath, at which place it becomes navi- 
gable, and continues so through Bristol, to the Severn. The Ken- 
net and Avon Canal locks into the River Avon, at Bath, and the 
proprietors, under the above acts, have jurisdiction only from the 
city of Bath to Hanham Mills, the length being eleven miles, with 
a fall of 30 feet, by six locks. 

The river, from Bath, to the tideway at Hanham Mills, was made 
navigable by certain commissioners, who were appointed by the 
mayor, aldermen, and common council of the city of Bath, under 
powers granted thein by an act of the 10th of Anne, entitled, ' An 
' Act for making the River Avon, in the counties of Somerset and 
1 Gloucester, navigable, from the city of Bath, to or near Hanham 
' Mills. 1 The commissioners were thirty-three in number, and 
amongst them were his Grace the Duke of Beaufort, the Marquis 
of Worcester, Timothy Goodwin, Bishop of Kilmore and Ardaugh, 
and Lord Noel. The deed of appointment l)ears date the 11th 
of March, 1724. 

Until 1813, the barges were towed on this navigation, by men 
only, in consequence of having neglected, in the act of Anne, to 
secure a horse towing-path along the banks. The proprietors, (en- 
titled, " The Proprietors of the Tolls arising from the Navigation 
" of the River Avon,") consisting of the Company of Proprietors of 
the Kennet and Avon Canal Navigation, Sir C. Willoughby, Bart, 
and ten other persons, found it desirable that such powers should 
be obtained; they, therefore, applied to parliament, in 1807, and 
obtained an act, which is entitled, ' An Act for enabling the Pro- 
' prietors of the Navigation of the River Avon, in the counties of 
' Somerset and Gloucester, from the city of Bath, to or near Han- 
i ham Mills, to make and maintain a Horse Towing-Path, for the 
' Purpose of towing and haling, with Horses or otherwise, Boats, 
' Lighters, or other Vessels, up and down the said River.' Under 
this act, ten commissioners were added to those appointed under 
the former act, but the tolls remain unaltered. 

Four years after this act of the legislature, (in 1811) a com- 
pany, consisting of two hundred and eighty-three persoas, many 



AVON RIVER. 47 

of whom were proprietors of the Kennet and Avon Canal, obtained 
an act, for making a canal between the cities of Bath and Bristol, 
which was entitled, ' An Act for making a navigable Canal be- 
' (went the cities of Bath and Bristol; and also for supplying vrith 
1 Water the Inhabitants of the city of Bristol and its neighbourhood.' 
This canal was to commence at the end of the Kennet and 
Avon Canal, at Bath, and to run parallel with the River Avon, on 
its southern bank, to the town of Keynsham, where the line crosses 
to the opposite bank ; thence, running parallel to Crew's Hole, it 
leaves the river, and crosses the upper end of Pyle Marsh to Old 
Market Street, in the city of Bristol, and from whence there was 
to be a short cut, locking down into the Bristol Dock, or Floating 
Harbour. The length would be about thirteen miles. 

The company were incorporated by the name of " The Com- 
" pany of Proprietors of the Bath and Bristol Canal, and Bristol 
"Water Works," and empowered to raise, among themselves, 
£500,000, to be divided into five thousand shares of £100 each, 
with further power to contribute, among themselves, £150,000, 
or to borrow the same sum by mortgage of the tolls. 

The estimate for the canal and water works, which was made 
by John Rennie, Esq. F.R.S. amounted to £453,530, of which, 
£343,030 related to the canal; and it appears that £365,400 was 
subscribed before going to parliament 

As no portion of this canal has been executed, nor is ever 
likely to be, under the powers granted by the above recited act, it 
is unnecessary to introduce the rates that were allowed by the 
same. The Kennet and Avon Canal Company acted judiciously 
in purchasing the principal part of the shares in the River Avon ; 
for by obtaining the management of the river, they have been 
enabled to secure a better navigation to the public, and to themselves 
ample remuneration. The parliamentary rates are as follows. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

The Rata allowed by the Act, 10th Anne, are Five Shillings per Ton, on all Kinds 
of lading, for the whole Distance, and for every Passenger, for the whole Distance, 
Sixpence; but the Company have considerably reduced the Rates, which vary 
according to the Articles of lading. 



48 AVON AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE RAILWAY. 

AVON AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE RAILWAY. 

9 George IV. Cap. 94, Royal Assent 19th June, 1828. 

This railway commences from the River Avon, below the 
town of Keynsham, whence it takes a northerly course by Wills- 
bridge, Haul Lane Coal Works and Warmley, to the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Railway, at Rodway Hill, in the parish of Man- 
gotsfield, where it terminates. 

It is in length five miles, two furlongs and four chains, with a 
total rise, from the level of the Avon, below the tail of Keynsham 
Lock, (which is 2 feet above the Bristol Floating Harbour), of 
198 feet, viz. from the Avon, an inclined plane three thousand 
three hundred and sixty-six yards in length, rising 124 feet ; another 
three thousand three hundred and forty-four yards in length, with 
a rise of 19 feet only ; while the remainder of the railway, which 
is two thousand six hundred and eighteen yards, has a rise of 55 
feet. The estimate for this undertaking was made by Mr. John 
Blackwell, and amounts to the sum of £20,226, 1 Is. 2rf. The 
act for making it is entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining 
' a Railway or Tramroad from Rodway Hill, in the parish of 
' Mangotsfield, in the county of Gloucester, to the River Avon, in 
' the parish of Bitton, in the same county.' 

The subscribers, at the time the act was obtained, were ten in 
number, together with the Proprietors of the Kennet and Avon 
Canal Navigation, who alone subscribed £10,000; and £l 2,000 
were subscribed by the others. The act incorporates these parties 
by the name of " The Avon and Gloucestershire Railway Com- 
" pany," with power to raise, amongst themselves, the sum of 
£21,000, in two hundred and ten shares, of £100 each, and, if 
necessary, a further sum of £10,000 on mortgage of the under- 
taking. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

For every Description of Goods 2 per Ton, per Mile. 

Fractions as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile. 

Owners of lands may make branches to communicate with this 
railway, and may erect wharfs, and demand the following rates. 



AXE RIVER. 49 

WAREHOUSING AND WHARFAGE .RATES. 

d. 
For the Wharfage of all Coal, Oolm, Lime, Lime-stone, Ctay, Iron, Iron- ) 

■tone. Iron-ore, Lead-ore or any other Ores, Timber, Stone, Bricks, f 2 per Ton. 

Toes, State, Gravel or other Things J 

For theWarebooatngoferery Package not exceeding Fifty-iii Pounds., a 
Ditto above Three Hundred Pounds, and not exceeding Six Hundred > 4 

Pounds........ •..*• ............. j 

Ditto exceeding One Thousand Pounds ft 

9iouM any Goods or other Articles remain longer than Fourteen Days, a further Sum 
of One Penny per Ton for Wharfage, and Two-pence per Ton for Warehousing. 
the same for the next Three Days, and the like Sum of One Penny and Two-pence 
respectively, for every succeeding Three Days which the same remain on the 
Wharfs or Warehouses. 

CRANAGE RATES. 

». i. 

Per any Weight under Two Tons with one Lilt of the Crane BperTon. 

Ditto of Two Tons, and has than Three Tons, ditto 1 o ditto. 

Ditto ofThree Tons, and less than Four Tons, ditto. 1 6 ditto 

And so progressively advancing Sixpence per Ton. 

Hie object of this railway is to open more beneficially the very 
extensive collieries and stone quarries which abound on the line, at 
Coal Pit Heath, and other places in the parishes of Westerleigh, 
Puddechurch, and MangotsfiekL 

The coal brought down this railway to the River Avon, will 
fad its way, by the Kennet and Avon and the Wilts and Berks 
Casals, through the counties of Wiltshire and Berkshire, and even 
down the Thames to Reading, Maidenhead and Windsor, 



AXE RIVER. 
43 George in. Cap. «8, Royal Assent 24th May, 1802. 

Trb River Axe has its rise about a mile west of the city of 
WeDs, in Somersetshire, whence, running westward by Wookey, 
■nd across the level of Cluer, to the village of Lower Weare, two 
miles west of Axbridge, and thence by Loxton and Bleadon to 
UphiO, it falls into the Bristol Channel in Uphill Bay. 

Previous to 1802, the Axe was a very indifferent navigation, 
•» a tideway river, to the village of Lower Weare, situate on the 
high road leading from Bridgewater to Axbridge ; but in conse- 
quence of the spring tides rising in the Bristol Channel to the 
height of 40 feet^ and there being no locks or sluices on the course 
to check the advance,of the tides, the low lands on its banks were 

D 



00 AXE RIVER. 

frequently overflowed and rendered useless for agricultural pur- 
poses. Application was therefore made to parliament for powers 
enabling the proprietors of lands to improve the drainage of the 
same, and to make the navigation more efficient ; an act accord- 
ingly was obtained on the day above quoted, entitled, ' An Act 
l for draininy, preserving from Water, and improving, certain Low 
' Lands and Grounds, lying within the several parishes, or chapel- 
' ries, of Wookey, Westbury, Rodney-Stoke, Wedmore, Mear, 
' Weare, Nyland, Badgworth, Biddisham, East Brent, South 
' Brent, Cheddar, Oxbridge, Compton Bishop, Loxton, Bleadon, 
' Brean, Berrow, and Lympsham, all in the county of Somerset ; 
' and for altering and improving the Navigation of the River Axe, 
' within the said parishes of Bleadon, Lympsham, Loxton, East 
' Brent, Compton Bishop, Biddisham, Badgworth, Weare, and 

1 Axbridge, some or one of them, above and from a certain place 
' called Southern Mead Bars, situate within the said parish of 
' Bleadon.'' By this act, the execution of the works proposed, 
was entrusted to three commissioners, who were authorized to 
raise £ 15,000, on mortgage of the rates and assessments which 
they were empowered to collect, for the purposes of the act, from 
owners of lands that were benefited by the drainage ; and for their 
trouble, in executing the trust, a salary of three guineas a-day 
each was also granted them. Their power extended to four years 
and six months beyond the time required for the execution of the 
works, and after that, the navigation and drainage were to be 
vested in the commissioners of sewers for the county of Somerset. 

In the execution of the above works, the commissioners have 
shortened the navigation by making two cuts, one of which, near 
Loxton, is above a mile in lengtlu They have also constructed a 
lock, near Southern Mead Bars, which is the only one upon the 
river. The navigation, by this act, is free of toll. It extends to the 
village of I»wer Weare, near Axbridge, and from its head, to its 
fall into the Bristol Channel, is nine miles in length. 

The line of the proposed Bristol and Taunton Canal crosses 
this river, near the village of Loxton, and from whence, a branch 
was laid out to extend to Cheddar, but this part of that projected 
canal, together with the above-mentioned branch, is now aban- 
doned. 



BALLOCHNEY RAILWAY. 51 

BALLOCHNEY RAILWAY. 

7 George IV. Cap. 48, Royal Assent 5th Hay, 1826. 

This railway commences from the Kipps, or Kippbyres Col- 
liery Branch of the Monkknd and Kirkintilloch Railway, one mile 
and a half west of the town of Airdrie, in Lanarkshire, and pro- 
ceeding by Lea-end Colliery to the north of Airdrie, it passes by 
Stanrig to the march or division between east and west Arbuckle, 
in the parish of New Monkland, where the main line terminates. 
The whole length of the main line is four miles, with a rise, from 
the Kirkintilloch Railroad, of 352 feet, to Arbuckle. At one mile 
and three quarters from the west end of the railway there is a 
branch to Brownside and Blackrig Coal Pits, near the village of 
Clerkston, and called the Clerkston Branch, of one mile and a 
quarter in length. Also from the main line another branch called 
the Whiterig Branch, the length of which is three quarters of a 
mile. At a distance of nearly a mile from Kippbyres there is a 
self-acting inclined plane of more than three quarters of a mile in 
length, and upon the remaining part of this railway the inclinations 
are such that locomotive machines may be employed very advan- 
tageously. The total length of the main line and branches is a 
little more than six miles. The original estimate was made by 
Mr. Thomas Grainger, civil engineer, in 1836, and amounted to 
£18^31, 19*. 

The act for making this railway and branches is entitled, ' An 

* Act for making a Railway from Arbuckle and BaUochney, in 

* the parish, of New Monkland, in the county of Lanark, to or near 
1 the termination of the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, at 
' Kipps, or Kippbyres, also in the said parish of New Monkland 
' and county of Lanark.' The subscribers to this railway, at the 
time the act was obtained, consisted of fourteen persons, and were 
incorporated under the name and style of " The Ballochney Rail- 
w way Company." They were empowered to raise by subscription 
£18^25, to be divided into seven hundred and thirty-seven shares 
of £25 each. 

By section 32, the company were, in addition to the sum of 

d 2 



53 BARNSLEY CANAL. 

£18,445, empowered to borrow any ram not exceeding £10,000, 
on assignment of the property of the said undertaking, and of the 
rates authorized to be collected, repayable with interest. 

TONNAGE BATES. 

d. 

For til Good*, Warn, Merchandise, Coal and other Thing*.... S per Ton, per Mile. 
For passing up or down any one of the Inclined Planes, or any) * in addition. 

part ofone, and forerery Inclined Plane i 

Toll* to be paid for a fractional part of a Mile, and for a fractional part of a Too, and 
no Fractions of a Mile to be considered leas than a Quarter. 

The period allowed by the act for die execution of this railway 
is five years ; after that time die power to cease, excepting on 
that part of the railway which may have been completed. Abun- 
dance of coal and ironstone are worked in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of this railroad, by which, by the Monkland Canal, and 
the Qamkirk and Glasgow Railroad, ready communicatioiis are 
opened with the populous city of Glasgow, which is at the distance 
of only fifteen miles. 



BARNSLEY CANAL. 

S3 George m. Cap. 110, Royal Assent 3rd June, IT88. 
48 George W. Cap. 13, Royal Assent 38th March, 1808. 

This canal commences from die River Calder (the Aire and 
Calder Navigation) three quarters of a mile below Wakefield 
Bridge, and about three-eighths of a mile below the junction of the 
Calder and Hebble Navigation, at Fall Ing Lock, with the above- 
mentioned navigation ; from thence, proceeding in a southerly 
direction, it passes Walton Hall, the seat of the ancient family of 
the Waterloo, to which place there is a rise, from the Calder, of 
117 feet, by fifteen locks, in the distance of two miles and three 
quarters. From Walton Hall the canal is level through Haw 
Park Wood, where there is a feeder, communicating with Hiend- 
ley Reservoir, which reservoir was made expressly for the purpose 
of supplying this canal This is situate half-a-mile to the eastward, 
and originally occupied eighty acres, but the head of the reservoir 
has since bean raised 4 feet, and it now covers a surface of one 
hundred and twenty^even acres, the greatest depth being 40 feet 
A powerful engine is erected here for the purpose of lifting water 



• BABNSLEY CANAL. 53 

from the canal into the reservoir, when the long level is full, being the 
principal means of supplying the reservoir with water; and in 
draughty seasons H is readmitted by means ef slakes. From Haw 
Park Wood, the canal continues its course, on a level, by Roy* 
stone, Carlton, and Burton, near which latter place, it crosses the 
River Dearne by an aqueduct of stone, of five arches, of 30 feet 
span each ; at the south side of which, and at a distance of ten 
- miles from its commencement at the Calder, it forms a junction 
with the Dearne and Dove Canal From the aqueduct, the canal 
takes a westwardly course, on the same level, parallel with the 
Dearne, crossing the London Road within half-a-mile of the town 
of Bamsley; from thence, by Gawber Hall Collieries, to near 
Barugh Mill, where the long level of the canal terminates, having 
extended eleven miles. From this place, to the end of the canal 
at Bamby Basin, there is a rise of 40 feet, by five locks; the 
water, for the supply of which lockage, is, in a time of scarcity, 
lifted by a steam engine, from the long level, to which place there 
k a drift, nearly a quarter of a mile in length, but this is only used 
when the stream supplying Barugh Mill is very low. The length 
of the canal is fiteen miles and an eighth, and the act for making 
it was passed in the 33rd George III. and entitled, ' An Act for 
1 making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the River Cal- 
' dtr, in the township of JParmfield-cum-Heath, to or near the town 
l af Bamsley ; and from thence to Barnby Bridge, in the township 
1 of Cawthorne, in the West Riding of the county of Yorh; and 
' certain Railways and other Roads to communicate therewith.'' 

The subscribers to this work were incorporated by the name of 
u The Company of Proprietors of the Bamsley Canal Naviga- 
" hob," and consisted of one hundred and thirteen persons, among 
whom were the Duke of Leeds, Lord Hawke, the Countess Dow- 
ager of Bute, the Earl of V» igtoun, seven baronets, and almost all 
the landholders in its immediate vicinity. 

They were empowered to raise among themselves £72,000, 
in seven hundred and twenty shares of £100 each, with power 
to raise a farther sum, not exceeding £90,000, either among 
theaselveB or by mortgage of the rates. 

In this act, permission is given to the Calder and Hebble Navi- 
gation Company, and Thomas Richard Beaumont, Esq. to make a 



54 BARNSLEY CANAL. 

navigable communication between the Calder, at Horbury Pas- 
ture, and the Barnsley Canal, at Barugh Mill, the length of which 
would be six miles, and the estimate, amounting to £72,115, was 
made by the late Mr. Jessop, Mr. Elias Wright, and Mr. Gott, 
the engineers employed on the Barnsley Canal; but no part of 
this canal has ever been executed. 

THE BATES OF TONNAGE ALLOWED UNDER THIS ACT. 

d. 
Wheat, Shelling, Beans, Peas, Vetches and Len- ) 

tils, Rape, Line, Cole and Mustard Seed, { 8 per Quarter for the whole Length. 

Apples, Pears, Onions and Potatoes ' 

Barley 5 ditto. , ditto. 

OatsandMalt 4 ditto. ditto. 

Pack or Sheet of Wool, Dried Pelts or Spetches 6 per312lbs. ditto. 

Coal, Slack, Cinders, Culm, Charcoal and Lime 1 per Ton, per Mile. 

Limestone J ditto, ditto. 

Stone, Iron-stone, Flag, Paving-stone and Slate 1 ditto. ditto. 

PigorOldlron l\ ditto, ditto. 

Cast Metal Goods and Bar Iron 2 ditto, ditto. 

English Oak, Timber and Planks 1 J per Forty Cubical Feet, per Mile. 

Elm, Oak and other English Timber U per Fifty Cubical Feet, per Mile. 

Fir, and all other kinds of Foreign Timber l| ditto. ditto. 

Deals and Battens, equal to Thirty Deals, of ) 



lis and Battens, equal to Thirty Deals, of ) 
12 feet long, 3 inches thick, and from 9 to f 1 J per Mile. 
12 inches broad * 



12 inches broad. 
All other things not before enumerated 2 per Ton, per Mile. 

That Ten superficial Yards of Flag Paving-stone, from One Inch to Two Inches and 
three-quarters in Thickness, or Sixteen Cubical Feet of Stone, to be deemed a Ton. 

The only railway belonging to this company, made under the 
authority of the before-mentioned act, is from Barnby Basin to 
Norcroft Bridge, near the Silkstone Collieries, and is one mile 
and a quarter in length. 

TONNAGE RATES ON THE RAILWAY. 

d. 
Coal and other Minerals 3 per Ton, per Mile. 

From the preamble of a second act, passed in the 48th George 
III. and entitled, ' An Act for amending and enlarging the Powers 
' of an Act of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining the 
' Barnsley Canal Navigation, and certain Railways and other 
' Roads to communicate therewith ; and for increasing the Rates, 
' Tolls, and Ditties, thereby granted, 1 it appears that the company 
had expended the sum of £97,000, authorized to be raised under 
the preceding act, in the canal alone, and had incurred sundry 
debts ; they, therefore, obtained power to raise the further sum of 
£43,200, by a call of £60 on every shareholder of £100 each, 



BAS1NG6T0K.E CANAL.- 55 

add they were further empowered to raise £10,000 en mortgage, 
if the former sum should not be sufficient % this act the rates of 
tonnage are increased one half; excepting on that part of the 
navigation extending from the junction with the Deame afcd Dove 
Canal at the aqueduct, to Barnby Basin, for vessels which come 
out of, or enter, the Deame and Dove Canal, or on the railways 
connected, or that may be connected with this portion of the 
Bamtley Canal An exception to the additional charge is also 
made on all flag, paving>etone, lime-stone, or Erne, navigating on 
this part of the canal, which shall previously have been navigated 
on the Deame and Dove CanaL 

Tins canal was projected principally with the view of opening 
the very valuable' and extensive coal fields in the neighbourhood of 
Bamsley and Silkstone, and its execution has had the effect of 
introducing the coal, worked in the latter place, into the London 
Market, where it holds' a distinguished place among the Yorkshire 
Coals. The making of this canal has also been of incalculable ad« 
vantage to the agriculturists in its vicinity, by the facility it gives to 
the introduction of Knottingley Lime ; but it has been more par- 
ticularly experienced by those who are employed in bringing into 
cultivation the vast tracts of moor land lying to the north and west 
of its termination at Barnby Basin. The depth of this canal is 5 
feet, the width of the locks 15 feet, and the length 66 feet 

When the second act was obtained, authorizing the advance of 
£0O for every £100 share, it was deemed so unpropitious as to 
induce a many original subscriben to dispose of their shares, at 
the rate of £5 each, after having advanced the whole amount 
authorized to be raised by the first act, and these shares are now 
(1829) valued at £325 per share. 

The canal was opened on the 8th of June, 1790, but the rait 
road to Silkstone was not commenced until after the passing of the 
act of 48th George III. 

BASINGSTOKE CANAL. 

18 George III. Cap. 74, Royal Asent 18th May, 1778. 
33 George III. Cap. IS, Royal Aatent 28th March, 1793. 

This canal commences from the navigable River Wey, one 
mfle and three quarters south from the village of Weybridge, and 



56 BASINGSTOKE CANAL. • 

about three miles from its junction with the River Thames. Its 
course from hence is south-west, passing Horsell, and Pirbright, 
to Frimley Wharf, whence it takes a southerly course to near the 
village of Ash, where it crosses the little River Blackwater, and 
enters the county of Southampton. To this point of the canal it is 
fifteen miles, and there is a rise, from the River Wey, of 195 feet, 
by twenty-nine equal locks. This part of the canal is 36 feet 
wide, and 4£ feet deep, and the locks admit vessels 72 feet long, 
and 13 feet wide, carrying fifty tons. From this point it is level 
to Basingstoke, a distance of twenty-two miles. 

In its course from Ash Valley, at a distance of two miles, it 
crosses the mail road from London to Winchester ; and about a 
mile from hence, westward, the canal is carried across a valley of 
three quarters of a mile in breadth, by a very fine aqueduct ; from 
hence it proceeds westward, passing Dogmersfield House, and 
close to the town of Odiham, to Grewell, where the canal enters 
Grewell Hill Tunnel, half-a-mile and one-eighth in length, and 
from which, being entirely in chalk, which yields vast quantities 
of water, the principal supply is obtained for lockage, &c. From 
hence, the canal proceeds, passing Old Basing, to the town of 
Basingstoke, where it terminates. The summit level of the canal, 
of twenty-two miles, is 38 feet wide, and 5 J feet deep, and the 
total length is thirty-seven miles. 

There is a reservoir, at Aldershot, for the supply of this canal, 
which was completed in 1796; and also a feeder from the River 
Lodden. 

This canal was made under the authority of an act, entitled, 
' An Act for making a navigable Canal, from the town of Iiasing- 
1 stoke, in the county of Southampton, to communicate with the 
1 River Wey, in the pariah of Chertsey, in the county of Surrey, 
1 and to the South-East Side of the Turnpike- Road, in the parish 
1 of Turgiss, in the said county of Southampton^ and the subscri- 
bers, consisting of thirty-three persons, (amongst whom were the 
Earl of Worthington, the Earl of Dartmouth, the Earl of Ports- 
mouth, and Lord Rivers), were incorporated by the name of 
" The Company of Proprietors of the Basingstoke Canal Naviga- 
" tion." They were empowered to raise among themselves 
i £ J 86,000, in eight hundred and sixty shares of JJ100 each, with 



BASINGSTOKE CANAL. 57 

farther power to raise a further sum of £40,000, if necessary. 
Hie affairs of the company are managed by twenty proprietors, 
who form a committee, and who are under the control of the 
general meetings of the company. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

i. 
line, limestone, Paving-stone, Chalk, Dons, Soil, Marl and j , ^_ T „ -_ U ;i. 

other Manure for Land S 1 P°^oo,vamie. 

For all Goods, Wares and Merchandize, and other Things.... 2 ditto, ditto. 
Gkarel, Sand and other Material for Roads, (except Paviiig-stoneg) are exempt from 

payment of Toll, when the Water is running through the Gauge, Paddle or Niche 

of the Lock. 
Vesels not to exceed Thirteen Feet in Breadth, and Serenty-two Feet in Length; and 

Vends of leas Burthen than Fifteen Tons, shall not pass through any Lock with. 

out leave. 

• In this act, the proprietors of the navigation of the River Wey 
agree to receive only one shilling per ton for all descriptions of _ 
merchandize, &c passing on the Wey River, between this canal 
and the Thames; and they further agree to keep their locks of 
the length of 81 feet, and 14 feet wide. 

By an act of the 33rd George III. entitled, ' An Act for effec- 
' bully carrying into Execution an Act of Parliament of the 
' Eighteenth Year of his present Majesty, for making a navigable 
' Canal from the town of Basingstoke, in the county of Southamp- 
'ton, to communicate with the River Wey, in the parish of 
' Chertsey, in the county of Surrey, and to the South-East Side of 
' the Turnpike-Road, in the parish of Turgiss, in the said county 
' of Southampton,' it is stated that the sum of £126,000, autho- 
rised to be raised by the preceding act, is all expended ; that their 
works are not completed, and that they have incurred some debt : 
they are, therefore, empowered to raise, upon loans or annuities, 
on mortgage of the tolls, the further sum of £60,000, with which 
sum they were enabled to finish their works, which were opened 
in 1796. 

The trade upon this canal consists chiefly of coals, deals, gro- 
ceries, bale goods, &c. from London ; and the exports are'timber, 
floor, malt, bark, and earthenware. 



68 BAYBRIDGE CANAL. 

BAYBRIDGE CANAL. 

6 George IV. Cap. 164, Royal Assent 22nd June, 1825. 

This canal proceeds from Binesbridge, in the parish of West- 
Grinstead, where the navigation of the River Arun commences, 
and keeps the course of the unnavigable part of the Arun, to 
Baybridge, where it terminates. It is in length three miles and 
three-eighths, with a rise of 14 feet, by two locks of 7 feet each. 
It is 28 feet wide at top, and 4 feet deep. 

The act for making it received the royal assent in 1825, and is 
entitled, ' Jin Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or 
' Canal, from the River Adwr, at or near Binesbridge, in the parish 
' of West Grinstead, in the county of Sttssex, to Baybridge, in the 
' said parish.' 

The company of proprietors consisted of Lord Selsey, Sir 
Charles Merrick Burrell, Walter Burrell, William Peckham 
Woodward, John Wood, James Eversfield, and James Lancaster, 
who were incorporated by the name and style of " The Baybridge 
" Canal Company." They were empowered to raise among 
themselves £6,000, in one hundred and twenty shares of £50 
each, with a power of raising a further sum of £3,000, on mort- 
gage of the rates, &c. which are as follows. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Beech, Gravel, or other Materials used in the repair of Roads, ) 

Chalk, Dung, Mould, Soil, Compost or other Articles (ex- f 2 per Ton, per Mile. 

cept Lime) to be used for the manuring of Land ' 

Goods, Wares, Articles, Commodities or Merchandize 5 ditto. ditto. 

Fractions of a Ton and of a Mile, shall not lie deemed less than a Quarter. 

Wharfage of any Goods remaining less than Seventy-two Hours 9 per Ton. 

The estimate for making this canal was made by May Upton, 
Esq. civil engineer, in 1824, and amounted to the sum of £5,957, 
16*. Id. The advantages arising from it are chiefly local, and 
consist of the increased facility by which manure may be brought 
into the interior, and the agricultural produce more easily dis- 
posed of. 



BEDFORD LEVEL-BERWICK AND KELSO RAILWAY. 59 



BEDFORD LEVEL. 

Thb description of the several rivers, canals, and navigable 
drains, within the limits of this extensive level, with the several 
ads, under authority of which, they have been executed, will be 
introduced in their respective places in alphabetical order. 



BERWICK AND KELSO RAILWAY. 

51 George EtL Cap. 133, Royal Aatent 31st May, 1811. 

In the year 1811^ an act was obtained to make a railway from 
Spittal, near Berwick, to Kelso, in Roxburgshire, entitled, ' An 
1 Act for making and maintaining a Railway from, or from near 
' to, Spittal, in the county of Durham, to Kelso, in the county of 
' Roxburgh ; and for erecting and maintaining a Bridge over the 
1 River Tweed, from the parish of Norham, in the county of Dur- 
' ham, to the parish of Coldstream, in the county of Berwick.'' 

The line commences at Spittal, opposite the town of Berwick, 
on the south bank of the River Tweed, and continues parallel to 
the course of that river, by Tweedmouth, and East Ord, through 
die parish of Norham, to near Twisell, the seat of Sir Francis 
Hake, where it crosses the Tweed, and enters Scotland.' Passing 
bence, by Kersfield, and to the north of Hirsel, the seat of the 
Earl of Home, it crosses the Leet Water, and thence, keeps the 
north bank of the Tweed, to its termination at Kelso. 

At the time the act was obtained, there were one hundred and 
thirty-two subscribers, who were incorporated under the name of 
" The Berwick and Kelso Railway Company." They were em- 
powered to raise among themselves ^100,000, in one thousand 
•hnes of ^100 each, with a further power of raising among 
themselves £50,000 in addition, or by promissory notes, under 
die common seal of the company ; or they may raise the same, or 
any portion of it, on mortgage of the tolls authorized to be col- 
lected under the powers of this act 



60 BEVERLEY BECK. 

TONNAGE RATES. 



d. 



Stone for the repair of Roads 2 per Ton, per Mile. 

Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, \ 

Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Pitching and Paving -stone, f ~ Mt\ d tt 
Iron-stone or other Ore, Minerals and Bricks, and for all t ' °' 

sorts of Manure, Grain, Flour.Meal, Potatoes, Hayand Straw ) 

For every Carriage carrying Passengers or Light Goods or > „ M -, 
Parcels, not exceeding Five Cwt i z P" ™" e - 

For all other Goods, Commodities, Wares and Merchandize > 4 „ Ton ^ jjjj e 
whatsoever J 

Fractions to betaken as for a Quarter of a Ton and as for a Quarter of a Mile. 



The proprietors are further empowered to collect a pontage, 
at the proposed bridge over the Tweed, for carriages, foot passen- 
gers, &c but as these are without the limits of our publication, we 
omit them. 

This railway was calculated to be of great advantage to the 
country through which it passed, but it has been abandoned by its 
original promoters, and though the act does not limit the company 
to any given time for the execution of the works, yet it is thought 
that it will never be completed under its provisions. 



BEVERLEY BECK. 

13 George I. Cap. 4, Royal Assent 24th March, 1726. 
18 George II. Cap. 13, Koyal Assent 19th March, 1744. 

This canal, or creek, (called Beverley Beck), commences 
from the navigable River Hull, nearly opposite the village of 
Weel, in Holderness, and extends to the town of Beverley. 
Though the first act of parliament, relating to this creek, bears a 
very early date, yet it had long before been used as a navigation, 
and kept in repair by the corporation of Beverley, out of the funds 
of the town ; but as these were insufficient for the proper mainte- 
nance of it as a navigation, an act was obtained by the mayor, 
aldermen, and capital burgesses of Beverley, in the 13th George I. 
entitled, ' An Act for cleansing, deepening, and widening a Creek, 
' called Beverley Beck, running into the River Hull, and for re- 
' pairing the Staiths, near tlie said Beck ; and for amending the 
' Roads leading from the said River, to the town of Beverley, in 
' the East Riding of the county of York, and for cleansing the 



BEVERLEY BECK. 



61 



' Street* of the said Town,' in which certain rates and duties are 
granted, which will be found in the first column in the schedule of 
rates appended hereto. 

For the purpose of raising an immediate fund for carrying into 
execution the improvements contemplated, the corporation of Be- 
verley obtained power to borrow the sum of money they required for 
tins purpose, on assignment of the rates and dudes granted. In con- 
sequence, however, of the very indifferent state of this navigation, 
and the insufficiency of the tonnage rates to keep it in proper re- 
pair, and repay the interest of the sum of money borrowed on 
the credit of the tolls, the corporation of Beverley applied for and 
obtained another act, in 1744, entitled, ' An Act for more effec- 
' Hatty cleansing, deepening, widening, and preserving, a Creek, 
' called Beverley Beck, running into the River Hull, and for more 
'effectually repairing the Staiths, near the said Beck, and the 
' Roads leading from the said River, to the town of Beverley ; and 
i for cleansing the Streets of the said Town, and for regulating the 
1 Carriages to and from the said Beck, and the River Hull ;' by 
which they are empowered to collect rates, in addition to those 
granted under the 13th George I. and which are enumerated in 
the second column of the schedule. 

SCHEDULE OF TOLLS OR DUTIES ON BEVERLEY BECK. 



DMCBIPTIOR OF GOODS. 



Rate* 

under 
Pint 
Act. 



Add). 
Uonal 
Rates 
by 2nd 
Act. 



Cods 

<*■, Barley or Malt 

Wheat, Bye, Mealedine and other Grain .. 

Floni 

Salt 

San to Balk 

S*ej», Tobacco, Mnlnawii, or Hogahead* > 

packed with other Goods S 

winter Ram 

Lkjoot 

Brandy or other Spirits 

Wtoe, Spirit* or other Liquor 

Soap, Raisins, Oil, Pitch, Tar, or packed » 
wtth olherDry Good*. > 

CflRUtl. *.,.,....•••*••••••••*•■••*•••••• 

Sanaa Haiauu 



». d. 
4 

si 



4 



«. d. 



4 

8 

8 

4 



per Chaldron, 
per Quarts. 

ditto. 
perCwt 
per Hogshead, 
per Ton. 
per every Three Hogshead*. 

per Four Hogshead*, 
per Three Puncheon*, 
per Hogshead, 
per every Four Hogsheads. 

per Eight Barrels. 

per Butt or Two Half Butts, 
per Two Pipes, 
per Sixteen Bag*. 



a 



BEVERLEY BECK. 
SCHEDULE OF TOLLS OR DUTIES CONTINUED. 



DBaCRlITlos OF Unnlis. 



bte. LW 

mi.l.r '""■' 
First . lt » l ", 
Act. , h \ jDi 



Iron or Lead. ......... , 

Butter 

Cheese 

Timber or Stone 

Hops . . . 

Bricks 

Tiles 

Oatmeal 

Deal Boards (Single) 

Ditto (Double) 

Millstones 

Laths 

Faggots ■..«,.*.,,..,........ 

Pails, Barrel or Hogshead Staves . 

Efcuutspiki's 

Poles ,.....,.,.,,,........, 

Pipe Staves .. ... 

Cinders and Charcoal 

Horse. Cow, Bull or oilier Hide. * . 

Sheep Skins 

Bark ., 

Wool or other Goods 

Bottles 

Glass 

Firkin Staves 

Krint, or Fruit 

Earthenware ..... 

Shovels 

Hemp, Line and Flax 

Calfskins 

Thatch 

Lime 

Sand 



Hoops 

Chairs 

Fern Ashes 

Turfs 

Liquors not exceeding Ten Oallons) .. 
Cask, Truss. Boi or Parcel 



And so in proportion for any creator or less Quant 
mentioned Goods or L 

For every other sort of Goods, Wares. Mer- ^ 
chandizes or Ladings whatsoever, not / 
above-mentioned, according to the cus- f 
torn of Water Tonnage 3 



per Ton. 

per Thirty-two Firkins, 
per Twenty Cwt 
per Ton, 
[xt Tivo IkiL'*.. 
per Thousand. 
ditto. 
% per Quarter. 

per every Twenty. 

i Into. 
per Pair. 

per every Sixty Bunches. 
per Hundred. 

rlitto. 
ditto. 

per So re 
per Hundred. 
\ I per Do7ati. 

i :v ll 

1 I per every Twenty. 
I per Uuarler. 
I i per Pock. 
1 ' per Twelve Dozen, 
per Case or Chest 
per Thousand, 
per Four Bushels. 
per Dozen. 

ditto, 
per Ton. 
per Dozen. 
[>cr Hundred, 
per t haklron. 
[icr Ton. 
per Bundle. 
[»■[■ 1 I'.o 11 
per Quarter, 
per Thousand. 
J pct Hundlel. 
n I not cici-eilins 1 1 2H*s. 

ity or Weights of any ofthe above- 

.adiugs. 



and so in proportion for any 
greater or less Quantity. 



The whole of the tolls or duties, collected under these acts of 
parliament, are directed to be laid out in defraying the debts in- 
curred by the corporation, and for keeping in sufficient repair the 
navigation of this creek or beck, and the staiths, and the roads 
leading thereto, and to no other purpose whatsoever. 



BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 63 



BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 

8 Geo. IH. C. 38, R. A. 34th Feb. 1788. 9 Geo. III. C. S3, R. A. 31st April, 1768. 

MOeo. m. C. 93, R. A. 34th June, 1783. 34 Geo. III. C. 4, R. A. 1784. 

14 Geo. IH. C. 99, R. A. 13th Jane, 1785. 34 Geo. 10. C. 87, R. A. 17th April, 1794. 

« Geo III C. 93, R. A. 3rd July, 1808. SI Geo. III. C. 10S, R. A. 31st May, 1811. 

U Geo. Til. C. 40, R. A. 13th May, 181S. 88 Geo. III. C. 19, R. A. 17th Mar. 1818. 

As some parts of these important navigations have been exe- 
cuted by companies, incorporated under other titles than what is 
now given to the whole of the canals and branches, constituting 
the Birmingham Canal Navigations, we shall, in the first place, 
recite the substance of the principal clauses in the respective acts 
of parliament, and in the order in which they were severally 
obtained. 

The first act, entitled, ' An Act far making and maintaining a 
' navigable Cut, or Canal, from Birmingham to Bilstone, and 
'from thence to Anther ley, there to communicate with the Canal 
'sow making between the Rivers Severn and Trent, and for 
' naking collateral Cuts up to several Coal Mines,' authorizes the 
original subscribers to make a canal from the town of Birmingham 
to BDstooe, and from thence by Wolverhampton, to join the Staf- 
fordshire and Worcestershire Canal (then in progress) at Auther- 
ley, with two collateral cuts to the coal pits, iron furnaces, and 
limestone quarries, in its vicinity. 

The company, at the time the act was obtained, consisted of 
one hundred and two persons, amongst whom were the Earl of 
Hertford, Earl of Dartmouth, and Sir Lister Holt, Bart, who were 
incorporated by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of 
"the Birmingham Canal Navigation." 

This company were empowered, under the before-mentioned 
tct, to raise the sum of £55,000, in five hundred and fifty shares 
of jflOO each, and a further sum of £l 5,000, if the proper execu- 
tion of the works should require it The duties granted under this 
set are as follows : — 

TOLLS AND DUTIES. 

d. 

CsS, bon. Iron-stone, Stones, Timber, and other Goods, Wares > iinerTon DerMile 

. «nd Merchandize > * 

"">* and Limestone \ ditto. ditto. 

And so in proportion for any less Quantity than a Ton. 



64 BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. 

Paving-stones, Gravel, Sand, and all Materials for the making of Roads (Limestone 
excepted) and all Dung, Soil, Marl and all sorts of Manure, provided they do not 
pass a Lock but at such times as when the Water runs over the Gauge, Paddle or 
Niche of the Lock. 

Boats of less Length than Seventy Feet, not to pass a Lock without leave. 

In this act, power is given to the Staffordshire and Worcester- 
shire Canal Company to open a communication with the Birming- 
ham Canal, at the cost of the proprietors of the last-mentioned 
canal, if they do not do it within six months after it is finished to 
Birmingham. 

The second act, entitled, ' An Act to rectify a Mistake in an 
1 Act passed in the Eighth Year of his present Majesty, entitled, 
' An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal, 
' from Birmingham to Bilstone, and from thence to Autherley, 
1 there to communicate with the Canal now making between the 
' Rivers Severn and Trent, and for making collateral Cuts up to 
1 several Coal Mines, and to explain and amend the said Act,' was 
obtained chiefly in consequence of having neglected to introduce, 
in the description of the course of the intended canal, a detached 
part of the county of Salop, near the village of Oldbury. The 
company, however, took this opportunity of obtaining power to 
make reservoirs anywhere within three miles from that part of the 
canal, lying between the two extreme locks, intended to be con- 
structed between Smethwick and Oldbury. In consequence of 
being enabled to raise only £50,000, instead of £55,000, they, 
by this act, reduce the number of shares to five hundred, instead 
of five hundred and fifty, retaining, however, authority to raise 
the additional sums of £5,000, and £l 5,000, granted under the 
former act 

In 1783, parliamentary sanction was given to a very important 
act, entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a navigable 
' Canal, from a place near Riders Green, in the county of Staf- 
l ford, to Broadwater Fire Engine, and six collateral Cuts, from 
1 the same, to several Coal Mines ; and also a navigable Canal, 
'•from or near the town of Birmingham, to join the Coventry 
' Canal, at or near Fazeley, in the parish ofTamtvorth, in the said 
' county of Stafford, with a collateral Cut to the lower part of the 



BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 65 

' said town of Birmingham,' in the preamble of which, it is stated, 
that the canal and branches, authorized to be done under the act 
of 8th George III. had been some time completed. 

This act, obtained by a new company, consisting of one hun- 
dred and twenty-nine persons, who were incorporated by the name 
of " The Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham and Fazeley 
" Canal Navigation," gave them power to extend the Wednesbury 
Branch of the Birmingham Canal, from Rider's Green, to Broad- 
water Engine, and to make six collateral cuts. One from Butcher's 
Forge Pool, to Brooke's Meadow ; another from near the south 
end of Butcher's Forge Pool, to Wood's Engine Forge ; a third 
from the head of Wilhngsworth Pool, to near the nine mile stone, 
on the turnpike-road leading from Ocher Hill to Wolverhamp- 
ton ; the fourth collateral cut extends from the Willingsworth 
Pool Tail, to Wednesbury Open Field ; one other from the last- 
mentioned cut, into another part of the same field ; and the sixth 
from out of the last-mentioned cut, to a place opposite Taylor's 
Engine. This act further empowers the company of proprietors 
to make a canal from the end of the Birmingham Canal at 
Farmer's Bridge, near the town of Birmingham, to join the line 
of the Coventry Canal, at Fazeley, in the parish of Tamworth, 
and county of Stafford, with a branch, called the Digbeth Branch, 
from the north side of the town of Birmingham, to the lower part 
of the said town, and where the Warwick and Birmingham Canal 
has since effected a junction. 

The subscribers are empowered to raise among themselves 
the sum of ^85,000, in five hundred shares of ^170 each, for the 
purpose of executing the whole of the works above described, with 
further power to raise an additional £30,000, if necessary. The 
whole of the works to be completed in four years. 

TONNAGE RATES ALLOWED UNDER THIS ACT. 

d. 
Cod, Coke and Iron-stone, from Mines In the parishes of} 

Wolverhampton, Sedgley, Tipton, Wednesbury and West f . T 

Bromwich, which shall pass through the Lock* from the f ,pCT ' 

lower Lerel into the present Birmingham Canal * 

Coal, Coke and Iron-stone, from the Birmingham Canal, at > . dj , t0 __ Mjle 

Farmer's Bridge, to Fazeley .....* * '^ 

Ditto, ditto, from Farmer's Bridge to Faaeley and thence into j , „ .... 

the Coreniry Canal .7. J 10 dltto - 

Ditto, ditto, from Farmer's Bridge, to go into the Digbeth j , ^ iU) 

Branch * * 



K 



66 BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 

TONNAGE HATES CONTINUED. 

d. 
Timber, Stone and other Goods, Wares and Merchandize, car- ) 

ried on any of the Canals or collateral Cuts (except Coal > \ per Ton, per Mile. 

and Iron-stone) ' 

Coal, Coke and Iron-stone, carried on any of the collateral ) 

Cuts, not entering or passing any of the Locks above- f J ditto. ditto, 
mentioned ' 

Fifty Feet of round or Forty Feet of square Oak, Ash or Elm Timber, and Fifty Feet 
of Fir or Deal, Balk, Poplar, and other Wood, shall be deemed a Ton ; and One 
Hundred and Twenty Pounds shall be deemed a Hundred Weight, for the pur- 
poses of this Act 

Lime and Limestone, one-third of the above Rates. 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. 

Paving-stones, Gravel, Sand and Road Materials, (Limestone excepted) Dung, Soil, 
Marl, and all sorts of Manure, for the Improvement of Lands belonging to Persons 
whose Land has been taken for the use of the Canal, provided the same does 
not pass through any Lock, but at the time when the Water is running over the 
Lock Weirs. 

In addition to these Rates, the Company are empowered to collect the Sum of One 
Penny per Ton for all Coal and Coke, which shall pass through the First Lock, 
from Farmer's Bridge, to be erected on this Canal, in consideration of repaying 
a Sum of Money, not exceeding £3,600, tothe Subscribers to a Canal, which had 
been proposed to be made between the Wednesbury Coal Fields and the town of 
Birmingham, and from thence to Fazeley, as a reimbursement of Expenses they 
had been put to in an Application to Parliament, and this Toll is to exist until the 
Sum and Interest is paid off. 

No Boats under Twenty Tons to pass a Lock without leave, unless there is not 
sufficient Water for greater Tonnage. 

The proprietors have power to take water, for the supply of 
the canal, from mines situate within one thousand yards of the 
canal, provided that the produce of such mines be carried along 
any part of the canal. 

In this act is recited the substance of an agreement entered 
into at a meeting of delegates from the Coventry, Oxford, Grand 
Trunk, and Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Companies, held the 
year preceding the passing of this act, by which the Grand Trunk 
Canal Company, and the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Com- 
pany, agree to execute that part of the line of the Coventry Canal 
lying between Fazeley and Fradley Heath, at the joint expense 
of the two parties; the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Company 
allowing to the Grand Trunk Canal Company £>500, for superin- 
tending and directing the execution of the same ; and it was fur- 
ther agreed, that the tolls arising upon that half part of the said 
canal, commencing at Fazeley, should belong to the Birmingham 
and Fazeley Canal Company, and the other half, terminating 
at Fradley, to the Grand Trunk or Trent and Mersey Canal 
Company. 



BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 67 

By an act of the 44th George III, entitled, ( An Act for incor- 
i porating Me Proprietors of a Canal Navigation, authorized by 
1 an Act, pasted in the Eighth Year of his Majesty King Charge 
1 the Third, to be made from Birmingham to BUstone, and Anther- 

* ley, with the Company of Proprietors of a Canal Navigation, 

* authorized by an Act pasted tn the Twenty-third Tear of hie 
1 present Majesty, to be made from Birmingham to Fazeley, and 
'for consolidating their Shares, and amending the last-mentioned 
' Act,' u Hie Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham Canal 
u Navigation," and " The Company of Proprietors of the Bir- 
u mingham and Fazeley Canal Navigation," were incorporated 
by the name of" The Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham 
u and Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Navigations." By this act, 
these two undertakings became consolidated; the subscribers to 
one concern became equal proprietors of the other in the ratio of 
their respective ventures, though the powers of the several pre- 
vious acts in other respects remain unaltered. 

It further directs, that there shall be no more than five hun- 
dred shares, the number fixed on in the original act; and that 
no person shall have less than one consolidated share, nor more 
than ten. 

Power is also given in this act to borrow the £115,000 autho- 
rised to be raised by the act of 23rd George III. by mortgage, under 
the common seal of the company, instead of the mode therein 
prescribed : and that this sum shall be appropriated to the making 
of the canals and cuts enumerated in the 23rd George III. and to 
the paying off the proportion of the expense of making the re- 
quired junction from Fazeley with the Trent and Mereey, or 
Grand Trunk Canal, at Fradley, the act for doing which received 
the royal assent on the 13th June, 1785, and is entitled, ' An Act 
' to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Navigation from the 
' Trent to the Mersey, and the Company of Proprietors of the Navi- 
' gation from Birmingham to Fazeley, to make a navigable Canal 
'fromthe said Trent and Mersey Navigation, on Fradley Heath, 
4 in the county of Stafford, to Fazeley, in the said eemnty; and for 

* confirming certain Articles of Agreement entered into between the 
'said Trent and Mersey, the Oxford, and the Coventry Canal 
1 Navigation- Companies' 

e 2 



68 BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 

In the preamble of an act bearing date the 17th April, 1794, 
and entitled, ' An Act for extending and improving the Bir- 
' mingkam Canal Navigations,' it is stated that all the works 
authorized to be done under the preceding acts, had been made 
and completed. By this act, power is given to make a collateral 
cut from Broadwater, in the parish of Wednesbury, to the town 
of Walsall, with three branches from the same, extending to the 
coal and iron-stone mines in the vicinity ; also another branch 
canal from Bloomfield, in the parish of Tipton, to communicate 
again with the original line of navigation at Deepfield, in the 
parish of Sedgley. 

By this act the company once more change their style, being 
incorporated under the name of " The Company of Proprietors of 
" the Birmingham Canal Navigations," and three years were 
allowed for the due execution of the works therein described. 
Upon the canal and collateral cuts authorized to be made under 
this act, the proprietors are empowered to collect the following 



TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

Coal, Coke, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, and other Minerals, car- % 

ried along the Branch Canal, from Broadwater to Walsall, i 3 per Ton. 
or any of the collateral Cuts therefrom ) 

Goods, Wares, Merchandize, Lime and other Commodities. . l| ditto, per Mile. 

Coal, Coke, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Lime, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and all other 
things whatsoever, carried on the proposed Canal, from Bloomfield to Deepfield, 
the same Rates of Tonnage as are paid for other parts of the Birmingham Canal 
Navigation, made under the 8th George HI. 

By a Clause inserted in an Act of the 25th George III. entitled, ' An Art for ex- 
* tending the DudUy Canal to the Birmingham Canat, at or near Tipton Green, 
' in the county of Stafford,' it appears that the Birmingham Canal Company re- 
ceived It. S\d. per Ton, for all Stone, Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and 
Commodities whatsoever, (except Coal, Coke, Iron-stone, Lime, and Limestone), 
which should pass between the Junction of the Dudley Canal, at Tipton Green, 
and the town of Birmingham ; and also, the further Sum of I \d. per Ton, per 
Mile; and for the same Articles, (with the same exception), between the Junction 
of the Dudley Canal and the western Termination of the Birmingham Canal, at 
Autherley, the same Rates of Tonnage as if they had been navigated along the 
said Canal from Autherley. By this act, however, these Tolls are reduced, in 
consequence of shortening the Navigation between the Junction of the Dudley 
Canal and Autherley, nearly Four Miles, by the proposed Canal from Bloomfield 
to Deepfield. Instead, therefore, of the Sum of l». r>\d. above-mentioned, it is 
reduced to \\\d. per Ton, retaining, however, the \\d. perTon.per Mile, granted 
under the Act of 25th George 111. above recited. 

The act of the 34th George III. empowers the proprietors of 
the Birmingham Canal Navigations, to borrow, on the credit of 
their [works, the sum of £45,000, and a committee of nine are 
appointed to give security under the common seal of the company, 
upon the tolls, rates and duties arising from the same. 



BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 09 

In the preamble of an act of the 46th George HI. entitled, 
' An Act for improving the Birmingham Canal Navigations,' it k 
stated, that the company have already opened a communication 
with the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, the Coventry 
Canal, and the Trent and Mersey, or Grand Trunk Canal, and 
hare completed all the collateral cuts and canals authorized under 
the act of 34th George III. ; that they have, moreover, improved 
the navigation, by cutting down the summit at Smethwick, and 
thereby materially reducing the lockage ; also by cutting off bends 
in the canals, and erecting steam engines for the purpose of ob- 
taining a more regular supply of water, for the purposes of lock- 
age ; in consideration of which improvements, they obtain power 
to charge the same amount of tonnage and mileage as they have 
heretofore received upon the original circuitous line of navigation. 
It b also recited in this act, that the company have mortgages 
on these navigations to the amount of ^100,000 and upwards, 
and for the discharging of which, they obtain power to raise that 
sum by granting annuities to the same amount, which annuities 
are to be paid half-yearly, and in preference to dividends or any 
other claim. 

By another act, entitled, < An Act for enlarging the Powers of 
1 several Acts of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining 
1 the Birmingham Canal Navigations, and for further extending 
' and improving the same, y the five hundred consolidated shares, of 
which the whole of the navigation consists, are divided into one 
thousand shares, of which no person shall possess more than twenty, 
on pain of forfeiting all above the restricted number. 

By the act of the 55th George III. entitled, ( An Act for 
' establishing a navigable Communication between the Birmingham 
' Canal Navigations and the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, 
1 and amending certain Acts relating thereto,' power is given to 
open a communication between the two above-mentioned canals, 
near Broadstreet in the town of Birmingham ; the space between 
Aem was only 7 feet 3 inches, and the estimate for effecting this 
communication, with the necessary works for preventing the water 
from flowing either way, amounted to the sum of ^2,300, and 
was made by Mr. John Hodgkinson, civil engineer, in 1814. By 
this act it is provided, that whenever the surface water, either of 



70 BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 

the Birmingham or the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, is 
more than 6 inches above the level of the other canal, the proprie- 
tors of inch lowest canal shall pay to the other the sum of three 
shillings per every 4,000 cubic feet of water, expended in passing 
a vessel through the communication. 

The Birmingham Canal Navigation Company are authorised 
by mis act, in consideration of the amount of tolls they may be 
deprived of by consenting to the above communication, and the 
expense they will be put to in maintaining the locks at this junc- 
tion, to receive the following tolls in addition to what they were 
before entitled to. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

4. 
Coals and other Mineral*, Coke, Good*, Wans, Merchandize, Cotnmo- j 

ditles, &c. passing out of the Birmingham Canal, and into the Wor- 1 4 per Ton. 

cester and Birmingham Canal, and etoe vera J 

Coal or Coke, passing out of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal into j 

the Birmingham Canal, and from thence to the termination of the f 4 ,jj tta 
Digbeth Branch of the said Birmingham Canal, or any part thereof, I 

the further and additional Sum of J 

And which Sum shall be in full Satisfaction for an Tolls parable between Fanner's 
Bridge and the said termination. 



3 per Ton. 



WHARFAGE RATES. 

4. 

Coal or Coke, passing from the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, into j 

the Birmingham Canal, and landed at any of the Wharfs belonging . 

to the said Birmingham Canal Company i 

Coal or Coke, conveyed Fire Miles along this line of Canal, towards ' 

Fazeley, and passing any of the Locks between Farmer's Bridge ' 4 ditto. 

and the termination of the Digbeth Branch ' 

And this Sum shall be considered as part Payment of the Rates which the said 
Company are entitled to collect on this part of the Navigation. 

The preamble of the act of 58th George III. entitled, l An 
' Act for altering, explaining and amending the several Acts of 
' Parliament passed relating to the Birmingham Canal Naviga- 
1 lions; and for improving the said Canal Navigations,' states that 
the whole of the works authorized by the preceding acts have been 
executed and found of great utility. 

In this act the company are empowered to contract with the 
owners and occupiers of coal mines and iron furnaces, to receive a 
gross annual sum for the conveyance of coal, coke, iron-stone, 
lime-stone and other raw material along the navigation, in lieu of 
the tonnage rates which the act authorizes them to demand, pro* 



BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 71 

tided that such material is for the use of the furnaces and forges 
of the persons claiming this mode of payment, and that they do 
not pass a lock. 

Tie Oki Birmingham Canal, so called from its being executed 
under the earliest act relating to these navigations, is twenty-two 
miks five>«ighthB in length. It commences at Farmer's Bridge, 
near Birmingham, and passes by Smethwick, at which place there 
is a side cut, with three locks, rising 19$ feet, which materially 
facilitates the" passage of Teasels along this navigation. From the 
last-mentioned place the canal continues on one level by Oldbury, 
Tipton Green, Bibtone, and Wolverhampton, to within one mile 
and a half of Autherley, where it locks down 132 feet by twenty- 
one locks, into the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal. The 
summit level of this canal at Smethwick, was originally only one 
mile in length, anof 18 feet higher than at present, and it was 
supplied with water by means of two steam engines placed at the 
extremities. Prior, however, to 1787, it was cut down to its pre- 
sent level at a cost to the company of about £§30,000. It is here 
worthy of remark, that though two years and a half were occupied 
in tins work, not more than fourteen days interruption took place* 
to the passage of vessels. 

There are several collateral cuts to the coal mines and iron 
furnaces, which are found described under the act which empowers, 
the company to make them; the principal of which is, the branch 
to Wednesbnry, of four miles and a half in length, which was 
finished in November, 1760, but as a part of it fell in, in conse- 
quence of working the coal and iron-stone underneath it, it is 
now of little use; there are three locks upon it, with a fall from 
the main line of 18 feet 

The supply of water for the lockage on this canal is chiefly 
derived from the Old Coal Works, from the bottom of which it is 
raised by steam power, at a very considerable expense. When 
Mr. Smeaton reported on some matters connected with this canal 
in October, 1782, there were eleven engines so employed. There 
are, also, reservoirs at Smethwick and near Oldbury. This canal 
communicates with the Worcester and Birmingham Canal at Bir- 
aungham; with the Dudley Canal near Tipton Green; and with 
the Wyrley and Eesington Canal near Wolverhampton. 



72 BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 

Under the powers of the act of 34th George III. a cut was made 
from Bloomfield into the original navigation again at Deepfield, 
of the length of one mile and three quarters, of which one thou- 
sand yards was tunnelling, by which, the circuitous course of four 
miles, round Tipton Hill, is avoided. Mr. Brindley was the en- 
gineer originally employed in this work, Mr. •Whitworth followed 
him, and several others have been subsequently consulted, amongst 
whom was Mr. John Sineaton ; but the last and greatest improve- 
ments made, were under the direction of Mr. Telford. 

That part of this navigation called the Birmingham and Faze- 
ley Canal, commences at the eastern end of the Old Birmingham 
Canal, near Farmer's Bridge in Birmingham, and passes through a 
part of the town ; thence by Ne whall Forge, Moxhall Hall, Middle- 
ton Hall, and Drayton Manor House, to the Coventry Canal, at 
Fazeley, near the town of Tamworth. The distance to this place is 
fifteen miles, with a fall of 248 feet The remaining five miles and 
a half, to Whittington Brook, being that portion of the original 
line of the Coventry Canal, now forming part of the Birmingham 
Canal Navigations, is level. Its course from Fazeley is north-west 
of Hopwas, from whence, running parallel with the Tame River, 
it passes the villages of Tamborn and Whittington, to Whittington 
Brook, otherwise the Huddlesford Junction, where it communi- 
cates with the Wyrley and Essington Canal ; and also, with that 
portion of the original part of the Coventry Canal, now forming 
part of the Grand Trunk, or Trent and Mersey Canal. 

The Digbeth Branch is a mile and a quarter in length, with a 
fall of 40 feet, by six locks, to the Warwick and Birmingham 
Canal, on the east side of the town of Birmingham. At Salford 
Bridge there is an aqueduct of seven arches, each 1 8 feet span. 
There is also a short tunnel at Curdworth. 

This canal, which effected an inland communication between 
London and Hull, was opened on the 12th of July, 1790. 

The Walsall Branch was executed under authority of an act 
of 34th George III. It is level, and four miles and a half in 
length, and was opened in June, 1799. 

By an act of the 32nd George III. (cap. 81, royal assent 30th 
April, 1792), entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a 
' navigable Canal from or from near Wyrley Bank, in the county 



BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS. 73 

' af Stafford, to communicate with the Birmingham and Birming- 
1 ham and Fazeley Canal, at or near the town of Wolverhampton, 
' m the said county ; and also, certain collateral Cuts therein 
1 described, from the said Canal,' the following tonnage rates are 
teemed to the proprietors of the Birmingham CanaL 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
F<r all Goods landed within One Mile of the Pint Lock at Wolverhampton 2 per Ton. 
And tfpasatag through any one or more of the Wolverhampton Locks.... 6 ditto. 

The Warwick and Birmingham Canal Act, of 33rd George 
III. enables the proprietors to connect their navigation with the 
Digbeth Branch of the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, upon 
payment to the latter company of the following tonnage rates, in 
Ken of dues, between Farmer's Bridge and the said communication. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
On aH Goods passing from the Warwick and Birmingham Canal, into > 8 T 

the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, for a limited time S ^ 

At the end of the period 3 ditto. 

"—I. — *" f*»~«« ""* •* «h» Wmrmit* anH Birmingham n.n.1 intn th. > ditto. 

Birmingham Canal * 

The Birmingham Canal Navigations, connected as they are 
with the Coventry, the Grand Trunk, the Worcester and Birming- 
ham, the Dudley, the Warwick and Birmingham, the Wyrley 
and EaBngton, the Staffordshire and Worcestershire, and the Bir- 
mingham and Liverpool Junction Canals, present a very important 
feature in the map of inland navigation, as by these, a communi- 
cation is opened with the most important towns in England and 
Wafes, 

The populous towns of Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Bil- 
stone, Wednesbury and Walsall, are on its banks, and it affords the 
greatest faculties to the transit of the produce of the most valuable 
mineral district in the world. Some estimate of the trade upon 
this navigation may be formed by the following amount of tonnage 
received by the company from the years 1818 to 1823, inclusive. 

Amount of Tonnage, m 1818, £84,39$ I Amount of Tonnage, in 1831, £85,673 

1819, 83,443 I 1833, 79,733 

1830, 83,303 • 1833, 88,803 



74 BIRMINGHAM AND LIVERPOOL JUNCTION CANAL. 



BIRMINGHAM AND LIVERPOOL JUNCTION 
CANAL. 

7 George IV. Cap. 05, Royal Assent 26th May, 1826. 
7 & 8 George IV. Cap. 2, Royal Assent 21st March, 1827. 

This line of canal, which is now in the course of execution, 
commences in the summit level of the Staffordshire and Worces- 
tershire Canal, near Tettenhall, about one mile from Autherley, 
the place where the Birmingham Canal communicates with the 
Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal. Its course is to the north- 
west, upon a level with the last-mentioned canal, by Chillington 
Part, Stretton Hall, and Little Onn Hall, where there is a lock, 
with a fall of 7 feet 3 inches, and which is the summit level, at a 
distance of eleven miles and a quarter from the commencement. 
From thence it continues, by the village of Cowley, for the distance 
of four miles and a half, on the same level, to near the village 
of Norbury, where the Newport Branch commences : from thence 
it continues for the further distance of nine miles and a half to the 
second lock, so that this canal is extended through the country a 
distance of twenty-five miles and a half, with only one lock. From 
the second lock, the canal is continued, in a northerly course, by 
Cheswardine Hill, to the town of Drayton, crossing the River 
Tarn ; hence by the Brine Spring, near Adderley Hall, to the 
town of Audlem, in Cheshire ; then, crossing the River Weaver, 
it proceeds by the Salt Springs, and by the town of Nantwich, to 
the United Navigation of the Ellesmere and Chester Canals, near 
Dorfold Hall, about three quarters of a mile north-west of the last- 
mentioned town. 

The length from the second lock, to its termination at the 
above-mentioned navigation, is thirteen miles and a half, with a 
fall of 167 \ feet, by twenty-six locks, thus disposed — from the 
second to the fifth lock, is a distance of half a mile ; between the 
fifth and the sixth, it is nearly four miles ; in the next half mile 
are five locks ; then a pool of one mile and a quarter ; in the 
following mile are eleven locks ; in the next four miles are four 
locks ; then a pool, of nearly three miles ; and within one-tenth of 
a mile further, two locks; the remaining distance to the Chester 



BIRMINGHAM AND LIVERPOOL, JUNCTION CANAL. 75 

Canal is two mOes and three quarters, on a levei The total 
length of the navigation is thirty-nhte miles, with a fall of 174$ 
feet, by twenty-aeven locks. 

The act for making this canal, which received the royal assent 
the 86th of May, 1836, is entitled, ' An Ad for making a navigable 
' Canal from the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, in the 
'parish of TettenhaU, in the county of Stafford, to the United 
' Navigation of the Elksmere and Chester Canals, in the parish of 
' Acton, in the county palatine of Chester? The subscribers to this 
canal, at the time the act was obtained, were three hundred and 
twenty-three in number, amongst whom were the Earl and 
Countess of Surrey, Earl Gower, Lord Levison Gower, Lord 
Crewe, and many other distinguished individuals, who were incoh 
panted by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the 
« Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal Navigation." They 
an empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £400,000, 
■ fear thousand shares of £100 each, and the act directs that the 
whole shall be subscribed before the work is commenced, of which, 
£335,000 was raised before going to parliament. They were 
farther empowered to raise an additional sum of £100,000, on 
smtgage of the rates and duties, the interest of which is made 
payable in pr efe r en ce to any other claim. 

TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE BATES. 

i. 
For Co«l« other Mnoata, (except Lime.) Coke, Good*, Wires,!., _ —un, 

Merchandize, Commodities and Things whatsoever i tv ^ i«u,jmjoiie. 

Lte 4 ditto. ditto. 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile. 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. 

Parma-stones, Gravel, Sand, and all other Materials for making or repairing of 
Roads, (limestone excepted) all Dung, Soil, Marl, and aU sorts of Manure for the 
Improvement only of any Lands or Grounds lying within any Parish or Place 
through which this Canal will be carried, and belonging to the Owners or Occu- 
piers of such Lands ss may be required for the purposes of the Act 

Boats ofkss Burthen than Twenty Tons not to pass without leave, unless there is not 
Water for a greater Burthen, 

Five years are allowed for the execution of the works au- 
thorised to be dose under this act, and the powers are to cease at 
4e expiration of that period, excepting as to such part as shall 
have been completed. 



76 BIRMINGHAM AND LIVERPOOL JUNCTION CANAL. 

In consideration of the lockage water, which is derived from 
the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, by locking down from 
it, the proprietors of that canal are authorized to collect the 
following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

«. 
For Coal or other Minerals, Coke, Goods, Wares or Merchandize, Com- 
modities and Things whatsoever, which shall pass out of the Staf. / 
fordshire and Worcestershire Canal into the Birmingham and Liver- \ 2 per Tou. 
pool Junction Canal, or out or the last-mentioned Canal into thel 
former ) 

The last-mentioned rates are to be collected by the Birmingham 
and Liverpool Junction Canal Company, at the expense of the 
Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal Proprietors ; and in order 
that no unnecessary waste of water may be made, the Birmingham 
and Liverpool Junction Canal Company are required to construct 
on the sunlit level, a regulation lock, consisting of four pairs of 
gates. The locks upon this navigation are 7 feet 6 inches in 
width, and 80 feet long. 

The company had originally intended to make a branch from 
near the village of Cowley, to join the Donnington Wood, or 
Marquis of Stafford's Canal, at Pave Lane, which was subsequently 
abandoned. Its length was seven miles and three quarters, and 
level. The estimate for making it was made by Mr. W. A. Provis, 
under the direction of Mr. T. Telford, and amounted to the sum of 
£55,466, 17*. Id. The estimate for the main line was also made 
by the same parties, and which amounted to the sum of £388,454, 
1*. 6rf. 

In 1827, the company applied to parliament, and obtained 
another act, entitled, ' Jin Act to enable the Company of Proprietors 
' of the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal Navigation, to 
1 alter the Line of the said Navigation, and to make certain Branches 
' therefrom, in the counties of Stafford and Salop.' 

The deviations in the original line here contemplated are of 
little importance, as they consist merely of three alterations in the 
line between Connery Pool and Plardiwick, amounting, in length, 
to one mile and one thousand eight hundred and nineteen yards, 
while the parts abandoned are three hundred and forty-one yards 
longer ; but this act gives power to make two branches from the 



BIRMINGHAM AND LIVERPOOL JUNCTION CANAL. 77 

main fine, one of which, called the Newport Branch, commences 
near die village of Norbury, from whence it passes close to the 
town of Newport, and from thence to the Shrewsbury Canal, at 
Wappinshall Bridge, in the parish of Wellington. Its length is. 
ten miles and a quarter, with a fall, from the main line, of 139 
feet, by twenty-three locks ; the last four miles and a half to the 
Shrewsbury Canal, being level. From this branch there is a 
collateral cut to a place called The Buttery, in the parish of 
Edgmond, which is nearly half a mile in length, the estimate for 
which is £2,421, 18*. 10i and for the Newport Branch, £72,629, 
IS*. 2dL The company had it in contemplation to make a second 
collateral cot, from the Newport Branch, to Lime Kiln Bridge, but 
it was abandoned. The length was two miles and three quarters, 
and the estimate for making it amounted to the sum of £17,652, 
14*. dd. ; in lieu, however, of which, the company are required to 
make a cut or railway from the Newport Branch to the limestone 
works, at Donnington Wood, and Lilleshall, belonging to the 
Right Honourable George Granville Lord Gower, whenever he 
tall require it to be done. 

All these estimates were made by Mr. Thomas Telford, in 
1830. 

On the above branches, the company are empowered to collect 
the same tonnage rates as are allowed on the main line by the act 
of 7th George IV. 

In this act, the company are restricted from using the water in 
Aqwabte Mere, Wytfs Well Pool, and the Moss Pool, belonging 
to Sir T. F. Fenton Boughey, Bart or the streams of water 
sapprjing and passing through the same. 

The chief advantages arising from the execution of this canal 
is a shorter navigation between the ports of Chester, Liverpool, and 
the district of North Wales, and the important towns of Shrews- 
bury, Wolverhampton, Birmingham, the mineral districts of 
Staffordshire and Shropshire, and the Metropolis. The agricul- 
teml districts in the south of Cheshire, the western parts of 
Staffordshire, and the north-eastern parts of Salop, through which 
this canal is now being constructed, will abo be greatly benefited. 



78 BLYTH RIVERS. 

BLYTH RIVER. 

30 George II. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 1st April, 1737. 

This river rises near Laxfield, in the north-eastern parts of 
Suffolk, whence it takes an easterly course, by Ubbeston Hall, 
Hevingham Hall, and Walpole, to near the market town of 
Halesworth, from which place to the sea, at Southwould, it was 
made navigable under the authority of an act, entitled, ' An Act 
' for making the River Blyth navigable from Halesworth Bridge, 
1 in the county of Suffolk, into the Haven of Southwould.' 

It is in length nine miles, and there are four locks upon it, and 
although it is in a part of the kingdom where there are neither 
minerals or manufactures, it is of considerable advantage to the 
district lying between the navigable Rivers Waveney and Gipping, 
by the facility it gives for the export of its agricultural productions, 
and the import of lime, coal, and merchandize in general. 



BLYTH RIVER. 

This river rises a few miles west of Belsay Castle, in Nor- 
thumberland, the seat of Sir Charles Miles Lambert Monck, Bart 
whence, taking a westerly course, by Kirkley Hall, and about a 
mile to the north of Blagdon Park, it pursues a circuitous route by 
Bedlington, and falls into the harbour of Blyth, near a village 
bearing that name, which is situate on its southern bank. 

It is navigable only for a short distance, as a tideway river, and 
consequently free of tolL On its northern bank, at about a mile 
above the village of Coopen, are the Bedlington Iron Works, and 
a short distance west of the last-mentioned place, a railway of 
considerable length extends to the collieries near Willow Bridge, 
five miles east of Morpeth. At Blyth there are also private 
railways from the collieries situate three quarters of a mile to the 
west of the village, upon which coal is conveyed to the harbour, to 
be shipped for London, and the towns on the eastern coast 



BOLTON AND LEIGH RAILWAY. 79 



BOLTON AND LEIGH RAILWAY. 

6 George TV. Cap. 18, Royal Aaent 31st March,' 182 J. 
9 George IV. Cap. 8, Royal Assent 26th March, 1828. 

This railway commences at the Manchester, Bolton, and Bury 
Canal, in the township of Haulgh, near the town of Bolton-le- 
Moors, and proceeds in a south-westerly direction through the 
extensive collieries in the neighbourhood of Hulton Hall, thence 
by Atherton Hall, to that branch of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal 
which communicates with the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal, at the 
town of Leigh. It is in length seven miles and three quarters, 
and there is a rise of 119 feet, in the first two thousand three 
hundred and sixty yards from Bolton ; and from this point to the 
highway adjoining the canal, at Leigh, is a fall of 337 feet 
There is an inclined plane of one inch per yard, in the township of 
Great Bolton, one thousand three hundred and eighty-six yards in 
length ; and by the parliamentary plan it appears that another is 
intended to be made in the townships of Over Hulton and Atherton, 
of the length of four thousand six hundred and twenty yards, with 
a fall of 303 feet 

The act for making this railway, received the royal assent on 
Ae 31st March, 1825, and is entitled, l An Act for making and 
' maintaining a Railway or Tramroadfrotn or from near the Man- 
* tkester, Bolton, and Bury Canal, in the parish of Bolton-le-Moors, 
i toor near the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, in the parish of Leigh, 
'all in the county palatine of Lancaster.' 

The subscribers to this scheme, at the time the act was 
obtained, consisted of fifty persons, who were incorporated by the 
name of "The Bolton and Leigh Railway Company," and they 
obtained power to raise among themselves, by subscription, the 
sum of £44,000, in four hundred and forty shares of £100 each ; 
and if any part of the said sum of £4i,000 remains unsubscribed, 
the company have power to borrow such part upon promissory 
notes tinder the common seal, or they may raise the same by 
mortgage, on security of the rates, the interest of which is to be 
paid in preference to dividends. 



80 BOLTON AMD LEIGH RAILWAY. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Limestone, Dung, Compost and all sorts of Manure, all j 

Materials for the repair of Roads, which shall be drawn, f , __ Tnn __ Mit(> 

propelled, and carried, by and at the expense of thel v ^ IU "-H CTIm " : - 

Company , '. ' 

Ditto, drawn or propelled only by the Engines of the Company 2 ditto, ditto. 
Ditto, drawn or propelled by the Engines, or other Power, j 

and carried in the Waggons belonging to other Persons I 2 ditto, ditto. 

than the said Company j 

Coal, Culm, Coke, Charcoal, Cinders, Stone, Marl, Sand, Clay, \ 

Building, Pitching and Paving-stones, Flags, Bricks, Tiles, / 

Slate, Lime, Earth, Staves, Deals, Lead and Iron in Pigs, > 3\ ditto, ditto. 

or other Metals which shall be drawn, or propelled, and \ 

carried by and at the expense of the Company - 

Ditto, drawn or propelled onlyby the Engines of the Company 3 ditto, ditto. 
Ditto, drawn or propelled by the Engines, or other Power, 1 

and carried in the Waggons belonging to other Persons > 2 J ditto, ditto. 

than the said Company ) 

Timber, Cotton, Wool, Hides, Drugs, Dye-woods, Sugar, \ 

Corn, Grain, Flour, Manufactured Goods, Lead in / 

Sheets, or Iron in Bars, and all other Wares and Mer . > 4 \ ditto, ditto. 

chandize, drawn, or propelled, and carried, by and at » 

the expense of the Company ' 

Ditto, drawn or propelled only by the Engines of the Company 4 ditto, ditto. 
Ditto, drawn or propelled by the Engines, or other Power, 1 

and carried in Waggons belonging toother Persons than > 31 ditto, ditto. 

the said Company ) 

All Articles ascending on each of the Inclined Planes where j „ _ ..... 

permanent Engines are used } 8 per Ton in addition. 

Ditto, descendingoneachofthelnclinedPlaneswhereperma- > 3 ditto, per Mile, 

nent Engines are kept i in addition 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile. 



Two branches to this railway are contemplated, both com- 
mencing near a place called The Lecturer's Closes, one of which 
will terminate in Great Moor Street, and the other in Deansgate, 
both in the town of Bolton. 

The estimate for the whole work was made by Mr. James 
Stevenson, and amounted to the sum of £43,000, of which, 
,£■36,000 was subscribed before the act was obtained ; it is said, 
however, that to finish it according to the present designs of the 
company, it will cost £75,000. 

Soon after the passing of the act, Mr. Daglish, civil engineer, 
was employed upon this railway, but it has been sulwequently 
under the direction of Mr. Stevenson. Stationary engines will be 
placed on the inclined planes, and locomotive engines on the other 
parts. Both are to bum their own smoke. 

Seven years are allowed for the execution of the works, and if 
not then finished, the company's power is to cease, excepting as to 
such parts as may have been completed. 



BORROWSTOWNRS? CANAL. 81 

On the 26th March, 1828, another act, entitled, ' An Act/of 
'.amending and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of an Act 
1 relating to the Bolton and Leigh Railway ,' received the royal, 
assent, but does not contain any thing in which the public have an 
interest. 

The principal object of this railway, is the facilitating the 
conveyance of coal, slate, stone, and other commodities, from the 
interior of the country to the port of Liverpool, by the Leeds and, 
Liverpool Canal from Leigh ; and the return of corn, iron, lime, 
and merchandize from the above port, and from Warrington and- 
other places, to Bolton, Bury, and their populous environs.' 

An act received the royal assent on the 14th May, 1820, for, 
making a railway from Leigh to the Liverpool and Manchester 
Railroad, in the township of Kenyon, which, when completed, 
will greatly improve the value and add to the importance of the, 
Ene above described, 



BORROWSTOWNESS 1 CANAL. 

8 George IIL Cap. S3, Royal Aaeni 8th March, 1768. ' 
24 George IIL Cap. S, Royal Aaent 34th December, 1783. 

This canal was originally intended as a branch or collateral, 
cut to the Forth and Clyde Canal, and the necessary powers for. 
making it are contained in an act of 8th George III. entitled, * An 
' Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from 
' the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River of 
( Canon, in the county of Sterling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, 
' at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of 
' Dumbarton ; and also a collateral Cut from the same to the city 
' of Glasgow; and for making a navigable Cut or Canal of Com- 
' municationfrom the Port and Harbour of Borrowstowness, to join 
' the said Canal, at or near the place where it will fall into the 
'Firth of Forth.' 

Though it is thus embodied in the first act relating to the 
Forth and Clyde Canal, yet a separate company, consisting of one 
hundred and fifteen persons, (amongst whom were the Dukes of 
Hamilton and Brandon, Buecleugh, Argyle, and Duchess of 



84 BORROWSTOWNESS CANAL. 

Argyle, Earls of Bucban, Home, Roseberry, Hopetoun, and 
Countess of Hopetoun, and many other distinguished individuals,) 
were incorporated by the name of " The Company of Proprieto s 
" of jthe Borrowstowness Canal Navigation." They were authorized 
to raise £5,000, in one hundred shares of £50 each, and a further 
sum of £3,000, if the former sum should be found insufficient 

The line of canal stretches along the south shore of the Firth 
of Forth, from ths port and harbour of Borrowstowness ; it crosses 
the water of Avon, and thence proceeds to the Forth and Clyde 
Canal, at Grangemouth, near the mouth of the Carron Rivar. Its 
length is about seven miles, and level throughout; the depth is 
7 feet. 

Considerable progress had been made in this canal previous to 
1783, and the £8,000 which the company were empowered to 
raise under the act already recited, was expended, when they 
were under the necessity of again applying to parliament for a 
second, entitled, ' An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of 
' the Borrowstowness navigable Cut or Canal more effectually to 
' complete and maintain the same.'' By this act, the proprietors are 
empowered to raise among themselves the additional sum of 
£12,000, to be divided into shares of £50 each, and a further 
sum of £4,000 should it be deemed necessary; or they may 
obain the same by mortgage of the tolls, or by granting annui- 
ties on lives. 

TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE 
Granted bf the Act of 6th George III. which have nol been altered b$ the subsequent Act. 

i. 

Iron, Coal, Stones, Timber and all other Goods, Wares and > „ „_ _, „., 

Merehandiie, and Commodities whatsoever 5 » Per i on. per Mile. 

Lime, Lime-stone and Iron-stone 1 ditto, ditto. 

EXEMPTION FROM TONNAGE RATES. 

Paving-stones, Gravel, and all Materials for the repairing of Roads, (Limestone 
excepted,) Dung, Marl and all sorts of Manure. 

As Borrowstowness is (with the exception of Leith) the prin- 
cipal trading town on the Forth, and where there is depth of water 
for vessels of three hundred tons, at neap-tides, it was the original 
intention of the promoters of the Forth and Clyde Canal to termi- 



BOURN EAU RIVER. 83 

nate k at this port ; but they were subsequently induced by the 
force of private interests, to abandon this intention, and adopt 
this canal as a collateral branch. 

The principal object of the Borrowstowneas Canal was to avoid 
the difficult navigation of the Forth, and for unproving the estates 
through which it passed ; and though considerable sums of money 
have been expended on this work, it appears now ia be entirely 
abandoned. 



BOURN EAU RIVER, 

31 George m. Cap. 22, Royal Assent 28th March, 1781. 

This river proceeds from the navigable River Glen, in Deep- 
ing Fen, in a north-western direction to the town of Bourn. It is 
three miles and a half in length, and nearly straight 

It appears by the preamble of the only act relating to this 
navigation, entitled, * An Act for improving the Navigation of the 
1 River called Bourn Eau, from the town of Bourn to its Junction 
' with the River Gfca, at a place called Tongue End, in the county 
* ef Lincolny that it had been previously used as a navigation, but 
that it had become of little use, in consequence of being nearly 
choked up by mud, and other obstructions; the above recited act, 
therefore, gives authority to trustees therein named, to make good 
the navigation by scouring, cleansing, and making the same 5 feet 
deep and 30 feet wide, where its present banks will admit of it 

TONNAGE RATES. 

«. d. 
For all Goods, Ware*, Merchandize or Commodities whatsoever .... 3 SperTon. 
And 10 in proportion for any greater or lest Weight than a Ton. 

The trustees, in whom this navigation is vested, are the lord of 
the manor of Bourn, with the members for the time being; the 
owner of Bourn South Fen Pastures; the lord of the manor of 
Boom Abbots, with its members, and nine other persons, three to 
be chosen annually by each of the parties above-mentioned; also 
all other parsons who shall be holders of ^100 stock, to be raised 
for the purposes of this act The sum of £60 per annum is paid 
to the trustees by the owners of an estate of eight hundred and 

2 r 



84 BRADFORD CANAL. 

sixty acres, situate on the banks of the river, and which, at the 
time the act was obtained, belonged to Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bart, 
in quittance of the obligation he was under of keeping in repair a 
considerable portion of the north-west bank of this navigation, and 
which, in consequence, devolved upon the trustees. The Marquis 
of Exeter abo pays to the trustees the sum of forty shillings annu- 
ally on a similar account. 

The principal use to which this navigation is put, is to facilitate 
the conveyance of the surplus agricultural produce of the fens, to 
the port of Boston, (to which it has communication by the River 
Glen) and to supply Bourn and its environs with groceries and 
other articles. 



BRADFORD CANAL. 

11 George UX Cap. 89, Royal Anent 29th April, 1771. 
43 Qecrge 11L Cap. 93. Royal Aawnt 32nd June, 1802. 

This canal commences in the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, 
near the manufacturing village of Shipley, and extends along the 
eastern side of the valley, in which runs the rivulet called Bradford 
Brook, and terminates at Hoppy Bridge, situate in the lower part 
of the town of Bradford. It is in length three miles, with a rise 
from the Leeds and Liverpool Canal of 86£ feet by ten locks. 
The locks are 00 feet in length, and in width 16 feet 1 inches, 
being the same in dimension as those on the Leeds and Liverpool 
Canal The depth of water is 5 feet. 

The act under which this canal was executed, is entitled, * An 
' Act for making a navigable Cut or Canal from Bradford, to join 
1 the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, at fPindhiH, in the township of 
* Idle, in the county of York.' The subscribers to this canal, at 
the time the act was obtained, consisted of twenty-eight persons, 
who were incorporated by the name of ** The Company of Pro. 
u prietors of the Bradford Navigation." They were empowered 
to raise among themselves £6,000, in sixty shares of £VX> each, 
but the works were not to commence until the whole sum was 
raised; and if the above sum was insufficient, they were empow- 
ered to raise an additional sum of £3,000, by the admission of 
Dew subscriber*. 



BRADFORD CANAL. 85 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

' Clay, Bricks, Stones, Coal, Lime, Dung and Manure 6 per Ton. 

Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandise or otber Commodities 9 ditto. 

And so in proportion for a greater or leas Quantity than a Ton. 
If Goods remain upon the Company's Wharfs more than Twenty-four Hoars, they are 

entitled to Wharfage, the Amount of which to be agreed on between the Parties. 
That Fifty Feet of round, or Forty Feet of square Oak, Ash, or Elm Timber, or Fifty 
FeetofFir.or Deal, Balk, Poplar, ami other Timber Wood, shall be estimated as 
One Ton; and that Lime, Stone, Coal, and otber Goods, shall consist ofTwenty- 
two Hundred Weight of One Hundred and Twelve Pounds each. 
No Boat of leas than Twenty Tons Burthen to pass a Lock without teare, unless 
' Tonnage is paid to that Amount 

The canal was finished in 1774. 

For the purpose of giving a better supply of water to this 
canal, the proprietors were under the necessity of purchasing mills 
and lands contiguous to its banks, by which the shares were in- 
creased, by additional caDs, to £iSO per share; and in order to 
secure this part of their property from the operations of the statute 
of mortmain, they applied to parliament, and obtained an act, 
entitled, ' An Act for vesting divers Estates in the parishes of 
' Bradford and Calverley, in the West Riding of the county of 
1 York, purchased for the benefit of the Proprietors of the Brad- 
i ford Canal Navigation, in Trustees, upon certain Trusts, dis~ 
' charged from all Claims of the Crown, in respect of any 
1 Forfeiture incurred under or by virtue of the Laws or Statutes 
1 of Mortmain.' 

As the neighbourhood of Bradford abounds in flag paving- 
stone, coal, and valuable beds of iron-stone, this canal has been of 
infinite advantage in conveying them to various parts of the 
country. The extensive iron works at Bowling, and Wibsey 
Low Moor, with others of inferior note in the vicinity, may, in a 
great measure, be said to have been founded, or at least greatly 
enlarged, in consequence of the facility which this canal afforded, 
by its connection with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, for the 
conveyance of their castings to all parts of the kingdom. 

From these foundries, iron railways approach the town of 
Bradford, but though they do not extend to the head of the canal, 
yet they have the effect of materially reducing the price of the 
carriage of the heavy articles from these works. Flag, stone and 
slate from the eastern bank of this canal, and also near its head, 
(where it is very extensively worked) finds its way to the London 



86 BRANDLINGS RAILROAD— BRECKNOCK CANAL. 

Market, and to the towns on the eastern coast ; and coal, and the 
first-mentioned articles, are sent by this and the Leeds and Liver- 
pool Canal, into the extensive district of Craven. Since Bradford 
became the centre of the stuff" manufacture and principal market 
for it, wool is also become a considerable article of traffic upon 
this navigation. 



BRANDLING'S RAILROAD. 

31 George U. Cap. 22, Royal Assent 9th June, 1758. 

This railroad proceeds from the extensive collieries, situate at 
Middleton, (belonging to the Rev. R. H. Brandling,) about three 
miles south of the town of Leeds, and terminates at convenient 
staiths, near M eadowJjane in the above town. It is three miles 
in length, and was constructed under the powers of an act, entitled, 
' An Act far establishing Agreements made between Charles Brand- 
' ling, Esq. and other Persons, Proprietors of Lands, for laying 
' down a Waggon Way, in order for the better supplying the town 
' and neighbourhood of Leeds, in (he county of York, with Coals.' 

There are upon this railway two inclined planes, one at the 
southern comer of Hunslet Carr, and the other at Belleisle, near 
Middleton, upon which the full descending waggons, regulated by 
a brake, draw up the empty ones. It is here worthy of remark, 
that it was upon this railway that the powers of the locomotive 
engine were first applied in this part of the country, by the inge- 
nious inventor, Mr. John Blenkinsop, the manager of the Middleton 
Collieries. 

BRECKNOCK AND ABERGAVENNY CANAL. 

33 George 1U. Cap. 96, Royal Assent 28th March, 1793. 
44 George 111. Cap. 29, Royal Assent 3rd May, 1X04. 

This canal commences in the Monmouthshire Canal, about 
one mile south of the town of Pontypool, and crossing the River 
Avon by an aqueduct, enters a tunnel of two hundred and twenty 
yards in length ; thence, in a northerly direction, by Mamhilad, 
Great House, Blaenavon Iron Works, and the town of Aberga- 



BRECKNOCK AND ABIBGAVEWNT CANAL. f(t 

renny, to Govikm ; where, taking a north-easterly course, and 
keeping parallel with the Usk River, it proceeds by Daney Park, 
Lknelly Iron Works, Crickhowel, Peterstone Court, and Tyn 
Manr, to Brecon, near which town it communicates with the Hay 
Railway. At Buckland House, it communicates with the Brynoer 
Tramroad, from the Blaen Rumney Iron Works ; and near Crick- 
howel, several railways extend from it to the extensively worked 
limestone quarries, collieries and iron works, which abound in that 
immediate neighbourhood. At the village of Govilon, the Llanfi- 
bangei Railroad, passing by the town of Abergavenny, connects 
with this navigation ; and three ntHes north of Pontypeol, It is also 
joined by the MamhSad Railway. There is also a railway af one 
a3e and a qaarter in length, proceeding nwm it, across the River 
Usk, to Lkngrainey. 

From the jnaetion with the Monraeathshire Navigation, this 
canal is continued on a level with its summit to Abergavenny, a 
distance of eleven miles, and mwintoins the same level three miles 
and a half further; from thence to its termination at Brecon, is 
eighteen miles and a half, with a rise of 68 feet; the total length 
being thirty-three miles. 

Mr. T. Dadferd, Jan. was the engineer employed on this 
work, wmeh was ex ec u te d under the powers of an act, entitled, 
4 An Jet far making (md maintaining a navigable Canal from the 
4 foam of Brecknock to the Monmouthakire Canal, near the town of 
1 Pontypool, in the county of M o n m o uth ; and for making and 
1 maintaining Raikoags and Stone Roadt to several Iron JForht and 
< Mines in ike counties of Brecknock and Monmouth.' By this net 
the subscribers were incorporated by the name of " The Company 
" of Proprietors of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Navi- 
" gation," with power to raise among themselves the sum of 
£100,000, in one thousand shares of £100 each, and the additional 
sum of £o0fi0O, if necessary. 

TONNAGE BATES ON THE CANAL. 

d. 
bautone, ban-ore, Lead-ore, Coals, Calm, Cooks, Cinder* ■> 2 per Ton, per Mile. 

tod Charcoal ........... ....*• ' 

Line, Lime-stooe, Tiles, Slate, Bricks, Flag-stones, and other j 

Stones, Clay, Sand, Hay, Straw, and Corn ta the Straw, f j ^ tU)- ,jj tta 
aad aU Material (or fee repairing of Beads, and an kinds f 

of Manure * 

CsttMaaeftSwineandotaerfteaaU. 4 auto, ditto. 



88 BR1DGEWATERS (THE DUKE OF) CANAL. 

TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED. 

d. 

Iron and Lead 3 per Ton, per Mile. 

Timber, Goods, Wares and Merchandize '. 4 ditto. ditto. 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for Haifa Mile. 

Boats under Twenty Tons lading not to pass any Lock without leave, or without 

paying for that Tonnage. 

RAILROAD DUES. 

d. 

Every Horse, Mule or Ass I each. 

Cows and other Cattle 4 each. 

Sheep, Swine and Calves 5 per Score. 

As the making of this canal would materially increase the ' 
value of the shares in the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation, that 
company agreed to give the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal 
Proprietors the sum of £3,000 ; also to take the same tonnage 
upon their navigation, on all articles conveyed along any part of 
the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, as that company were 
empowered to collect. 

In 1804, this company, having expended the money authorized 
to be raised under the preceding act, applied to parliament and 
obtained an act to enable them to raise an additional fund to com- 
plete their works, entitled, ' An Act for enabling the Company of 
( Proprietors of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal to raise a 
* further Sum of Money for completing the said Canal, and the 
' Works thereto belonging ; and for altering and enlarging the 
' Powers of an Act made in the Thirty-third Year of his present 
' Majesty, for making the said Canal.' 

As this canal skirts the rich mineral districts of Monmouth 
and Glamorgan, and has a direct communication with the Bristol 
Channel, by means of the Monmouthshire Canal, every facility is 
afforded for the export of its valuable productions, which was the 
ostensible object of its promoters. 



BRIDGEWATER'S (THE DUKE OF) CANAL. 

10 Geo. II. C. 22, R. A. 22nd Apr. 1737. 32 Geo. II. C. 2, R. A. 23rd Mar. 1759. 

33 Geo. II. C. 2, R. A. 24th Mar. 1760. 2 Geo. III. C. II, R. A. 24th Mar. 1762. 

6 Geo. HI. C. 17, R. A. I8th Mar. 1766. 35 Geo. HI. C. 44, R. A. 2»th Apr. 1795. 

The 32nd George II. is the first act of parliament, under 
power of which the execution of tliis navigation was commenced, 



BHIDGBWATBB'S (THE DUKS OF) CANAL. 89 

and h it entitled, * An Act to enable the Most Noble Francis Duke 
4 of Bridgewater, to make a navigable Cut or Canal from a certain 
1 place in the township of Salford, to or near Worsley Mill, and 
4 Middlewood, in the manor of Worthy, and to or near a place 
4 called Hollin Ferry, tn the county palatine of Lancaster.' In this 
act it is recited, that certain person had obtained an act in the 
10th George II. entitled, * An Act for making navigable the River 
x or Brook called Worsley Brook, from Worsley Mill, in the town- 
4 ship of Worsley, in the county palatine of Lancaster, to the River 
* Irwell, tn the said county,' but that they had hitherto neglected 
to cany any of the powers of this act into execution. This, then, 
was the first step taken towards making this very early and useful 
na v igati on ; but the degree of supineness exhibited by the original 
undertakers, in having so long neglected the execution of a work 
winch has been and is yet the source of immense wealth to its 
noble owner, k most strikingly contrasted by the enterprising 
spirit and astonishing perseverance of the Duke of Bridgewater, 
who, unassisted, except by the natural genius of Brindley, carried 
into execution a series of difficult and expensive works, which are, 
even at this time, unexampled. 

The primary object of " The Father of British Inland Navi- 
44 gation," as the Duke of Bridgewater has been justly styled, was 
to open his valuable collieries at Worsley, and to supply the town 
of Manchester with coal, at a much cheaper rate than could be 
done by the imperfect navigation of the Mersey and IrweD. The 
works were commenced immediately on the royal assent being 
given to the act, under the powers of which, a considerable portion 
of that part of the canal, between Worsley Mill and Manchester, 
was executed ; but the proposed line from Worsley to Hollin Ferry, 
on the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, was abandoned. In the 
year subsequent to the obtaining of the first act, the Duke again 
applied to parliament and obtained a second, entitled, 4 An Act to 
* enable the Most Noble Francis Duke of Bridgewater, to make a 
'■navigable Cut or Canal from or near Worsley Mill, over the 
4 River Irwell, to the town of Manchester, in the county palatine of 
4 Lancaster, and to or near Longford Bridge, in the township of 
4 Stretford, in the said county.' 

Under this act the whole of the canal from Worsley to Man- 



90 BRIDGEWATEBS (THE DUKE OF) CANAL. 

Chester, together with the extensive subterranean works, at his 
coal mines, in Worsley, were executed. The aqueduct over the 
Mersey and Irwell Navigation at Barton, was opened on the 17th 
July, 1761, and shortly afterwards the line of canal to Manchester. 
The underground canals and tunnels at Worsley are said to be 
eighteen miles in length, and to have cost £168,960. From 
Worsley, a branch of one mile and a half in length extends to 
Chat Moss, across which, the line to Hollin Ferry, near Glaze- 
brook, was intended to pass. 

In 1762 this spirited and patriotic nobleman applied to parlia- 
ment, and obtained the necessary powers to enable him to extend 
his navigation, so as to open a better navigable communication 
with Liverpool. This act is entitled, ' An Act to enable the Most 
4 Noble Francis Duke of Bridgewater, to make a navigable Cut or 
' Canal from Longford Bridge, in the township of Stretford, in the 
i county palatine of Lancaster, to the River Mersey, at a place 
' called the Hempstones, in the township of Halton, in the county of 
' Chester.' It is here recited that the canal from the Duke's coal 
mines to Longford Bridge, whence the proposed extension was to 
proceed, together with a considerable portion of the remainder of 
the line to Manchester, was finished. 

The original line to Hempstones takes a south-westerly course 
from Longford Bridge, crossing the Mersey by an aqueduct ; by 
the town of Altringham, and Dunham Massey, (the seat of the 
Earl of Stamford and Warrington) near which place it passes 
over the River Bollin by an aqueduct, thence by Lymm, Grop- 
penhall, crossing the London Road two miles south of Warrington, 
to the River Mersey, at Hempstones ; but before the latter portion 
could be executed, an act of the 6th George III. was obtained by 
a company, to enable them to make a canal to connect the Rivers 
Trent and Mersey, which is entitled, ' An Act for making a navi- 
' gable Cut or Canal from, the River Trent, at or near Wilden 
' Ferry, in the county of Derby, to the River Mersey, at or near 
1 Runcorn Gap.' This act contains a clause, whereby the Duke 
of Bridgewater engages to form a junction with the above line of 
the Trent and Mersey Canal at Preston Brook, instead of opening 
into the Mersey at Hempstones, which is nearly one mile and a 
half higher up the river than the place where the Trent and 



BBIDGEWATBBS (THS DUKE OF) CANAL- 01 

Mersey Canal proposed to enter it; also to execute that part of 
the line of the Trent and Meney Canal, from the junction above* 
mentioned, at Preston Brook, to its termination at Runcorn; for 
winch the Dnke should receive the following rates upon that part 
of the Trent and Mersey Lbe of Canal, which, commencing front 
Preston Brook, takes a circuitous route through the beautiful 
grounds of Norton Priory, the seat of Sir B. Brooke, Bart, and 
thence by Lower Runcorn to the Meney. On the 31st of Decern* 
her, 1773, the ten locks at Runcorn were opened, and the whole 
of the canal and other works were completed to Manchester, on 
me 21st of March, 1776. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
For all Coal, Stone, Timber, and other Goods, Wares, Merchan-, , __ „„ 
dbe aad Commodities J lperTon, per Mile. 

And so in proportion for any greater or leas Distance than a Mile, or less Weight than 
a Too; bat if any Boat shall pass the whole of the Locks, to be erected at Bun- 
com, then the same Tonnage to be paid as if the Vessel had passed along the 
whole Distaace between Runcorn and Preston Brook. Also, the Duke has power 
to charge, upon this part of the Navigation, such "^♦fr-'pl Tonnage to the 
Penny Rate above-mentioned, so that the total Amount does not exceed the Bate 
which the Duke is empowered to collect upon the other parts of his Navigation. 

On the 18th of March, 1766, the royal assent was given to an 
set, entitled, 'JnAatto enable the Most Noble Francis Duke of 
' Bridgewater, to extend a Branch of hit Navigation, Cut, or 
4 Canal, upon Sale Moor, in the county of Chester, to the Market 
' Town of Stockport, in the said county,' but no portion of this pro- 
poned canal was ever executed. It was in length seven miles and a 
half, with a rise of 68 feet By another act obtained in the 35th 
George DX entitled, ( j3u Act to enable the Most Jfoble Francis 
' Dnke of Bridgewater, to make a navigable Cut from his present 
' Navigation, in the township of Worslty, in the eonntif palatine of 
' Lancaster, to the township of Pennington, near the town of Leigh, 
' in the said county,' the Duke of Bridgewater was enabled to 
extend his navigation to the town of Leigh, to which place the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal Company have subsequently extended 
a branch of their navigation, so that now another navigable com- 
nrnn i cit i o n is made through the heart of Lancashire, connecting 
the towns of Wigan, Chorley, Blackburn, Preston, and those two 
important places, Liverpool and Manchester. 



92 BR1DGEWATERS (THE DUKE OF) CANAL. 

The length of the Duke's Canal from Castle Field, in Man- 
chester, to near Longford Bridge, where the main line leaves the 
Worsley Branch, is three miles and a quarter ; and from the 
last-mentioned place to Preston Brook, where it joins the Trent 
and Mersey, is eighteen miles and a half; and from thence to 
Runcorn, is five miles and a quarter, all on the same level, at which 
place it has a fall into the tideway of the Mersey, at low water, of 
82j feet, by ten locks. The branch to Worsley is five miles, and 
from thence to Leigh is six miles, and are both upon the same 
level with the main line. 



TONNAGE RATES. 

j. d. 

For all Coal, Stone, Timber, and other Goods, Wares, \ 

Merchandize, and Commodities whatsoever, passing / 

on any part of, or on all his Navigations, (with the V 2 6 per Ton. 

exception of that part between Runcorn and Pres- V 

ton Brook) ' 

For passing by the New Locks and Basin at Runcorn.. 8 ditto, in addition. 
For every description of Articles {except Paving.stones) ) 

passing to or from the Rochdale Canal, into or out f 1 2 per Ton. 

of the Duke's Canal, at Manchester * 

Paving-stones 4 ditto. 

All kinds of Manure, and Stones for repairing the Roads, are exempt from the 
Payment of Toll. 



For the purpose of continuing this justly celebrated canal on 
one level from Manchester to Runcorn, and 'from Longford Bridge, 
by Worsley, to Leigh, great embankments became necessary, in 
consequence of the numerous vallies which intercept its course ; 
amongst them is one over Stretford Meadows, nine hundred yards 
in length, 17 feet high, and 112 feet at the base; that made 
at Barton Aqueduct, where it is 39 feet above the Mersey and 
Irwell Navigation, is two hundred yards in, length. There is 
also a stupendous embankment between Danham Massey and 
Oughtrington Hall. The whole of these canals and branches, with 
the exception of the cut to Leigh, were executed in five years, 
under the direction of Mr. Brindley, and at an expense to his noble 
patron of upwards of £220,000 ; but, as it all issued from his 
private purse, the public have no means of arriving at the exact 
amount, nor have they much better means of ascertaining the 
annual income, though it was estimated, some years ago, at 
£130,000. 



BRIDGEWATEH AND TAUNTON CANAL: 03 

This valuable concern is now the property of. the Most Noble 
the Marquis of Stafford, and it is said to have increased his annual 
income to the enormous amount of £360,000. 

These navigations, although made at the private expense of the 
Noble Duke, and valuable as they have proved to his successors, 
are of much greater importance to the town of Manchester and the 
SBrrounding country, from the facilities they have afforded for the 
transit of merchandize, and in reducing the price of minerals; 
which, before the execution of these works, could only be obtained 
at nearly double their present value. 



BRIDGEWATER AND TAUNTON CANAL. 

SI George m. Cap. 60, Koyal Assent 14th May, 18U. 
5 George IV. Cap. 120, Royal Assent nth June, 1834. 

The line of this proposed canal, commencing at Morgan's Pill, 
on the River Avon, about six miles below the port of Bristol, 
proceeds in a straight line, and in a south-easterly direction, to near 
Gevdon Court; from which place, taking a southerly course, it 
crosses the River Yeo ; thence, west of the village of Puxton, 
crossing the eastern termination of the Mendip Hills, on the south 
side of which, an aqueduct is to be thrown over the navigable 
River Axe; hence, its course is continued in a straight line to near 
HuntspiO Court, passing over the River Brue or Glastonbury 
Canal; thence, to the Tone and Parrett Navigation, near the 
village of Puriton, where it crosses the River Carey, at its junction . 
with the Tone River, along the eastern bank of which, it continues 
its way two miles above the town of Bridgewater, where there is 
another aqueduct over the river. From the last-mentioned place 
it takes the course of the English and Bristol Channels' Ship Canal 
for two miles, -when, diverging to the west, it passes the village of 
St. Michael's, running parallel with the last-mentioned canal, until 
it approaches the Tone, on the north bank of which it continues to 
Hi termination at Fire Pool Mills; there forming a junction with 
the intended Grand Western Canal, near the town of Taunton. 
The length is forty-two miles and' a half. 

From the main line, there is a branch of two miles and a 



94 BRIDGEWATER AND TAUNTON CANAL. 

quarter, to the coal and other works at Nailsea ; and another, of 
four miles and three quarters, on the north bank of the Axe, by the 
town of Axbridge, to Cheddar. At Clevdon Hill there is a pro- 
posed tunnel of six hundred yards in length ; and another at 
Banwell, the eastern edge of the Mendip Hills, the length of which 
is one thousand and fifty yards. 

The subscribers to this canal were, at the time the act was 
obtained, three hundred and twenty-six in number, amongst whom 
were Sir James Dubberley, Sir Richard Graves, Sir John Ken- 
naway, Sir William Rawlins, and the Right Honourable Sir 
George Yonge, Baronets. They were incorporated, in the first 
act, by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the Bristol 
" and Taunton Canal Navigation," with power to raise among 
themselves the sum of £420,000, in four thousand two hundred 
shares of £ 100 each, with further power to raise among them- 
selves, in proportion to the first subscription, if necessary, an 
additional sum of £150,000; or they may raise the same on 
mortgage of the tolls and duties hereby granted, the interest of 
which to be paid in preference to dividends or any other claim. 
In addition to the line of canal, the company obtained power to 
make railways or stone roads from the Nailsea Branch to the 
collieries and other works in that neighbourhood. 

In the aqueducts over the navigable River Brue, or Glastonbury 
Canal, and the Axe River Navigation, the company are bound to 
specified areas ; that for the first-mentioned river to be 360 square 
feet, and for the Axe 240 ; they are also required to make, on 
each of those rivers, near their respective aqueducts, two locks 
sufficient for passing vessels of ten tons burthen ; and in order that 
these, and other things therein mentioned, should be properly 
executed, the company are directed to invest, in the public funds, 
the sum of £10,000, to be under the control of the commissioners 
of sewers acting for the county of Somerset. 

The company are prohibited from taking the water from Lox 
Yeo, and from Banwell Hill Spring, and if injury be done to the 
latter*, which is in the estate of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, the 
fund of £10,000 above-mentioned is to be answerable for damages. 
They are also restricted from cutting any portion of the canal 
between the parish of Clevdon and the Parrett, until it is finished 



BRIDORW.ATER AND TAUNTON CANAL. 08 

between the fbsUntffltioned place and the Awn ; and if the former 
portion be not dons' in four years after the passing of tins act, the 
power to cease. The affairs of the company are under the 
direction of a committee of fifteen persons, to be called u The 
" Committee of Management." 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Hsy, Straw, Dung, Peat and Peat Ashes, and ail other Ashes n 

Intended to be used for Manure; Chalk, Marl, Clay and f ,i „_ Tm ~_M4i» 

Sand, and for all Lime and other Artlclea intended torf * *** lon -P erame - 

Manure, and Material for repairing Roads 3 

Cal, Culm, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal, Irorntone, Pig-iron, ) 

Iron-ore, Lead-ore, Copper-ore, Lime, (except what shall C , Mttr , Mttn 

he naedfcrMai»se,)Ume-<to»e, and other S^pnev Bricks, K ." r KK>> 

Tiles, Paving-stones and Pipe Clay ' 

Cora and other Grain, Flour, Malt, Meal, Cyder, Timber, ) 

Ochre, Calamine, Bar bon, Lead, Kelp, Sand, (except ( _, on,. Mt *. 

w»et shaU be used for Manure,) Pitch, Tar, Turpentine C "* <mt0 ' <mTO - 

andBesin , } 

Pasjengers li per Mile each. 

Cattte, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts 1 J per Head, per Mile. 

All other Goods, Wares, M«rchandt7,e and Commodities 3 per Ton, per Mile. 

Tolls to be paid for a full Half Mile, and for a Quarter of a Ton. 

TOLLS ON THR RA1LWAI&. 

d. 
■arewry Kent, afere, deldttgv Hale or Asa, passing along the Baft. 1 

nays, (except such as are employed in drawing any Goods, for f 2 each. 

whkh any ofthe Rates will be paid) > 

Cows, Homed or Neat Cattle.; 1 each. 

Seep, Swine and Calves 3 per Score. 

To pay but once a Day. 

Boats under Twenty Tons not to pass Locks without leave, or without paying for 

that Amount of Tonnage. 

There are many clauses in this act for protecting the property 
of bdrridoals on the line of navigation ; bat which, having a local 
interest only, it is unnecessary further to notice than by a reference 
to the act of parliament In this act are recited three others, 10th 
and nth William III. 6th Anne, and 44th George III. relating to 
•he navigation ofthe Tone from Bridgewater to Taunton, in which 
it appears that certain persons are appointed conservators of that 
nver, and certain tolls are thereby directed to be collected, and that 
the sorpms of such rates, after doing that which is necessary for 
the maintenance of the navigation, shall be employed for the 
benefit of the poor of Taunton, and the parishes of Taunton St. 
Mary Magdalene, and Taunton St James ; and as the making of 
th» canal will materially injure the above interests, the company 
**» directed to purchase them, and afterwards to maintain the 



96 BRIDGEWATER AND TAUNTON CANAL. 

River Tone out of the tolls received from that navigation under 
the acts above-mentioned. The estimates for this canal and 
branches were made by Mr. Rennie, and are as follow : — 

Forthe Main Line £404,314 

Nailsea Branch 6,582 

Cheddar Branch 19,094 

Total £429,990 

So confident were the subscribers of the ultimate success of 
this measure, and so eager were they to possess shares in the un- 
dertaking, that the sum of £571,800 was actually subscribed 
before the application to parliament ; and yet, thirteen years after- 
wards, the following act was obtained by the same company, to 
enable them to abandon a great part of the line and branches. 

The act of 5th George IV. is entitled, ' An Act to abridge, 
1 vary, extend and improve the Bristol and Taunton Canal Navi- 
1 gation, and to alter the Powers of an Act of the Fifty-first Year 
' of his late Majesty, for making the said Canal.'' This act, therefore, 
repeals so much of the former as relates to the line of the proposed 
canal, between Morgan's Pill, on the Avon, and the parish of 
Clevdon, with the branch to Nailsea ; and the company had already 
forfeited all right to make that part between Clevdon and the 
Parrett, with the Cheddar Branch, by having neglected to execute 
thein within the prescribed period of four years from the passing 
of the former act. 

Instead, therefore, of a navigation from the River Avon, the 
company determined to make it only from the River Parrett, 
a little above Bridgewater, to the town of Taunton, with some 
alterations in the original line between those places; they, con- 
sequently, have abandoned their original title, and are incorporated 
in this act by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the 
" Bridgewater and Taunton Canal Navigation." The deviation 
in the original line was from Mansell, through the parish of North 
Petherton and chapelry of North Newton, to the Parrett, a dis- 
tance of five miles and a quarter, with a fall of 35 feet, by five 
locks. There is also a branch, with a dock or basin, and locks to 
communicate with the Parrett Navigation, in the parishes of 
Bridgewater and North Petherton, and chapelry of North Newton. 



BRIDGEND RAILWAY. 97 



The estimate of the work (which was made by Mr. • 
James Hillinsworth, civil engineer, in 1 834,) from ( 
Firepool Weir to the commencement of the vari-( 
ation at Mansell was 

And the variation line to the River Parrett 18,854 



£15,291 



Total a£34,145 

This act enables the company to take any water within four 
hundred yards of the line of the canal, and three years are .allowed 
for the execution of these works, if not then done, the powers to 
cease, excepting as to such parts as may have been completed. 
The tonnage rates remain as in the former act. 

The object of this canal was to facilitate the communication 
between the ports of London, Bristol, Bridgewater and Exeter, 
and to afford a better mode of conveyance for the produce of the 
agricultural and mineral districts through which it passes ; the 
utility whereof can only be appreciated by that portion of the 
public which partakes of such important benefits. 



BRIDGEND RAILWAY. 

9 George IV. Cap. 92, Royal Anent 19th June, 1838. 

i 
This line of railway commences at the Duffryn Llynvi and 

Pwll Cawl Railway, near the village of Ceffn Gribbwr, in the 

parish of Laleston, and proceeds in an eastwardly course to the River 

Ogmore, over which H crosses at a short distance south of the 

church of St. Bride's Minor, and thence proceeds, in the same 

direction, on the east bank of the same river, to the town of 

Bridgend, where it terminates. 

The act for making this railway, is entitled, i An Act for making 

' and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the Duffryn 

' Llynvi and Pwll Cawl, otherwise Porth Cawl Railway, to com- 

' mence at a certain point therein, in the parish of Laleston, in the 

' county of Glamorgan, and to terminate near to the town of Bridg- 

1 end, in the same county.' The subscribers, at the time the act 

was obtained, were thirty-three in number, amongst whom were 

o 



98 BRISTOL AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE RAILWAY. 

Sir J. Nicoll and Sir D. Mackworth. They were incorporated 
by the name of " The Bridgend Railway Company," with power 
to raise £6,000, in shares of £20 each, (of which £4,380 was 
subscribed before going to parliament,) and an additional sum of 
£4,000 on mortgage of the railroad and the rates authorized to 
be collected, should such sum be necessary to complete the same. 
Five years are allowed by the act for its completion. The con- 
cern is to be managed by a committee of five proprietors, who are 
subject to the control of general meetings. 

The railway is four miles and a half in length, and is on one 
inclined plane to Bridgend, to which place there is a fall of 190 
feet The estimate for completing it amounts to £6,000, and 
was made by Mr. John Hodgkinson, civil engineer. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Limestone. Lime, Materials for the repair of Roads, Dung, } j pc-To,, per Mile 

Compost and Manure * 

Coal, Coke, Culm, Cinders, Stone, Marl, Sand, Clay, Iron-stone, -s 

and other Minerals, Building-stone, Pitching and Paving- / 2 ^^ ditto 

stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate and all gross and unmanufac- f 

tured Articles ) 

Iron, Lead, Timber, Staves, Deals and all other Goods, Com- j 5 j iMo d j tto 

modifies. Wares and Merchandize j 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile. 
For the purposes of this Act, One Hundred and Twelve Pounils is to be considered a 

Hundred Weight, and Twenty-one Hundred Weight to be a Ton. 

Owners of Lands may make Wharfs, with Cranes and Weighing Machines, the Rates 

for which are regulated by this Act. 

The principal object of this railroad is to facilitate the trans- 
mission of coal from the extensive collieries on the line of the 
Duflfryn Llynvi and Pwll or Porth Cawl Railroad, to the town of 
Bridgend and its vicinity. It will also open a communication with 
the harbour of Pwll or Porth Cawl, which will be attended with 
considerable advantages to the trade of the above-mentioned town. 



BRISTOL AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE RAILWAY. 

9 George IV. Cap. 93, Royal Assent I9th June, IS2S 

The line of this railway commences at Cuckold's Pill, near 
the harbour or floating-dock on the east side of the city of Bristol, 
and takes a north-easterly course by Upper Easton, Staple Hill, 



BRISTOL AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE RAILWAY. 99 

and Rodwfcy Hill, about half a mile south of the village of Man- 
gotafield ; from thence it pursues a more northerly course through 
the collieries which abound in the parishes of Pucklechurch and 
Mangotsfield, to Coalpit Heath, in the parish of Westerleigh, 
where it terminates. 

The act for making this railway received the royal assent on 
the 19th of June, 1828, and is entitled, ' An Act for making and 
1 maintaining a Railroad or Tramroad, from or near the city of 
' Bristol, to Coalpit Heath, in the parish of Westerleigh, in Hie 
' county of Gloucester.' The length is nine miles ; in the first two 
miles and three quarters of which there is an inclined plane rising 
185 feet; in the next mile, another plane of 12 feet rise to the 
summit ; at Staple Hill it enters a tunnel, which is eight hundred 
and eighty yards in length, and continues, on the same level, for a 
further distance of nearly one mile and three quarters; from 
which, to its termination, there is another plane declining 24 feet 
The estimate for this work was made by Mr. W. H. Townsend, 
and amounted to the sum of £41,819, 14*. Id. Near Rodway 
Hill, this railway is intended to be joined by the Avon and Glou- 
cestershire Railway, for the making of which, an act was obtained 
at the same time as for this, and the royal assent was given on the 
same day. 

The subscribers to this work, when application was made to 
parliament, were eighty-five in number, amongst whom were Sir 
John Smyth, Bart and Sir Henry Nicoll, Bart K.C.B. They 
were incorporated by the name of " The. Bristol and Gloucester- 
" shire Railway Company," with power to raise among themselves 
the sum of £45,000, in shares of £50 each ; and with farther 
power to raise among themselves, or to borrow on mortgage of 
the rates,The additional sum of £12,000; or any part of this last- 
mentioned sum may be borrowed of the Exchequer Bill Commis- 
sioners, appointed under the act of the 3rd George IV. ; but in 
this case the commissioners have priority over all other claims 
whatsoever. 

The concern is to be under the management of a com- 
mittee of fifteen persons, possessed of at least five shares each, 
who are subject to the control of the general meetings of the pro- 
prietors. 

o 2 



100 BRITTON CANAL. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

Coal, Culm, Coke, Building Lime. Sand, Clay, Brick, Tile and » s pa- Ton, per Mile. 

Slate, Building, Pitching and Paving-stone and Flags ....' 
Lime-stone, Lead-ore, Iron-ore and other Minerals in their raw 1 

staU, Manure and IJme for Hmbandry purposes, Stone and ^ a ditto, ditto. 

other Material for the repair of Roads ' 

Timber, Deals, Corn, Grain, Flour, Hay, Straw, Corn to the 1 

Straw, Green Fodder and Vegetables, and all other Com- 1 4 ditto, ditto. 

modities not before specified ' 

CoaL Culm and Coke to be afterwards conveyed to the River 1 

Avon, in the parish of Bitton, by any Railroad branching t & ditto, ditto. 

from the said Railway •„••":" „i „, 

For every Person passing in any Carriage upon this Railroad . . «i per Mile. 
For every Horse, Mule, Ass, Ox, Cow, Bull or other Cattle.... 1* ditto. 

For every Calf, Sheep, Lamb or Pig t d" 10 - 

Fractions as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile. 

Carriages of Four Wheels not to carry more than Four Tons, including the Weight of 

such Carriage; and those of Six Wheels may carry Six Tons. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
For Goods loaded, landed, or placed, in, or upon, any of the Wharfs or 1 

Warehouses, and which shall not remain there more than Seventy- > 1 per Ton. 

two Hours •• ' 

If more than Seventy.two Hours, the further Sum of. I ditto. 

And for the Warehousing for the succeeding Week 6 ditto. 

And the like additional Sum of One Penny and Sixpence for every snbaequent Week. 

CRANAGE RATES. 

«. d. 

Any Weight under Two Tons at one lift of the Crane SperTon. 

Of Two Tons and less than Three I « ditto. 

OfThree Tons and less than Four 1 8 ditto. 

And for every additional Ton n 8 

The act allows six years for the execution of the railroad, and 
if not then done, the powers so granted are to cease, excepting as 
to such parts as may have been completed. 

The chief object of this railway is the making a cheaper and 
more expeditious conveyance for coal and stone to the city of Bris- 
tol, and for the return of merchandize in general, to the populous 
mining districts on its line. 



BRITTON CANAL. 

This canal, the property of the gentleman through whose 
estate it is made, commences in the River Neath, about half a 
mile above Britton Ferry, three miles below the town of Neath, 
and directly opposite the end of the Neath Canal Its course is in a 
westerly direction north of Coed-y-yarll, and across the Mora*, 



BUDE HARBOUR AND CANAL. 101 

called Crymlin Burrows, in a direction parallel with the north 
shore of Swansea Bay. It terminates in the pool called Swansea 
Harbour, in the River Tawe, a short distance below Swansea and 
close to Salthouse Point, and is four miles and a quarter in length. 
As the principal object of the proprietor was the improvement 
and drainage of bis own estate, it was made without having re- 
course to any parliamentary enactment 



BUDE HARBOUR AND CANAL. 

14 George in. Cap. 33, Royal Anent 24th May, 1774. 
59 George EI. Cap. 33. Royal Assent 14th June, 1819. 

Tbb original design for this navigation was made by Mr. 
Edmund Leach, (the Author of " A Treatise on Inland Naviga- 
" tion,") and an act was obtained in the 14th George III. for that 
purpose, entitled, * An Act for making a navigable Cut or Canal 
'from the Port or Harbour of Bude, in the hundred of Stratum, in 
' the county of Cornwall, to the River Tamar, in the parish of 
' Calstoke, in the said county.' It was intended to commence in 
the tideway of Bude Haven, in the Bristol Channel, and thence, 
by the course of the Tamar, by Launceston, to the tideway of the 
Tamar River and Navigation, in the parish of Calstoke. From 
the sea at Bude Haven there was to be an inclined plane of 54 feet 
rise; then, a level pool of six miles and a half; another plane of 
130 feet rise, and a level pool at the end of it four miles in length ; 
from thi*,-a third plane rising 66 feet, to the summit level, being 
a total of 240 feet above the level of the sea. This summit level 
was maintained for the distance of sixty-eight miles, by a very 
circuitous course, occasioned by the necessity they were under of 
continuing on the level of the natural face of the country, by a 
clause in the act, which prohibits them from cutting more than 39 
inches in depth on the lower side of the canal. From the end of 
the summit, only two miles and a half from the termination of the 
proposed canal, there was to be a plane of 120 feet fell; then a 
level pool of two miles and a half in length, with a fifth plane, at 
Kelly Rock, of 120 feet falL The total length of the canal was 
eighty-one miles, though the direct distance, between the two 



102 BUDE HARBOUR AND CANAL. 

extremes, was only twenty-eight miles. The canal was to be 21 
feet wide at top and 12 feet at bottom, and of depth sufficient for 
boats of ten tons. The estimated expense was £81,000, but as 
there was a provision in the act that the powers should cease in ten 
years from the passing of it, and as this period was suffered to 
elapse without any further steps being taken, it was accordingly 
abandoned ; though in 1785 Mr. Leach endeavoured to revive the 
project, and to shorten the course to forty miles and three quar- 
ters, by cutting down the summit level 18 feet, 'and making a 
tunnel of one hundred yards in length, with other works, the esti- 
mated cost of which was £53,200 ; but as no act was obtained for 
this purpose, his project fell to the ground. 

In the year 1819, however, a new company, consisting of 
three hundred and thirty persons, amongst whom were the Right 
Honourable P. H. Earl Stanhope, Countess Stanhope, Sir Arscott 
Ourry Molesworth, Sir William P. Call, and Sir Thomas Dyke 
Ackland, Baronets, obtained an act, entitled, ' An Act for im- 
' proving the Harbour of Bude, in the county of Cornwall, and for 
1 making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the said Har- 
' bour of Bude, to or near the village of Thornbury, in the county of 
' Devon, and divers Branches therefrom, all in the said counties of 
' Cornwall and Devon.' The subscribers are incorporated by the 
name of " The Bude Harbour and Canal Company," and have 
power to raise among themselves the sum of £95,000, in nineteen 
hundred shares of £50 each, with power to raise an additional 
sum of £20,000 if necessary, either among themselves or by the 
admission of new subscribers, or on mortgage of the undertaking 
and the rates and duties herein granted. 

The main line of this canal commences in Bude Haven, within 
the port of Padstow, and pursues a southerly course along the 
western bank of the little River Bude, to Hele Bridge, where it 
turns suddenly eastward to near Marhamchurch. Here is an in- 
clined plane, and hence it takes a circuitous course by Camorchard, 
a little beyond which is another inclined plane, to Red Post, in the 
parish of Launcells, where the Launceston Branch commences. 
From Red Post, the canal takes a northerly direction on the western 
bank of the Tamar, which it crosses near Burmsdon. Thence, 
ascending an inclined plane, and proceeding to Veala, where the 



BUDB HARBOUR AND CANAL. 103 

branch to Virworthy commences, ii passes, in a very circuitous 
course, by Pancrasweek and Holsworthy, a mile and a half beyond 
which place, it enters a tunnel of considerable length, and is 
continued thence, by Ford and North Week to Thombury, 
where it terminates. 

The Launceston Branch proceeds from Red Post, by a very 
serpentine course, on the west bank of the Tamar, through the 
several parishes of Launcells, Bridgerule, Marhamchurch, Whit- 
rtoue, Week Saint Mary, North Tamerton, Tetcot, Boyton, 
Werrmgton, North Petherwin, and St. Giles* In the Heath, to 
Druxton Bridge, about three miles taorth of the town of Launceston. 
From Burmsdon there is a branch up the west bank of the Tamar 
to Moreton Mill, where the feeder from Langford Moor Reservoir 
communicates with it The feeder from Moreton Mill to the 
reservoir on Langford Moor is two miles and a half in length. 

m. f. c. m. f. c. 
The length of the Main Lone from Bude ") 

Haven to the Launceston Branch at > ® * * 

the Red Post is J 

From thence to the Moreton Mill) 

Branch is ) 

From thence to the Virworthy Branch is 1 1 8 
Thence to the termination at Thombury 11 3 1 

Total length of the Main Line 21 3 7 

The Branch to Druxton Bridge or Launceston > 

Branch > 

The Moreton MiQ Branch is 13 8 

The Virworthy Branch is 3 7 2 

Total Main Line and Branches 45 7 4 

TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE DUES. 

d. 

Coal, Coke and Freestone 4 per Ton, per. Milt 

Lime, Dong and Manure, Sand, Limestone and Slates, Stones > - ^^ ditto. 

and Clay i 

Cattle, Calves, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts, Bricks, Tiles,) .... ... 

Rough Timber, Bark, Faggots, Tin, Irwustone, Iron and t * mua amo - 

Lead '. * 

Wheat and Potatoes 2 ditto, ditto. 

Barky, Beans, Peas, Vetches. Seeds and Oats 3 ditto, ditto. 

All other Goods, Wares and lfercbandize whatsoever 4 ditto, ditto. 



104 



BUDE HARBOUR AND CANAL. 



And so in proportion for any greater or leas Quantity than a Ton, or greater or less 
Distance than a Mile. 
Boats of less than Twenty Tons Burthen not to pass Locks without leave, unless Two 
Boats, containing together that Weight, are ready to paaB at the same Time. 

HARBOUR DUTIES. 

d. 
Ships belonging to Great Britain or Ireland, or the British Plantations, ) 

(unless carrying Coal or Limestone) importing into, or exporting r 4 per Ton. 

from, the Harbour of Bude, (according to their Measure) ' 

Foreign Ships ditto. 

Vessels putting in from stress of Weather, or otherwise, when they nei- > 4 &\\io 
ther land or take in Cargo J 

AH Vessels belonging to his Majesty, or employed in his Majesty's Service, and such 
as are under Seven Tons, laden with Fish, are exempt. 



WHARF AND BASIN DUES. 



d. 



For every Vessel entering or using any Dock, Basin, Wharf, &c 2 per Ton. 

Goods, Wares and Merchandize Wharf and Basin Dues, per Ton in Column (• ) 

Timber and Pig aud Bar Iron ditto, ditto, ditto, (+) 

Coal Culm Stone, Iron-stone, Slate, i dj di ,> 

Flint, Clay and Sand > 

Lime or Limestone, Bricks, Tiles or j dj d m 

Plaister 5 

Corn, Grain, Pulse, Seeds, Apples and j ^ Qr dut (1]) 

Potatoes 5 



Remaining on such Wharf or Quay more than > 
Twenty-four Hours, and less than Six Days., i 
If remaining Six Days, and less than One Month . . 
If remaining One Month, and less than Six Weeks..' 
If remaining Six Weeks, and les than Two Months 
And if remaining Two Months, and less than Ten J ' j (j 
Weeks > I 



C) ! (+') 


tt) 


(I) 


(«) 


«. d. | «. d. 


«. d. 


». d. 


.. d. 


6 j 3 


0', I 


0\ 


9 j 6 


10 2 


1 


10 9 


lj 3 


l\ 


I 3 1 I 


2 ' 4 


2 


10 1 3 


2j 5 


O 2l 












And so in proportion for any longer Time the said Articles shall remain in or upon 
such Wharf or Quay. 



WAREHOUSE DUES. 

8. 

For every Cask, Case, Bundle. Bale, or other Package, containing Articles of > s 
Merchandize, being of the Weight of 2241bs. or upwards i 

Ditto, being under the Weight of 2241bs 2 

For any Article of Merchandize brought loose, and subject to any Duty of > j 
Customs, chargeable according to the Weight of every I l'ilbs > 

For any Article of Merchandize brought loose, and subject to any Duty of > 
Customs, per every 1121bs } 

Which Rates shall be paid for every calendar Month such Goods are warehoused. 



The estimate was made by Mr. James Green, civil engineer, 
in 1818, and amounted to the sum of £91,617; of which sum, 
£4,618 was for the improvement of the harbour of Bude. The 



BULLO PILL OB FOREST OP DEAN RAILWAY. 105 

company have occasionally called in Mr. Whitworth, to inspect the 
works. The whole of the sum of £95,000, authorized to he raised 
by the act, was subscribed before the application to parliament 
The management of this work is vested in a committee of eighteen 
persons. 

Besides the authority which the act gives the company to make 
the canal, they are empowered to improve the harbour of Bude, 
by erecting, a breakwater, together with a dock, basin, or inner 
harbour, warehouses, piers, quays, wharfs, and jetties, mooring 
chains, lighthouses, buoys, and what other works may be necessary 
for the convenient accommodation of such ships and vessels as 
resort to the same. They are restricted from taking any water 
from the Tamar, or the brooks which flow into it, except when the 
water flows 3 inches over the weir at Aldfordisworthy Mill. 

The chief object of this canal, is to facilitate the introduction 
of Welsh Coal, and the carrying of Shelly Sand from the coast, to 
be used in the interior as manure. 



BULLO PILL OR FOREST OP DEAN 
RAILWAY. 

49 George UL Cap. 158, Royal Aaaent 10th Jane, 1809. 
7 George IV. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 5th May, 1826. 

Prior to the act of 49th George III. a railroad had been 
nearly completed, without the authority of parliament, from the 
Severn at Bulb Pill, near the town of Newnham, to Cinderford 
Bridge, in his Majesty's Forest of Dean, by Roynon Jones, Esq. 
Margaret Roberts, William Fendall and James'jelf, Esquires, the 
owners, but who, being desirous of obtaining power to extend 
their railway, and to make branches therefrom, applied to parlia- 
ment and obtained an act, entitled, « An Act for making and 
' maintaining a Railway or Tramroad, from the summit of the 
1 Hill above Chwehway Engine, in the Forest of Dean, in the 
* county of Gloucester, to a certain place in the said Forest, called 
1 Cinderford Bridge,' by which the above parties are incorporated 
by the name of " The Bulb Pill Railway Company." 



106 BULLO PILL OR FOREST OF DEAN RAILWAY. 

The line- of extension which the above company are em- 
powered to make, proceeds from the above-mentioned private 
railway, at Cinderfbrd Bridge, in a northwardly direction, up a 
valley in the forest, to the summit of the hill above Churchway 
Engine, and the place where the Severn and Wye Railroad Com- 
pany have subsequently formed a junction ; its length is about 
three miles. There is also a branch from a place called the Dam, 
to the Upper and Lower Bilson Works; another from the same 
place to Kelmsley Green, and one from Nofold Engine, to the Old 
Engine and Nofold Green. These collateral and very short 
branches extend to several coal and other mines in the forest. 

The Forest of Dean, through which this railway passes, belongs 
to the King; but after the passing of this act, the ground occupied 
by the railroad and branches is vested in the company, on payment 
of the yearly rent of £100, and one guinea per week towards the 
cost and charges of his Majesty's Inspectors. The railway not to 
exceed seven yards in breadth, except in passing places, embank- 
ments, deep cuttings, or where warehouses or wharfs may be 
erected. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

«. d. 
Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Cool Cinders, ehalk. Marl, Sand,') 
Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Iron or ] 
other Ore, and other Minerals and Bricks, the produce > 1 6 per Ton. 
of the said Forest, to be conveyed from any place on I 

the said Forest, to or near Cinderford Bridge J 

Ditto, conveyed from one place to another within the said > j per Ton, per Mile. 

Forest. • . ............................ 5 

Timber, Goods, Commodities, Wares and Merchandize, > 6 (jjtto. 4j tto , 

whether the produce of the Forest or not 5 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for Half a Mile. 
One Hundred and Twenty Pounds to be deemed a Hundred Weight, for the purposes 

of this Act 

RATES UPON THE PRIVATE RAILWAY FROM CINDERFORD BRIDGE 
TO THE SEVERN AT BULLO PILL. 

*. d. 

For Bark stripped within the Forest, Coal, Timber and Wood for ) . - _-r>_ 

the use of the Coal Pits, Mines and Quarries within the Forest J *^ 

For Timber lelled in the Forest under the direction of his Majesty's) Q sperFoot 

Surveyor General, and conveyed along the private Railway....! *^ 

None but Free Miners of the Forest, and his Majesty's Surveyor General, have power 
to use this private Railway, without consent of the Proprie t or s. 

The private railway is nearly four miles and a half long, with 
a tunnel upwards of five hundred yards in length, situate about a 
mile and a half from Bullo PiD, at which place are convenient 
wharfs for goods intended for shipment on the Severn. 



BULLO PILL OR FOREST OF DEAN RAILWAY. 107 

On the 5th of May 1838, the royal assent was given to another 
act, entitled, i An Act far maintaining an existing public Railway 
i from tie summit of the Hill above Churchway Engine, in the 
' Fortet of Dean, to Cinderford Bridge, and for making public a 
* private Railway from thence to the River Severn, at or near Bullo 
1 PHI, all in the county of Gloucester; and for amending an Act of 
1 his late Majesty relating to the said Railways,' by which a 
company, consisting of eighteen persons, agree to purchase the 
interest of the Bulk) Pill Railway Company, and make the whole 
public, and they are by this act incorporated by the name of " The 
" Forest of Dean Railway Company," with power to raise among 
themselves fer these purposes, the sum of £\ 25,000, to be divided 
into two thousand five hundred shares, of £SO each. Edward 
Pretheroe, Esq. was the principal proprietor of this concern. The 
rents and payments due to his Majesty and inspectors, are by this 
act reserved, with the many other privileges which the King enjoys 
■a owner of the Forest of Dean; so much of the former act as 
related to the tonnage is repealed, and the following are now the 

TONNAGE RATES. 

*. i. 
Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Coal Cinders, Chalk. Marl, Sand,-, 
Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Iron I 
or other Ore, and other Minerals and Bricks, the pro- > 1 6 per Ton. 
dnee of the said Forest, to be conveyed from any place I 

on the said Forest, to or near Cinderford Bridge ' 

Ditto, conveyed from one place to another within the said J o 6 per Ton, per Mile. 

MBt •••.••..•■.■•.*«*..*.....*.•*••.*•*•...•■....>' 

Timber, Goods, Commodities, Wares and Merchandize,) . g ditto, ditto. 

whether the produce of the Forest or not ' 

Coal, Coke, Culm. Stone, Coal Cinders, Marl, Sand, Lime, ■> 

Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Iron or other j 

Ore, and other Minerals and Bricks, carried downwards I 

from Cinderford Bridge to Bullo Pill, or any part there- L 3 ^ „ .jy^ 

of, which Sam shall include all Tonnage chargeable [ "^ 

upon the Railway, from Churchway Engine to Cinder. I 

ford Bridge J 

Timber and Wood, felled in the Forest under the direction) 

of Us Majesty's Surveyor General, conveyed from Cin- V 2 per Foot 

dertbrd Bridge to Bullo Pill J 

All other Timber, Goods, Commodities, Wares and Mer- i n ._ h nerMile. 

cbandiie, from Ctoderfcrd Bridge to Bullo Pill J vpaivmirB 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things r em ai n i n g ) 

on the Wharf at Bullo Pill, any Time less than Two f 3perTon. 

Months J 

For Two Months and not exceeding Three 6 ditto. 

Poralc^TimethanThreeMonth. { 6 ^'J^^ te 

Hfe Majesty's Timber is exempt from Payment of Wharfage Rates. 
Fractions to be taken asfor a Quarter of aTon, and as for a Quarter of a Mile. 



108 BURR OR NORTH RIVER. 

The object of this railway and branches, is to convey, with 
facility, for shipment on the Severn, the timber, coal, iron-ore, and 
other minerals, with which the Forest of Dean abounds, thus 
enabling the ownen to transport their superabundant produce to 
distant markets. 



BURE OR NORTH RIVER. 

13 George III. Cap. 37, Royal Assent 7th April, 1773. 

The River Bure rises a few miles north of the town of 
Foulsham ; it thence pursues an easterly course by Thurningbeck 
Hall, Blickling Park, to the town of Aylsham, to which place, 
from the head of the Bure Navigation at Coltishall, it was made 
navigable under the authority of an act of 13th George IIL 
entitled, * An Act for making and extending the Navigation of the 
' River Bure, commonly called the North River, by and from 
« Coltishall, to Aylsham Bridge, in the county of Norfolk,' The 
length of this portion of the navigation is nine miles, with six locks, 
and it is in the natural course of the stream, with the exception of 
a few short cuts, made for the purpose of cutting off some bends of 
the river, or for passing the mills upon it 

This navigation is under the management of comnuaBkmers, 
whose qualification is the possession of freehold or copyhold estates 
in the hundreds of North and South Erpingham, Taverham, 
Eynsfbrd, and Tunstead, in the county of Norfolk, of the annual 
value of £100, or a personal estate of £3,000; any seven of whom, 
whose usual place of residence is in any of the hundreds above- 
named, are empowered to act. They are authorized to borrow 
£5,000, for the purpose of carrying the powers of this act into 
execution, on security of the tolls therein granted. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

«. d. 

Co»X Cinders, Bricks, Pavements, Tile* Lime and Terras 1 OpexTon. 

Corn, Grain, Heal, Flour, Timber. Goods, Wares, Merchandize or i , „ rf4M „ 
Commodities whatsoever J ' ama 

And ao in proportion for any greater or less Weight than a Ton. 

From Skeyton Brook, and lor passing through the Two Locks at Buxton and Horstead 

only, Two-thirds of the above Rate. 



BURR, TARE AND WAVENEY RIVERS, *c 109 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. 

Straw, Mock, Marl, Clay, or other Manure, and Materia)!! for the repair of the Milk 
upon the Riyer. 

As the navigable part of the North River and River Bure, from 
the head of this navigation, at Aybham, to the sea at Yarmouth, 
is, by its coarse, forty-two miles, and as it passes through one of 
the finest agricultural districts of which this kingdom can boast, 
the advantages arising from the facilities it affords for the export 
of the natural productions of its vicinity are incalculable. The 
towns of Aylsham, Cawsham, Reepham, and the immediate 
neighbourhood, participate, perhaps, more directly in the advan- 
tages thus derived. 



BURE, YARE AND WAVENEY RIVERS, AND 
YARMOUTH HAVEN. 

MCharkall.C. 18.RA. HthApr. 1670. 9 Geo. I. C. 10, R A. 22nd Mar. 1722. 

20 Geo. IL C. 40, R A. 17th June, 1747. 23 Geo. n. C. 6, R. A. 14th Mar. 1748. 

12 Geo. m. C. 14, R. A. 1st April, 1772. 

As these rivers and the harbour of Yarmouth are under one 
description of management, and the principal legislative enactments 
relating to them are, with only one exception, combined, the 
description of them will be given under the above title. The 
first act of parliament relating to a part of these navigations, occurs 
in the 22nd Charles II. and is entitled, i Jln Act for making navi- 
' gable the Rivers Brandon and Waveneyf in which commissioners 
were appointed to carry the act into execution, and to ascertain the 
damage done to the banks of the said rivers, by the haling of , 
vessels thereon ; so that it clearly appears that the River Waveney 
was navigable previous to this early date; but as this river became 
subsequently under the control of commissioners appointed by the 
corporations of Yarmouth, Norwich, and the magistrates of the 
counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, it is not necessary to enter into 
the earlier provisions of the above recited act The first act, 
therefore, in which is embodied the necessary power for rendering 
the whole of the above-mentioned rivers navigable, is the 9th 
George I.- which is entitled, * An Act for clearing, depthenmg, 
1 repairing, extending, maintaining and improving the Haven and 



110 BURE, VARE AND WAVENEY RIVERS, &c. 

' Piers of Great Yarmouth ; and for depthening and making more 
' navigable the several Rivers emptying themselves at tlie said town ; 
' and also for preserving Ships, wintering in the said Haven, from 
' accidents by Fire ;' whereby several duties were granted for the 
above recited purposes, and for depthening the channel of that part 
of the River Yare called Braydon, and for making more navigable 
the Rivers Yare, Waveney and Bure, &c. ; but as the time to 
which this act limited the receipt of these duties had expired 
previous to 1747, another act was obtained in the 20th George II. 
to revive the duties granted under the 9th George I. and make 
them payable for two years from the above date, and from thence 
to the end of the session of parliament immediately following. 
This act is therefore entitled, ' An Act to revive, continue and 
' amend an Act made in the Ninth Year of the Reign of his late 
' Majesty King George the First, entitled, An Act for clearing, 
' depthening, repairing, extending, maintaining and improving the 
' Haven and Piers of Great Yarmouth ; and for depthening and 
1 making more navigable the several Rivers emptying themselves at 
' the said town ; and also for preserving Ships, wintering in the 
1 said Haven, from accidents by Fire.' Twelve commissioners were 
appointed to carry into effect the purposes of this act ; three of 
whom were appointed by the corporation of Yarmouth, other 
three by the mayor, sheriff, citizens and commonalty of Norwich, 
and the remainder by the magistrates of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
assembled at quarter sessions; which said commissioners, or any 
seven of them, (five being of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk,) 
are empowered to act. 

In the preamble of the act of 23rd George II. entitled, ' An 
' Act for repairing, improving, and maintaining, the Haven and 
' Piers of Great Yarmouth ; and for depthening and making 
' more navigable the several Rivers emptying themselves into the 
' said Haven ; and also for preserving Ships, wintering therein, 
l from accidents by Fire,' we learn, that the duties heretofore 
granted were iasufficient for the maintenance of the several navi- 
gations connected with the haven of Yarmouth ; the corporation of 
Great Yarmouth are, therefore, by this act, empowered to collect 
new duties for the term of twenty-one years, from the 25th March, 
1 750 ; but as these are repealed, and give place to others granted 



BURR, YARE AND WAVENEY RIVERS, *c \H 

by the 13th George III. it is unnecessary here to recite them. 
The act of 13th George III. is entitled, ' An Act for clearing, 
' depthening, repairing, maintaining and improving the Haven and 
* Piers of Great Yarmouth ; and for depthening and making more 
' navigable the several Rivers emptying themselves into the said 
' Haven; and for preserving Ships, wintering therein, from accidents 
' by Fire? in the preamble of which it is recited, that the duties 
granted under the former act of 33rd George II. ceased on the 
35th March, 1773, and the following are granted in lieu of them. 

RATES AND DUTIES. 

4. 
For every Chaldron of Coals, (Winchester Measure) Last of Wheat, Rye, Barley, n 
Malt, or other Grain, and for every Weigh of Salt, and every Ton of other I 
Good* or kfercbandixe, (except Fiah) which shall be unladen or imported > 10 
into the Haven of Yarmouth, or on that part of the Sea called Yarmouth I 
Boa& extending from Scratby to Cortoo ' 

Or anch other greater Sum, not exceeding Twelve-pence, which the CommisBionen 
appointed by this Act, or any Seven of them, may order and direct; which 
CommiastODersare to be chosen as directed in the Act of 2Snd Charles IL 

The Duties on all Goods imported,' to be repaid on Exportation. 

The Master of each Vessel to pay to the Pier Master One Shilling on entering 

the Haven. 

The duties are to be disposed of, for the several purposes 
recited in the act, in the following proportions ; — three-twentieths 
to the chamberlain of the city of Norwich, to be applied for the 
purposes of depthening and otherwise improving that part of the 
River Yare,' or Wensom, which lies between the New Mills at 
Norwich and Hardly Cross; one-twentieth to the magistrates of 
Norfolk, for the purpose of clearing and depthening the River 
Bore, the River Ant from St Bennett's Abbey, to Dilham, and 
theThume River from Bastwick Bridge to Hickling; one-twentieth 
to the magistrates of Suffolk, for the improvement of the navi- 
gation of the Waveney ; one-twentieth to be applied to the purpose 
of repairing the bridge and public quays of Yarmouth ; one- 
twentieth to be applied, by the Norfolk Magistrates, for the 
further clearing of the River Bure, and other branches above- 
mentioned; five-twentieths to the corporation of Yarmouth, for 
the improvement of the River Yare from Yarmouth to Hardly 
Cross, in such manner as the commissioners may appoint ; and the 
remaining eight-twentieths is to be appropriated to the purpose of 
improving the haven of Yarmouth, and maintaining the piers and 



112 BUBE, YARE AND WAVENEY RIVERS, &c. 

jetties, &c. &c. ; and if the last-mentioned sum is insufficient, the 
commissioners have power to collect the twelve-penny duty for 
this purpose. The act to be in force for twenty-one years only, 
but its cessation is not to extinguish, or in any way to affect, the 
port duties which have been, by immemorial custom, paid to the 
corporation of Great Yarmouth. 

That portion of the Bure River to which the above-recited acts 
relate, commences at Coltishall, where the Bure or North River 
Navigation terminates. Its course is very circuitous, in an east- 
wardly direction, by Wroxham Bridge, to the Ant River at 
Horning Marsh ; from thence, by Weybridge and Runham Hall, 
to the town of Yarmouth, where it falls into the Yare. The 
distance from Coltishall to the mouth of the River Ant, is fifteen 
miles ; from thence to the Thurne is two miles and a quarter ; and 
from thence to the Yare is thirteen miles and a quarter. The 
Ant River Branch commences at the North Walsham and Dilham 
Canal, at Wayford Bridge, and takes a southwardly course, passing 
the Barton Broad, and the villages of Irstead, Ludham Bridge, to 
Horning Marsh, where it enters the Bure. Its length is nearly 
eight miles, and without locks. The Thurne River Branch com- 
mences at Hickling Broad, whence, passing through Heigham 
Sound, it takes a south-westwardly course by Heigham Bridge, to 
the River Bure, into which it falls near the village of Thurne. 
Its length is about seven miles, and level. In the township of 
Tunstall, about eight miles from Yarmouth, there is a navigable 
drain, of one mile in length, from the Bure to Tunstall Staith; and 
a little above Weybridge there is another, of half a mile in length, 
across Upton Marsh. 

The Yare, or Wensom, has its source between the towns of 
Fakenham and Litcham, in Norfolk; whence, pursuing a south- 
easterly course by Sennowe Lodge, Westfield Park and Taverham 
Hall, to the city of Norwich, it there becomes navigable. From 
this place it continues, in a circuitous course, through low marshy 
grounds, by Hardly Cross, to near the village of Burgh, where it 
is joined by the Waveney ; from thence its course Is through 
Braydon Water, to Yarmouth, where the Bure falls into it ; and 
from thence it takes a southerly course, running parallel with the 
coast, by South Town and Gorleston, to Yarmouth Roads. From 



BURT. LOU OHO R AND LLIKDI RIVERS 113 

Norwich to Hardly Cross, is eighteen miles and a half; from 
thence, to the Waveney, is six miles and a half; from thence, to 
the Bore at Yarmouth, is three miles and three quarters ; and, 
to the sea, a further distance of three miles and a quarter. 

The River Waveney has its source near Finningham Hall, a 
few miles north of the town of Mendlesham, in Suffolk ; it takes an 
easterly course, and afterwards a northerly, by the town of Eye ; 
thence, by Harlaston to Bungay, where it becomes navigable. 
From this place its course is east, by Barsham Hall and the town 
of Beccles, to within three miles of Lowestoft, whence it takes a 
northerly course by St Olave's Bridge, to Burgh Flatt, where it 
falls into the Yare. From Bungay to Beccles Bridge, the distance 
is seven miles and a half; from thence, to St Olave's Bridge, is 
twelve miles and a half; and to the place where it joins the Yare, 
fire miles and a quarter. Two miles above Beccles there is a na- 
vigable cut, from the river to Oeldestone Staith, of three quarters 
of a mile in length, and leveL 

To any one who will take a cursory glance at the position of 
these rivers on the accompanying map of inland navigation, the 
great advantages which must accrue to above one half of the county 
of Norfolk, is so strikingly manifest, as to render it quite unnecessary 
that we should further expatiate on them. 

It may not be amiss here to state, that the royal assent was 
given to an act on the 28th of May, 1827, for making a navigable 
communication for ships, between the city of Norwich and the sea 
at Lowestoft, which follows the course of a considerable portion of 
me Yare, with a part of the Waveney, but which is not to injure 
the navigation of those rivers. 

Further particulars of the Norwich and Lowestoft Navigation, 
as it is to be called, will be found in the proper place. 



BURY, LOUGHOR AND LLIEDI RIVERS. 

S3 George DJ. Cap. 183, Royal Assent »nd July, 1813. 

The River Bury is a very wide estuary, situate between a pro- 
montory of Glamorganshire, terminating at Worms Head, and the 

B 



114 BURY, LOUGHOR AND LLIEDI RIVERS. 

southern coast of Carmarthenshire. Its length, from the bar at the 
entrance of the harbour of Bury, near Holmes Island, to where the 
River Loughor falls into it, is (taking the course of the channel,) 
about twelve miles. Over the bar, which changes frequently, 
there is about six feet at low water, with from three to five fathoms 
within the harbour. 

The River Loughor rises in the mountains of Carmarthenshire, 
south of the town of Llangadoc, thence, proceeding in a southerly 
direction by Glynheir, Bettus, Penclear Castle, Llandilo Taly- 
bont, to Llangennech Ford, to which place it is navigable. From 
the ford to the estuary of the Bury, opposite the village of Loughor, 
is about two miles. 

The Lliedi is a very inconsiderable stream, which falls into the 
River Bury, a short distance below the dock belonging to the Car- 
marthenshire Railway Company, which terminates near the town 
of Llanelly ; and it is navigable only to this place. 

The only act relating to these rivers is entitled, ' Jin Ad. for 
' the Improvement of the Navigation of the Rivers Bury, Loughor, 
1 and Lliedi, in the counties of Carmarthen and Glamorgan;' by 
which certain commissioners are appointed to cleanse, scour, en- 
large, and deepen the same ; and to make and erect buoys, bea- 
cons, and lights; and to establish and regulate the pilotage, 
anchorage, and mooring of ships and vessels in the said rivers. 
The qualification of a commissioner, is the possession of a freehold 
estate of the clear annual value of £80, and which must be situate 
within seven miles of some one of the rivers above-named ; or a 
capital to the amount of £2,500, engaged in any mine or manufac- 
tory, within the prescribed distance above-mentioned ; or have the 
same amount vested in ships, or other vessels, trading to the above 
rivers ; or unless he be principal or managing clerk to any con- 
cern within seven miles, where £8,000 capital is employed ; or a 
proprietor of the Carmarthenshire Railroad, the Penclawdd Canal, 
or Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal and Tramroad, to the amount of 
£500. 

A committee of five are annually appointed to conduct the 
business of the commissioners, who are empowered to raise the sum 
of £2,000 on mortgage of the duties hereby authorized to be col- 
lected, or by granting annuities. 



BUTE SHIP CANAL. 115 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
VorercrjrShiporolherVenelpeiBlngovertheBtfintoanjciffbeaeRiTcn 1 perTon. 

TheDatiMMeevTCdin tkePortefliaaeliy, to be entirely applied to the Purpose of 
improving the Uiedi. 

EXEMPTION FROM DUTIES. 

AH Toad* employed m kit Majesty's Service; or to cooTty lm j limestone or Ft* ; 
and all Vessel* for Pleasure, or such as are under Fifteen Tons. 

There is a clause, reserving to the Duke of Beaufort the 
rights and privileges of water-bailiff for the seigniories of Cower 
and Cilrey, in the county of Glamorgan; also die rights of the 
Lords of Kidwelly, the layer and keelage of the CarrnartltensUre- 
side of the Longhor; or the rights of the portreeve and burgesses 
of LkneDy ; the Carmarthenshire Railroad Company ; the Kid- 
welly and Llanelly Canal and Tramroad Company; the Borough 
of Longhor ; the Penclawdd Canal and Tramroad Company ; and 
the corporation of Trinity House ofDe ptferd Strand. 

These rivers, together with the canals and railroads connected 
with them, give great facility for the export of the produce of the 
valuable collieries, iron-stone mines, and limestone quarries in the 
immediate vicinity. 



BUTE SHIP CANAL. 

1 William IV. Cap. 133, Royal Assent 16th July, 1830. 

This canal commences in Cardiff Harbour, at a place called The 
Eastern Hollows, near the mouth of {he River Taff, in the county 
of Glamorgan. Its course is in a straight line northwards to Car- 
diff Moors, and thence in a parallel course with the Glamorganshire 
Canal to near Whitaoor Lane, oh the sooth side of the town of 
Cardiff, where k terminates. The length of that part lying 
between the Eastern Hollows and Cardiff Moors, (called The 
Entrance Snip Canal) is one mile, three furlongs and eight chains 
m length; the surface water of which is to be maintained at 
an elevation of 41 feet above the level of lowwater-mark, spring 
tides, in Cardiff Harbour, which here averages 39 feet, by means 
of a sea lock and flood gates to be erected at its southern e*tre* 
mhy; the depth of water in the canal' is to be 33 feet The 

h 2 



116 BUTE SHIP CANAL. 

upper portion of this navigation, called The Basin, is to be nearly 
one thousand five hundred yards in length, and 20 feet deep ; 
from which are two communications by short cuts to the Gla- 
morganshire Canal ; one of which proceeding at right angles 
westwards from the inner lock at the northern extremity of the 
Entrance Canal, is three hundred and twenty yards in length ; the 
other proceeds in the same direction from the upper end of the 
basin next to the town of Cardiff, and is two hundred and seventy 
yards in length. 

The canal and basin is to be supplied with water by means of 
a feeder extending from a place in the River Taif, about half a 
mile north of Cardiff Castle; it is in length one mile and a 
half, and in its course will pass along some of the streets of 
Cardiff. 

The whole of these works are to be executed at the sole 
expense of The Most Honorable John Crichton Stuart, Marquis of 
Bute and Earl of Dumfries, under the authority of an act which 
received the sanction of his Majesty King William IV. on the 16th 
July, 1830, entitled, ' An Act for empowering the Marquis of 
' Bute to make and maintain a Ship Canal, commencing near the 
' Mouth of the River Taff, in the county of Glamorgan, and termi- 
' noting near the town of Cardiff, with other Works to communicate 
' therewith. 7 

Mr. James Green, civil engineer, designed the above works, 
and estimated the cost at £76,669. 

For the security of the water belonging to the proprietors of 
the Glamorganshire Canal, the Marquis is bound to maintain, by 
means of stop locks, his basin and the two collateral cuts extending 
therefrom at an elevation of 3 inches above the level of the top- 
water-mark of the above-mentioned canal ; and the proprietors of 
that navigation are in return required, upon one month's notice 
being given in writing, to let off their water to enable the 
Marquis to execute his works; but upon payment to them, on 
these occasions, the sum of £50 per diem, during the time their 
navigation is so obstructed. 

The act empowers the Marquis of Bute to demand the follow- 
ing tonnage rates : — 



BUTE SHIP CANAL. 117 

TONNAGE RATES. 

FIBST CLASS. 
Vtttel* attiring or departing with Cargo**. 

: d. 

For every Ship, Boat, Beige, Craft, Lighter or other Vessel la.) perTon. 

den, which shall enter from or depart to any Part of > n 4 Measurement 

GreatBritain, Ireland or the Isle of Man J ^^ 

Prom or to any other Part of Europe, the Islands of Guernsey, j 

Jersey, Alderoey, Sark, The Faro Isles or Iceland JO 8 ditto. 

From or to any Part of Asia, Africa or America, to the North- .. 

ward of the River La Plata Inclusive, and to the Northward I 

of the Cape of Good Hope, the Islands of St Helena, Ascen- \ l o ditto. 

skn. Cape de Verd Islands, Madeira Azores, Newfoundland, f 

Greenland and DaviesStraits J 

From or to any Part of South America, to the Southward of the J 

Hirer La Plata, from or to any Part or Place in the Pacific f 



Ocean, from or to any Part of Africa and Asia, to the East, I 
ward of the Cape of Good Hope - * 



ditto. 



SBCORD CLASS. 
Veuel* ottering or departing in Ballot. 



For every Ship, Ice which shall enter into or depart from the) 

said Ship Canal or Basin in Ballast, from or to any Part of > 3 ditto. 
Great Britain, Ireland or the Isle of Han J 

Por ditto from or to any other Part of the World 4 ditto. 

TBIBD CLASS. 

For every Ship, Boat, Barge, Craft, Lighter or other Vessel j 

laden, which shall enter from the Bristol Channel andf n A ... 
depart therefrom without breaking Bulk, or which shall dis-C " ° ama 
charge and depart with the same Cargo J 

For ditto which shall enter and depart in Ballast 3 ditto. 

For every Boat, Barge or other Craft, which shall enter from the J 

Glamorganshire Canal and pass through the Basin and Ship > 6 ditto. 
Canal > 

For every Ship, fcc. which shall enter the Canal or Basin for the purpose of unload, 
tag from or discharging Goods, Ac. on board of any Ship, Boat, Barge, Craft, 
Lighter or other Vessel being within the Ship Canal or Basin, such and the like 
Rates and Duties upon the Goods so discharged or loaded, as are allowed for 
Whar&ge Rates on Goods, as per the after-mentioned Schedule. 

And upon every Ship, kc which shall continue in the Ship \ 

Canal or Basin for any Space of Time exceeding Twenty- f - , ^no. 
one Days, for every Week and fractional Part of a Week t * 
over and above the said Twenty -one Days J 

For every Ship or Vessel which shall not enter the said Ship \ 

Canal, but shall either land or receive Passengers or Goods f 8 ditto, 
upon any of the Piers or Jetties constructed under the pro-t 
visions of this Act " 

WHARFAGE RATES, 

T» *e levied on all Mineral*, Good; Ware*, Merehandite, fro. brought upon an* 
Pier, Jettp, Wharf, Quoui or Landing Place*, or depotiled to an* Wartha—e he. 
longing to the ManpU of Bate— over and above the preceding Dutie*. 

For Bar, Bolt or Pig-iron, Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, Guns, Gun Carriages or > j 

Shot, Iron Wire, Lead, Lead Shot and Tallow, per Ton S 

For Broken or Bushel Iron, Ballast Iron, Iron-ore, Lead-ore, Salt and Slates, » 6 

per Ton • • 

For Copper-ore, per Ton ? ? 

For Copper or Brass, (or Battery) per Ton » 3 



118 CAISTOR CANAL. 

WHARFAGE BATES CONTINUED. 

*. d. 

For Wrought Copper or Brass and Naib, per Ton I 8 

For Bra* Wire, and Bed and White Lead, per Too 1 6 

For Tin, per Block or Barrel 3 

For Tin Plates, per Box I 

For Coal, Culm or Stone Coal, per Ton '. 9 

For Oak Bark, per Ton 3 • 

For Oak, Ash, Elm, Fir, or other Timber, per Load I 3 

For Deal Ends, per 130 4 

For Deals, per 130 1 

For large Oak Knees, each 3 

For small ditto, each I 

For Oak, Aah, Elm and Fir Plank, per 100 Superficial Feet 8 

For Quarter Oak, per 100 Feet in length 8 

For Ha>t, Yard or Bowsprit, Six Inches and under Eight in Diameter 8 

For ditto, Eight Inches ra Diameter and under Twelve 8 

For ditto, if Twelre and upwards 1 

For Wheat, Barley, Oats, Peas and Beans, per Quarter 3 

For Flour, or Heal, per Twenty Barren) or Bags 3 

For Tar, per Barrel 1 

For Gunpowder, per Barrel ... 3 

For Bricks or Pantiles, per Thousand I 

For Paying Bricks and Halt Kiln Tiles, per Hundred 8 

For Fire Bricks, per Thousand 3 

For Limestone, per Ton 3 

For Manure, per Ton I 

And so to proportion for any greater or les Quantity than a Ton. 
For any other Article or Herchandiie whatsoever, which shall be shipped from or 
landed or deposited upon any of the Wharfs, such reasonable Rate, Rent or Sum, 
not exceeding the Rates then usually paid in the Port of Bristol 
Goods not to remain on the Quays or Landing Places more than Three Days, without 

consent of the Harquis of Bute, or his Agents. 
His Majesty's Vessels are exempt from payment of any of the above Rates or Duties. 

The object of this canal is to avoid the dangers and difficulties 
of the present intricate navigation from the sea to the Glamorgan- 
shire Canal; and by affording additional accommodation to the 
shipping interest it will have the effect of increasing and improving 
the trade of Cardiff and its vicinity; and by facilitating the expor- 
tation of the mineral productions of this rich district, and providing 
a safe and convenient place for the loading and unloading afloat 
ships, and other vessels of greater burthen than can be at present ac- 
commodated, a general advantage will of necessity accrue to the 
public, and too much praise cannot be given to the noble Marquis 
for his spirited undertaking. 



CAISTOR CANAL. 

33 George m. Cap. 114, Royal Assent 3rd June, 1TS3. 

This canal commences on the New River Ancholme Naviga- 
tion, near Creampoke, in Kesley Cam, and proceeds in an easterly 



CAISTOR CANAL. 119 

direction by the village of South Kebey, to its termination at 
Moortown, three miles and a half west of the town of Caistor. It 
is four miles in length, with six locks, and it was made under the 
authority of an act, entitled, ' Jin Act far making and maintaining 
'o navigable Canal, from the River Ancholme, in the parish of 
1 South Kelsey, in the county of Lincoln, into the parish of Caistor, 
* w the said county,* by which the subscribers are incorporated by 
the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Caistor Canal 
u Navigation," with power to raise £\&,QO0, in one hundred and 
fifty shares o{£l00 each, with further authority for raising an ad- 
ditional sum of j£lO,000, if necessary. n 

TONNAGE BATES. 

d. 
Wheat, Bye, Shelling, Beam, Pea*, Vetches, Lentils.) ,i per Quar ter, per Mile. 

Apple*, Pears, Onions and Potatoes i * 

Barley, Malt, and Oats 1 ditto. ditto. 

Wool, Dried Pelts or Speeches lj per Pack, per Mite. 

Coal, Slack, Cinders, Culm, and Charcoal 4 per Ton, per Mile. 

Lime S ditto, ditto. 

Bricks and Tiles 2 ditto, ditto. 

Stonritag, Paring-stone sad Slate 8 ditto, ditto. 

Cast Metal Goods, Bar and other Iron 6 ditto, ditto. 

Timber (English or Foreign) and Deals 4 ditto, ditto. 

Groceries, Linen and Woollen Yam, Cotton, Flax, 1 

Hemp, Manufactured Goods, and all Wares and > 8 ditto, ditto. 

Merchandise ......*••.• ....••...•..*.•...«..•} 

Fractions to be taken as for a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

EXEMPTION FROM RATES. 

Timber and Stone for the use of his Majesty; Gravel and Sand for the repair of Roads; 
Dong, Mart, and Soil lor the purpose of Manuring Lands b elonging to Owners of 
adjoining Lands; though these last-mentioned Articles are not permitted to pass a 
Lock free, unless the Water shall Bow over the Waste Wete. Vessels under 
Twenty Tom, not to pass without leave, or without paying for that Tonnage. 

By this canal, and the Ancholme Navigation, the surplus agri- 
cultural produce of the north of Lincolnshire is exported ; and 
coal, agricultural lime, and general merchandize, is the return to 
Caistor and its neighbourhood. 

There was some attempt made, in 1801, to make a canal from 
this, along the foot of the Wolds, to near Market Raisin, but as no 
act was obtained for the purpose, H seems now to be abandoned. 



120 CALDEK AND HEBBLE NAVIGATION. 



CALDER AND HEBBLE NAVIGATION. 

31 George n. Cap. 72, Royal Assent 9th June, 17S8. 
9 George III Cap. 71, Royal Assent 21st April, 1769. 
6 George IV. Cap. 17, Royal Assent 31st March, 1825. 

The River Calder rises in the mountainous district north of the 
town of Todmorden, running along a most romantic and deep val- 
ley, called The Vale of Todmorden, where in many places the 
river, the turnpike road, and the Rochdale Canal, are within a few 
yards of each other ; having passed Todmorden, it runs by My- 
tholme and Hebden Bridge, to Sowerby Wharf, about two miles 
from Halifax, where the Calder and Hebble Navigation com- 
mences. The Hebble is a small but rapid stream, which, rising 
above Ovenden, passes round the north and east sides of the town 
of Halifax, and falls into the Calder below Salterhebble. The 
course of the Calder, from the commencement of this navigation, 
is in an easterly direction, by Elland, Kirklees Park, near which 
place it is joined by the Colne, and Sir John Ramsden's Canal ; 
from hence it passes by Dewsbury and Horbury Bridge, to 
Wakefield; at a quarter of a mile below Wakefield Bridge it ter- 
minates, on entering the Aire and Calder Navigation at a place 
called Fall Ing. 

This river was rendered navigable by making cuts and locks 
for the purpose of passing mill weirs, &c. under the authority of an 
act of the 31st George II. entitled, ' Jin Act for extending the 
' Navigation of the River Calder, to or near to Sowerby Bridge, in 
' the parish of Halifax ; and for making navigable the River Hcb- 
' ble, Halig, or Halifax Brook, from Brooksmouth to Salterhebble 
' Bridge, in the county of York.' Mr. Smeaton surveyed the pro- 
posed line in 1757, and it was carried into execution, under his 
superintendence, by commissioners appointed in the act, whose 
qualification was a landed estate of the annual value of £100, or 
a personalty to the amount of £3,000 ; any nine of whom were 
empowered to act 

Authority is given to raise money, for the purpose of carrying 
this act into execution, at five per cent, interest, on security of the 
tolls granted, which were as follow. 



CALDER AND HEBBLE NAVIGATION. 121 

TONNAGE RATES. 

*. d. 

St< ^Co^:. F ^!'.. L ! n ^. L !^ ne :^ d } » l»P«Ton.<*thewnoteDist»j 1 o e . 
AH otherGoods, Merchandise, and Com- > 8 „ j^ j^ ^^ 
modules .....) 

And so to proportion lbr any Aorta Distance. 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. 

Stones, Timber, Gravel, Sand, or other Materials, for the use of toe Mills within the 
Limits of this Line of Navigation. 
Soapefs Waste, Dung, and all Sorts of Manure, except Lime 'or Limestone. 
Coal, under this Act, is prohibited from being carried down the Stream towards . 
Wakefield, (except for the Use of the Vessels navigating the same) under the ' 
Penalty of £50, one-half to the King, the other Moiety to the Person who sues for 
the i 



Considerable damage having been done to this navigation by 
a gnat flood, which occurred in the night between the 7th and 
8th October, 1707, and a total stop being pat to the navigation, 
application was made in the following year to parliament, by the 
parties who had famished the funds for constructing the naviga- 
tion, and they obtained an act, entitled, * An Act for extending the 
1 Navigation of the River Colder to SaUerkebble Bridge, and to 
' Sowerby Bridge, in the county of York, and for repealing an Act 
'■for that Purpose;' in the preamble of which, after reciting the 
title of the original act, is the following statement of the reason 
for this measure ; — 

u And whereas the commissioners appointed for carrying the 
u said act into execution, have borrowed of several persons consi- 
u derable sums of money, which they have laid out for the purposes 
u aforesaid, and great advantages arising therefrom have been 
u already experienced : and whereas, before such navigation was 
"completed, and all the necessary works for the defence and 
u security of the cuts, locks and other works were perfected, such 
" of the works as were then made, were, by the violence of re- 
" peated floods, destroyed or very greatly damaged, and the na- 
u vigation is ruined so far as to be no longer passable for any kind 
" of Teasels from Wakefield to Brooksraouth, or from Brooksmouth 
" to Salterhebble Bridge : and, whereas, the said commissioners 
u cannot raise money to make the same good again, no person 
" being willing to lend any, under the present circumstances, 
" upon such security as they are empowered to give by virtue of 



122 CALDER AND HEBBLE NAVIGATION 

" the said act, so that all those who have already advanced money 
" for making the said navigation, are likely to lose their money so 
" advanced, to the great discouragement of all persons willing to 
" engage in such useful undertakings ; and the public is in danger 
" of losing the benefit of such navigation, unless some further pro- 
" vision be made by law for restoring, completing, and main- 
" taining the same : may it therefore please your Majesty, 
« &c. &c." 

The proprietors, or original mortgagees, were eighty-one in 
' number, amongst whom was Sir George Savile, Bart, and they 
were, by this act, incorporated by the name of " The Company of 
" Proprietors of the Calder and Hebble Navigation," with power 
to raise among themselves, and by the admission of new subscri- 
bers, such sums of money, for' the purposes of this act, as the 
company, at any general meeting, shall direct to be raised ; and 
that this, together with the money already advanced, with interest 
due thereon, shall be divided into £100 shares. The company 
are also authorized to borrow, on security of the tolls, the sum of 
£20,000. The concern is under the direction of a committee of 
five, or more, who are under the control of the general meetings. 
As this act repeals the act of 31st George II. the following tonnage 
rates were substituted. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

«. d. 

St Tc^ Sto !f\ F !T: Li T'.. L ' m .^?.' >C .'.?. nd } 4 2 PerTon.fortliewhoIeDbiUi.ee. 
All other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and , duto dMo 

Commodities 5 

And so in proportion for any less Distance or Weight 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. 

Materials for the repairs of any of the Mills on this Line of Nuvitration, Soaper s 
Waste, Dung, or any Kind of Manure, except Lime and Limestone, provided such 
Articles pass through the Locks at the time when Water is flowing over the Dam 
of such Locks. 

Boats under Fifteen Tons, not to pass without leave. 

Owners of Wharfs may charge Three-pence per Ton for any Article which may 

remain less than Six Days, if more, a Half-penny per Day in Addition. 

The act contains this condition as regards dividends, viz. that 
whenever more than ten per cent, shall be paid in any one year, 
on the original sums expended on the navigation, then a reduction 



CALDKB AND HEMtB NAVIGATION. 138 

shall take place in die rates, in the year following the payment of 
more than ten per cent in the proportion of two shillings and 
sixpence in the pound upon all such surplus. 

Milkrs are required to stop their mflh, when the water is 
redaeed 18 inches below the crown of the dam. 

Mr. Smeaton was again directed to view the Calder, by the 
new proprietors, with reference to the repairing and perfecting 
the navigation; and he accordingly reported on it in December, 
1770^ the year after the obtaining of the act In February, 177% 
he again examined the river and suggested several improvements, 
which were carried into immediate execution. 

The Calder and Hebble Navigation, from its junction with the 
Aire and Calder Navigation at Fall Ing Lock, to the basin at 
Sowerby Wharf, where it communicates with the Rochdale Canal, 
is twenty-two miles in length, with a fell of 193 feet 6 inches, by 
twenty-eight locks. 

A considerable portion of the line of this navigation occupies 
the original course of the river, and the remainder consists of cuts, 
to avoid the circuitous course of the river, and for the purpose of 
passing the mill weirs. It was first projected with the sole object 
of giving greater facilities to the populous manufacturing district 
situate westward of the town of Wakefield ; but it has subse- 
quently, by its connection with the Rochdale and Huddersfield 
Canals, become a very important part of the line of inland naviga- 
tion between the ports of Liverpool, Gqole and Hull, thus con- 
necting the German Ocean and the Irish Sea. 

For many years a considerable portion of the manufactures of 
Manchester and Rochdale were brought, by land carriage, across 
die grand ridge, to this navigation at Sowerby Bridge Wharf; 
but when the Rochdale and the Huddersfield Canals were opened, 
the increase to the revenues of this navigation was such, as to 
enable the proprietors to divide fourteen per cent notwi th sta ndin g 
the prohibitory clause in the act of 9th George HI. besides accu- 
mulating a considerable fund for any exigency. The country 
through which it passes has also partaken of the great advantages 
arising from a well regulated navigation. . Agricultural lime has, 
by ita means, been carried to fertilise a sterile and mountainous 
district; stone and flag quarries have been opened in its vicinity, 



124 CALDER AND HEBBLE NAVIGATION. 

which have furnished inexhaustible supplies for the London 
Market, and other parts of the kingdom ; we allude, in particular, 
to the celebrated flag quarries of Cromwell Bottom and Elland 
Edge, at the former of which there is an extensive wharf. Iron- 
stone and coal works have been, and continue to be, extensively 
worked on its banks ; and from the collieries at Flockton, a rail- 
way extends to the river at Horbury Bridge; from the Starr's 
Hill Colliery there is also a railway, terminating at the Calder, a 
little above the same bridge ; within a few years there was a 
railway from the White Lee Colliery, above Heckmondwike, 
which terminated at this navigation, a short distance above Dews- 
bury, but the colliery is now worked out, and the railway taken 
up. At Kirklees a railway id laid to this navigation, from Sir 
George Armytage's Collieries ; and the Earl of Cardigan has also 
a railway from his valuable collieries at New Park, to the Calder, 
at Wakefield, where are convenient staiths for shipment. Many 
other collieries, stone quarries, &c. have been opened on its banks, 
in consequence of the facility it gives for exporting their heavy 
produce, but they are too numerous to be all introduced within 
our pages. 

In 1825 the company of proprietors applied for an act to 
enable them to extend a branch of their navigation to the town of 
Halifax, which will be attended with considerable advantage to 
that populous and important manufacturing town ; it is entitled, 
' An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Calder and 
' Hebble Navigation, to make a navigable Cut or Canal from 
' Salterhebble Bridge, to Bailey Hall, near to the town of Halifax, 
' tn the West Riding of the county of York ; and to amend the Act 
' relating to the said Navigation. 1 By this act the company are 
empowered to raise among themselves, or by the admission of new 
proprietors, the sum of £ 40,000 for carrying into execution (only 
one mile and three-eighths of canal,) the works proposed ; with 
further power to raise, by way of loan, or by creating new shares, 
an additional sum of £\ 0,000; but which sums of £40,000 and 
£10,000 may be raised upon promissory notes, or on mortgage of 
the tolls and duties authorized to be collected. 

The clause in the former act relating to the limitation of the 
dividends, is in this act repealed, so that the proprietors may here- 



CALEDONIAN CANAL. 125 

after divide the whole of their profits : the tonnage rate* are also 
altered, and the following are what the proprietors are now em- 
powered to collect 

TONNAGE RATES. 
*. i. 

SLa c^^} ia ^ a !^T t '.'! a& .} a »*P« Ton. for the whole Diatance. 

M c^^^^^^?^ I ! , ^. a !i 1 !} 4 »i *"* *«* ditto; 

And ao la proportkmfbr any lea Weight or Distance. 
Fractions to be taken as lor a Quarter of a Mile, and at for a Quarter of a Ton. 

The new tonnage rates above-recited came into operation for 
the whole line of navigation on the 1st day of June, 1825. The 
gross receipts of this work amount to about £40,000 per annum. 

The cut authorized to be made by the last act, is nearly one 
mile and three-eighths in length, with a rise of 100J feet. It 
commences in the Salterhebble Basin, and proceeds up the valley 
to the east side of the town of Halifax, where there are convenient 
wharfs and basins for the accommodation of the trade. The water 
for supplying it is procured by means of a drift eleven hundred 
and severity yards in length, from the basin of the canal, at Salter- 
hebble, to a pit beyond the uppermost lock, from which it is 
raised by a powerful steam engine, into the head leveL This 
novel and expensive mode of procuring the lockage water was 
resorted to by Mr. Bradley, the company's engineer, for the pur- 
pose of avoiding disputes with the numerous mill owners on the 
line of the Hebble Brook, below Halifax. 



CALEDONIAN CANAL. 

48 George IIL Cap. 103, Royal Assent 37th July, IA03. 

44 George IIL Cap. 03, Royal Assent 39th June, 1804. 

6 George TV. Cap. 15, Royal Assent 31st March, 1835. 

This canal, or. rather series of canals and navigable lochs, 
ferns one of the most magnificent inland navigations in the world ; 
and its execution has been justly accounted one of the brightest 
examples of what the skill and perseverance of our engineers can 
accomplish. It commences at the Corpach Basin, in the tideway of 
Lxh Eil, at the north end of Linnhe Loch, near Fort William, and 



126 CALEDONIAN CANAL. 

at the foot of that celebrated Mountain Ben Nevis, which rises 
4,370 feet above the level of the sea. From hence its course is 
nearly in a straight direction, north-eastwardly, through Lochs 
Lochy, Ness, Doughfour, to Clacknacarry Basin in Loch Beauly, 
where it enters the Murray Firth, on the west side of the town of 
Inverness. Its total length is sixty miles and a half, and the fol- 
lowing are the particulars of the lengths of the several cuts and 
lochs, extracted from a document ordered by the Honourable the 
House of Commons, on the 1st of June, 1821. 

m. f. c. 
Canal, from the sea lock at Clacknacarry to Muir > 

Town 5 

From Muir Town through Loch Doughfour to Loch 1 

Ness > 

Length of Loch Ness 23 5 6 

From the south-west end of Loch Ness to Loch Oich 5 3 5 

Length of Loch Oich 3 5 6 

From the south-west end of Loch Oich to Loch I 

Lochy 

Length of the Loch Lochy 10 O 

From the south-west end of Loch Lochy to Cor- J 

pach Sea Lock > 

Total length of the navigation... . 60 4 O 

Of this, twenty-three miles and eight chains are artificially formed, 
and the remaining thirty-seven miles, three furlongs and two 
chains, are natural lochs or lakes, which have been made navi- 
gable. 

There are twenty-eight locks upon this navigation, viz : — from 
Loch Eil to Loch Lochy, twelve locks; and two more to the 
summit level at Loch Oich ; from hence are seven locks to Fort 
Augustus, at the west end of Loch Ness; and seven from the 
end of the last-mentioned loch to the sea, at Loch Beauly, above 
low water of which, the summit level is only 91 feet 

The first act relating to this grand national undertaking occurs 
in the 43rd George III. and is entitled, ' An Act for granting to 
< his Majesty the Sum of £20,000, towards defraying the Expense of 



> 1 6 5 



CALEDONIAN CANAL.- 127 

• making an Inland Navigation from the wutern to the eastern Sea, 
'■by Inverness and Fort William; and for taking the necessary step* 
' towards executing the same,' by which, commissioners were ap- 
pointed to carry the act into execution; some progress was, in 
consequence, made, but in the following session, another act w» 
p ass ed, entitled, < An Act for making further provision for making 
'and maintaining an Inland Navigation, commonly called u The 
1 Caledonian Canal" from the eastern to the western Sea, by Inver- 
' nets and Fort William, in Scotland.' By this legislative enactment, 
the commissioners, appointed in the first act, are authorized to 
receive, at his Majesty's Exchequer, the sum of £5OfiO0, in two 
half yearly instalments, for the purposes set forth in the preamble. 
Though this line of navigation was commenced by government, 
jet the last-recited act contains a clause securing a proportionate 
dividend to aD who may be disposed to become shareholders in the 
sndertaking for any sum above £50 ; ten per cent to be paid at 
nie time of subscribing, the other at such times, and by such 
bstalments as the commissioners may determine. For the purpose 
of securing a supply of water for the lockage in tins navigation, 
the act empowers the commkmoners to embank Loch Garry, Loch 
Qnoich or Qirich, and Loch Arkeg, so that they may more effeo 
taaDy act as reservoirs. 

THE RATES OF TONNAGE ALLOWED UNDEE THE ACT. 

d. 
floods, Witt, Memhandiw and Commodities i per Ton, per Mile. 

And so to proportion for any greater or lea Quantity than a Ton; and payment shall 

be made for a foil Mile, if any Portion of such Mile shall have been passed. 

Vessel* entering a Loch or Lake abal) pay for the whole Length of such Loch or Lake. 

Thirty-six cubic Feet of Oak, Ash, Elm, Beech, Poplar, or Birch Timber, and Forty 

trt cubic Feet of Fir, or Deal Balk, shall be deemed aTon. 

All Vessels in his Majesty's Serrice are exempt from Toll. 

The act of 6th George IV. entitled, < An Act to explain and 
1 amend two Acts passed in the Forty-third and Forty-fourth Years 
* of the Reign of Hit late Majesty King George the Third, for 
' making and maintaining an Inland Navigation, commonly called 
' " The Caledonian Canal," by establishing further Checks upon the 
' Expenditure of the Public Money for that Purpose, in certain 
' cases,' was passed chiefly with the view of better regulating the 



128 CALEDONIAN CANAL. 

payment of compensation claims, in respect of consequential 
damage, wherein it is required that all such claims should be 
made on or before the 1st of February, 1826. 

This canal, which was projected and commenced chiefly with 
the view of giving facilities to the Baltic Timber Trade, was 
opened in October, 1822. Its depth is 15 feet, although it was 
proposed, originally, to be 5 feet deeper ; but as the estimate for 
giving this increased depth was £41,000, and, as the Baltic Tim- 
ber Trade has been in a great measure destroyed, by the new 
scale of duties having directed the trade to Canada, the commis- 
sioners have, at present, decided, not to add this cost to the enor- 
mous gum of £977,524, which had been expended on the canal 
up to the 1st of January, 1828. 

Though this is a capital navigation for ships drawing 15 
feet water, in addition to the advantages gained by avoiding the 
circuitous and dangerous navigation through Pentland Frith, and 
the Western Hebrides, it has not hitherto attracted the attention of 
seafaring adventurers so much as might have been expected ; for 
it appears from the twenty-fourth report of the commissioners in 
July, 1828, that the total number of ships which availed them- 
selves of this passage, in 1826, was nine hundred and forty-four; 
in 1827, seven hundred and sixty-six ; and in 1828, eight hundred 
and eighty-two ; and the total produce of the rates for the year 
ending May, 1 828, was only £2,870, whilst the expense incurred 
in keeping up the canal amounted to £4,173, leaving a deficiency 
of £l,303, which has been borrowed. 

Since January 1st, 1828, the tonnage rates have been reduced 
to the original rate of one farthing per ton per mile, which may 
have the effect of attracting the shipping interest to the more fre- 
quent use of this canal. 

Nearly thirty years previous to the passing of the first act rela- 
ting to this canal, Mr. Watt surveyed the line, and estimated that 
a canal of 12 feet water would cost £164,031, exclusive of land. 
Two years, however, previous to the date of the first act, Mr. Tel- 
ford, along with Mr. Murdoch Downie, being directed by govern- 
ment to examine the line, recommended a canal of the width of 1 10 
feet at the surface, and 50 feet at the bottom, with 20 feet water, 
and the locks 162 feet by 38 ; and the estimate formed by Mr. W. 



CAM OR OBANT RIVER. 

Jeaop, according to these dimensions, amounted to £4%^ ■ 
■ rJwtin g the land required, and the necessary mooring chains. V 
was afterwards directed that the locks should be 1 72 feet by 38 to 
40 feet; and, with the view of givmg greater facft^y to the passage 
af email vessels, it was in contemplation to construct side locks for 
i i sj bIu of two hundred tons, bat as this appendage was estimated to 
east £75 y 9O0, and the advantage appearing very uncertain, the idea 
was abandoned. 

The whole of die works on th» line of canal are of the first 
order, and exhibit the combined skill of the excellent engineers, 
who were entrusted with hs execution, in the most favourable point 
•f view ; and whoever views the celebrated chain of eight locks, 
called u Neptune's Staircase," situate at the eastern end of this na- 
vigation, which alone cost upwards of £SOfiOO, and the sea lock 
at dacknacarry, extending upwards of four hundred yards into the 
sea, will net hesitate to confirm the opinion we have thus expressed. 



CAM OR GRANT RIVER. 

1 Axme, Cap. 11, Royal Assent 27th February, 1703. 
S3 George UL Cap. 314, Royal Assent 21st July, 1813. 

This river rises on the confines of Hertfordshire, between 
Biggleswade and Royston, from whence it pursues a north-easterly 
course, on the south side of Orwell Hill, to the Queen's Mill, at 
Cambridge, to which place it is navigable. From hence its course 
is by Fen Ditton to ClayhHhe Ferry, the place where the London 
and Cambridge Junction Canal was intended to communicate with 
this river, and where the navigation, as comprehended under the 
foregoing acts, terminate. The remaining portion of the Cam 
River being in Bedford Level, and consequently under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Bedford Level Corporation, will be described under the 
bead of Ousse River, as all the legislative enactments relating to 
the lower end of the Cam are introduced into acts of parliament, 
obtained by the above body, the titles of some of which terminate 
in the following manner, viz : — ' and for improving the Naviga- 
' lion of the River (hue, in the county of Norfolk, and of the 
' leceral Rivers communicating therewith.' The first act, therefore, 



130 CAMEL RIVER. 

relating to the upper portion of the Cam, was passed in the first 
year of the reign of Anne, and is entitled, ' An Act for making the 
i River Cham, alias Grant, in the county of Cambridge, more navi- 
< gable from Clayhithe Ferry to the Queen's Mill, in the University 
1 and Town of Cambridge,' from which it would appear that it was 
navigable previous to this early date, but from what period we 
cannot learn. 

The navigation, which is only about seven miles in length, is 
managed by conservators' appointed under the authority of the 
above-mentioned act. 

Another act of parliament was obtained in 1813, entitled, ' An 
' Act for extending and amending an Act of Queen Anne, for 
1 making the River Cham more navigable from Clayhithe Ferry to the 
i Queen's Mill, in the county of Cambridge,' but it does not contain 
any clauses wherein the public are generally interested. 

The principal uses to which this navigation is put, is to export 
the surplus agricultural produce of the country through which 
it passes, and to 'facilitate the import of coal and general mer- 
chandize. 

CAMEL RIVER. 

This river rises three miles north of Camelford, in Cornwall, 
on the east side of which town it passes; thence by Tredethy and 
Penhargate, to Dunmeer Bridge, where it changes to a north- 
eastwardly course, by Guinea Port, to Wade Bridge, where it 
enters an estuary which falls into the sea at Stepper Point, three 
miles east from Padstow. 

It is navigable, as a tideway river, from Guinea Port, near 
Wade Bridge, to the sea, a distance (by the low water channel) 
of eight miles and a half. An act was obtained in 1797 to extend 
this navigation, by means of the Polbrook Canal, but it has not yet 
been carried into execution. It was entitled, ' An Act for making 
' and maintaining a navigable Canal, from Guinea Port, in the 
1 parish of St. Breock, in the county of Cornwall, to Dunmeer 
' Bridge, in the parish of Bodmin, in the said county ; and also 
' a certain collateral Cut, from Cood, to, or near to, Ruthern 
' Bridge, in the said parish of Bodmin.' 



CANTERBUBY NAVIGATION OH RIVBR STOUR. JS1 

There is no act relating to the river, and being m the tideway, 
k k consequently free of toll. 

The chief uses to which this navigable estuary is put, is to ex- 
port the produce of the tin and copper mines in its immediate vici- 
nity, aad the import of coal and general merchandize. Slate, also, 
form* an article of exportation from the port of Padstow, a consi- 
derable town on its banks. 



CANTERBURY NAVIGATION OR RIVER 
STOUR. 

* 6 Henry VHL Cap. 17, Royal Aaent 1514. 

S George IV. Cap. 186, Royal Anent 22nd June, 1825. 

Trs River Stow rises on the south side of the Chalk Hills, near 
Idwham, whence, taking a south-eastwardly course by Surrender 
Dering, Hothfield Place the seat of the Earl of Thanet, to the 
town of Ashfbrd, where it is joined by another considerable stream, 
which also bears the name of Stour, and which rises on the 
Downs, eastward of Mount Morris; hence it pursues a north- 
westwardly course through a portion of the Weald of Kent, and 
south of Mersham Hatch, the seat of Sir E. KnatchbuE, to the 
junction at Ashfbrd. From hence the united streams pursue a 
northerly course through one of the most fertile vallies of this de- 
lightful county, by Godmereham Park, Chilham Castle, and 
Chartfaam, to the city of Canterbury, where the river becomes na- 
vigable. From this place its course is north-eastwardly, by Ford- 
wich, to- near Sarr, below which place the Little Stour or Seaton 
Navigation falls into it; hence pursuing a course nearly east, until 
within three quarters of a mile of the sea. at Sandwich Haven, 
from which point, however, by the line of the river, ifc is upwards 
of seven miles, in consequence of the circuitous course it takes by 
Sandwich to the above haven, in Pegwell Bay. To obviate this, 
however, a cut, called Stonar Cut, has been made between the 
channels, which takes off a considerable portion of this circuitous 
mote by Sandwich. 

The Stour is a very ancient navigation, as we find an act in the 
Oth year of the reign of Henry VIII. entitled, ' An Act concerning 

i 2 



132 CANTERBURY NAVIGATION OR RIVER STOUR. 

' the River at Canterbury, 1 but whether it was the one under 
which the river was originally made navigable, is a question we 
have not the means of deciding upon. The act alx>ve-recited is, 
however, the act under which the navigation has been managed, 
until the early part of the present reign, though the royal assent 
was given to an act, on the 10th of June, 181 1, (51 George III.) 
for the purpose of superseding the upper portion of this navigation, 
which is entitled, ' An Act for making a Harbour and Wet Dock, 
' at or near St. Nicholas' Bay, in the parish of St. Nicholas, and 
' all Saints, in the Isle of Thanet, in the county of Kent, and for 
' making a navigable Canal, from the said Harbour, to the City of 
' Canterbtiry,' 1 but, of these proposed works, no portion has ever 
been carried into execution. 

As this river, in its present state, and the haven of Sandwich, 
had become very inadequate to the trade of Canterbury and Sand- 
wich, a company, consisting of four hundred and forty-nine per- 
sons, amongst whom were the Earl of Darnley, Lord Viscount 
Teynham, and Sir E. W. Campbell Rich Owen, Sir Gerard Noel, 
Sir William Kay, Admiral Sir John Knight, and Sir Robert Far- 
quhar, obtained an act, entitled, ' An Act for improving the Navt- 
' gation of the River Stour, and Sandwich Haven, from the City of 
' Canterbury to theTown and Port of Sandwich, inthe county of Kent ; 
' and for making and maintaining a New Haven from the saidToum 
' and Port of Sandwich to the Sea, and a Harbour on the Sea Shore ;' 
by which the above persons were incorporated under the name of 
" The Canterbury Navigation and Sandwich Harbour Company." 

The improvements contemplated under this act consist chiefly 
of a canal or harbour, 8 feet deep, from the Small Downs, com- 
mencing between the Batteries, Nos. 1 and 2, to the River Stour, 
at Sandwich, which is in length, from the end of the proposed 
jetty, two miles, four furlongs and five chains ; from thence the 
navigation is continued in the old course of the river, sixteen miles 
and five chains, to Fordwich, where there is a lock rising 6 feet ; 
from hence to the tail of Abbott's Mill, Canterbury, the length is 
two miles and a quarter, including three short cuts, together 
amounting in length, to one mile, one furlong and seven chains ; 
half a mile from Canterbury there is another lock of 6 feet rise. 

At the end of the canal, in the Downs, where the spring 



CANTERBURY NAVIGATION OR RIVER STOUR. 133 

tide rises 18 feet, there is to be a jetty 1000 feet in length. Basins 
are to be constructed at Sandwich, and Abbott's Mill, Canterbury. 
At the latter place the surface of the navigation will be 27 feet 
above low water spring tides, and 9 feet above high water. 

The total length of the navigation, when improved, will be 
twenty miles, six furlongs and eight chains; the estimate for 
which was made by Mr. James Morgan, civil engineer, and 
amounted to the sum of £70,657, 13*. Id. 

The company have power to raise among themselves, for the 
above purposes, the sum of £l 00,000, in four thousand shares of 
£25 each, and in case the above sum is insufficient, power is 
given to raise an additional sum of £40,000, by mortgage of the 
undertaking ; half of which sum may be raised by way of annuity, 
or they may borrow, at their option, the above sum of £40,000 
of the Exchequer Bill Commissioners. 

The improved navigation is to be under the management 
of directors, who have power to appoint a governor and deputy. 
The present navigation, however, is not to be interfered with until 
the harbour and the cuts from Fordwich to Canterbury are finished. 

The new harbour and haven of Sandwich to be considered as 
within the liberties of the town and port of Sandwich and the Cin- 
que Ports ; and that the lord warden of the Cinque Ports, the con- 
stable of Dover Castle, and the mayor, jurats, and commonalty of 
Sandwich, &c are to have jurisdiction in the same manner as before 
exercised by them over the old haven and harbour of Sandwich. 

By an act of 32nd George III. entitled, * An Act for the Main- 
' tenance and Improvement of the Harbour of Ramsgate, tn the 

* county of Kent, and for cleansing, amending, and preserving the 

* Haven of Sandwich, in the said county,' the corporation of Sand- 
wich are entitled to the annual sum of £200, for the purpose of 
preserving Sandwich Haven, and which is by the act of the 6th of 
his present Majesty directed to be applied, with the same object, 
on the works of the new haven. 

The company of proprietors are directed to invest £5,000 in 
the three per cents, as a security for the due execution of the 
works hereby authorized, and this sum, and the dividends arising 
from it, is to remain until it accumulate to £20,000. 



134 CANTERBURY NAVIGATION OR RIVER STOUR. 

HARBOUR DUES ON THE TONNAGE OF VESSELS FREQUENTING THE 
PORT AND RIVER. 

£. ». d. 

Foreign Vessels to load or unload 1 6 per Ton. 

British Vessels from Foreign Countries 13 ditto. 

Ditto, Coastwise 9 ditto. 

Ditto, Colliers laden ditto 9 ditto. 

Ditto, Vessels laden with Lime-stone, Lime- j 

chalk, Sand, Manure, Ballast, or any Description of Cora- > 3 ditto. 

post for the Land ) 

Passage Vessels, Keels, and Boats 6 ditto. 

Pleasure Yachts under Thirty Tons, and Boats in the Har- lino Der Annum 

bour or on the River, belonging to the Port and River. . J "^ 

The same Description of Vessels or Yachts, exceeding Thirty ) 

Tons Burthen, either belonging to the Port or entering > 9 per Ton. 

the Harbour or River from any other Port ) 

Every Foreign Fishing Boat 4 ditto. 

Every English ditto 3 ditto. 

Every Vessel entering and using the Harbour, Basin, or Wet -. 

Dock, from Stress of Weather, or Outward Bound, wait- (. 6 ditto. 

ing for a Wind, or for repairs ) 

Every Vessel remaining in the Harbour or Basin more than ^ . „ _, 

Twelve Days after the Weather abates, or the Wind per- (. per i on, per 

mits, unless for Repairs ) lem ' 

There is an exemption in favour of vessels belonging to the 
port of Arundel, in Sussex, which are made free of the harbours, 
ports, and havens of Dover, Rye, Ramsgate and Sandwich, by au- 
thority of an act of 33rd George III. (see page 29, under the head 
of Arun River.) The ships and vessels in his Majesty's service 
are also exempt from payment of these duties. 

There is, also, a special clause relating to the rates to be paid 
by the owner or occupier of the corn mill, wharfs, and warehouses, 
situate on the Little Stour or Seaton Navigation, at Seaton, in the 
parish of Ifckham, directing the harbour duties to be paid in full ; 
but for the period of twenty-one years from the commencement of 
such rates, one-half only of the river rates are to be demanded for 
and in respect of all cargoes belonging to them, conveyed in 
barges drawing 3 feet 6 inches only, and loaded or discharged in 
the Little Stour or Seaton Navigation. The navigation here re- 
ferred to has been made without application to parliament, and 
extends from Seaton to the Canterbury Navigation, into which it 
enters a little below Stourmouth. Its length is little more than six 
miles, and no part of it is more than 1 5 feet above low water 
spring tides. 

Ships receiving or unlading goods upon any part of the sea 
coast, between Cliffs End, in the parish of St Lawrence, in the 
Isle of Thanet, and Sandown Castle, are liable to the aforesaid ton- 
nage duties. 



CANTERBURY NAVIGATION OB B1VBH STOUH. 135 

When the works, contemplated under the lad act, are carried 
into execution, they wQl tend greatly to improve the city of Can- 
terbury and port of Sandwich, as hitherto, the haven of Sandwich, 
by reason of the shifting of the channel of the Stow, through the 
sands in Pegwell Bay, has been very unsafe for vessels of consider- 
able burthen. 

The importance of a harbour in the Downs was felt so early 
as the time of Edward VI. in which reign an attempt was made 
to form one near Sandwich; again in Elisabeth's reign; and, in 
1744, an estimate for this purpose was laid before the Honour- 
able the House of Commons, which amounted to the sum of 
^£389,168, 13*. id. exclusive of land. 

This scheme, however, was abandoned, and ultimately the 
excellent harbour at Ramsgate was proposed. 

This is situate three miles to the northward of Sandwich 
Haven, and is the only secure harbour, in case of storm, on this 
part of the coast 

The celebrated piers which form it were begun in 1749, and 
are built entirely of Portland and Purbeck Stone. 

The east pier extends, southerly, 800 feet into the sea; it 
then tarns to the west, exhibiting a front, to the Downs, of a 
polygonal form of five sides, each 460 feet in length. 

From the end of this an advanced pier, of 400 feet in length, 
was added to it by Mr. Smeaton, and at right angles with this, 
is the termination of the west pier, of nearly similar form and 
dimensions, leaving an entrance into the harbour of 400 feet in 
width. 

The area enclosed from the sea is forty-six acres, and a basin 
has been subsequently formed, under the direction of the last* 
mentioned engineer, at the upper end, by which the tide water 
can be so penned up, that when at low water the sluices are 
drawn, it has the effect of scouring out the silt which collects 
in the outer harbour. 



136 CANTERBURY NAVIGATION OR RIVER STOUR. 

THE FOLLOWING SCHEDULE OF HARBOUR AND RIVER RATES, 

On Cargoes, Wharfage, and Charge* on Good* icarehoueed in the Harbour or on the 
Line of Navigation, are granted by this Act. 



OVSCHIPTION OF GOODS. 



leans, Peas, "i 
ustard, and > 
J 



Wheat, Barley, Malt, Beans, Peas. 

Tana, Canary, Mustard 

other Seeds . . 

Oats 

Flour 

Miid, Middlings, Sharps, Pollard i 

and Bran .,...,,,.... . $ 

Clover, Trefoil, anil other heavy j 

Seeds 

Potatoes and Onions 

Apples, Peers, la:..... 

Hops 

Ditto 

OilCaka 

Wool, Cotton, lie 

Tanned Hides and Call Skins 

Itaw Hides 

Pelts 

Sugar, Fruits, Bacon, Cheese, But- 

UT, Pork, Ham, Tongues Salt, 

Salted Full. Talk™ . Soap, ( an. 

dies, and all heavy Grocery 

Goods not here spec i tied, and 

Tan or Bark, . ................ 

Tea, I "lire, and Spiers 

Oranges, Lemons. &c. . * 

Molasses 

Ale, Porter, Cyder, Perry. Vinegar, 

and Oil 

ditto. 

ditto 

ditto, 

ditto. 

ditto. 



Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Madder ...... 

Pipe Clay 

Spirits and Wine 

Ditto. ditto — .... 

Ditto. ditto. 

Ditto. ditto. 

Ditto. ditto 

Ditto. ditto 

Passengers 

Kvery Four Wheeled Cairiatfc 

Every Two Wheeled ditto 

Horse, Mare, or (Mding 

For every other Beast 

Coal, Coke, Culm, Cinders or Breeze 
Hay, Cinnuefoil, Clover or Straw., 
Oai, Kim, Pine, Beech, and Fir , 

Timber I 



injur 



lliver 
RnIM 



S 



I ■- 



ii ■_. 
I 

i o 



ii i 



n i 

a 

ft 2 

1 

3 Ii 

J ii 

L 6 

I ii 

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3 

it i, 



tthnr. 

H.il, , 



1 
u I 

ft I 

o 1 

II Ii 

ft I 

::< 



4 



U 3 

n 3 

o i 
n 1 
o t 



Rates 

ou 
Goods 
Ware. 

houa T d 



3 n 
2 

2 



(I 3 

n fi 



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HOW CIIAtlGRT). 



per Quarter, (W. M.) 

ditto. ditto, 

per Sack of Five Busliels. 

per Quarter 

per S irk 

ditlo. 
per Hualiel. 
|ht Bag. 
per Pocket 
|KT Thousaud- 
prr Puck t>r 'Mil IIm 
per Cut. 
each, 
per Hundred, 



|itt Tsui. 



per ClAt. 
per Chest, 
per Puncheon, 
|nr Hull. 

per Puncheon. 

lier Hogshead 

|"T Barrel. 

per Kilderkin or Runlet. 

per Dozen, in lhun|iers 

per Ctuk, per Owl. 

pi. r I '-:i 

|>cr Pii»e. or Butt. 

per Hogstiead, 

[«-r tlali" Hogshead. 

(mt tiiiarter ditto 

umler 2(1 Gals, at pet Gal. 

per Dozen, in Hampers. 



per Chal. (36 Bus W. M.) 
Iier Ton, 

pi r I.' .i.l 



CANTERBURY AND WHITSTABLE RAILWAY. 



137 



TBS SCHEDULE OP HARBOUR AND R1VBR RATES CONTINUED. 



DK4CBIPT10K OF GOODS. 



Bar- 
boor 
and 
Kirer 
Rales 



Waar- 
fcge 
Rate*. 



Rate* 
at 
Goodi 
Ware, 
hous'd 



BOW CHARGED. 



Deab, Battens, and Lathwood 

ssaaofany. Teak, or other raluaUei 

Woods 3 

Hemp, Cordage, and Yarn 

Pitch, Tar, Grease, Besin,&c 

Stone, Slate, Plaster of Paris, and i 

AJnm J 

Unwrought Iron, Bar Iron, Lead, 4c. 

Marble 

Outter.Pan, Mathematical andPtein i 

Tiles i 

Bricks and Paving Tiles 

Glass or Earthenware. 

Vitriol or Oil 

Corpse 

Organ 

Piano-forte, Harpsichord, Harp, or j 

Bass Viol J 

Pipe Stares 

Copper, Pewter, Brass or Metals ■> 

(except Lead and Iron) J 

Ballast, 

Bale Goods, and all other Articles, \ 

Wares, or Merchandise not be- f 

fore specified, according to the f 

Amount of the Freight J 



a. d. 

2 

1 

9 

8 

2 



4 




21 
20 

« 

2 

2 

1 

2 



9 



1 6 



i, d. 



2 

2 

2 

3 



1 



6 



1 6 



per Load, 
per Cubic Foot 
per Ton. 
per Barrel. 

per Ton. 
ditto 
per Cubic Foot 

per Thousand. 

ditto, 
per Crate, 
per Carboy. 



per Hundred, 
per Ton. 
ditto. 

per Cwt 



The Rates for Wharfage, as per annexed Schedule, are to be paid for any Time not 
exceeding the First Twenty .four Hours, and an additional Rate or Duty, to the 
same Amount, for erery Forty-eight Hours beyond the First Twenty-four Hours, 
or for any shorter Period of Time after the first Twenty-four Hours, or after any 
one complete Term of Forty-eight Hours. 
The warehousing Rates are to be paid for any Trme not exceeding the Ffast Twenty- 
four Hours, and at the same Rate per Week after that Term. 
Vessels of less Burthen than Twenty-fire Tons, or with less Burthen of Goods than 
Twenty Tons, not to pass Locks without leare. 



CANTERBURY AND WHITSTABLE RAILWAY. 



6 George IV. Cap. 120, Royal Assent 10th June, 182$. 

7 A 8 George IV. Cap. 11, Royal Assent 2nd April, 1827. 

George TV. Cap. 29, Royal Assent 9th May, 1828. 

This railway commences in Whitstable Bay, directly opposite 
the eastern point of the isle of Sheppey ; from whence it pursues 
a southerly course through Clowes Wood, and by the village of 
Blear* ; thence parallel with the west side of the park at Hales 



138 CANTERBURY AND WHITSTABLE RAILWAY. 

Place, (the seat of Sir Edward Hales, Bart.) by the village of St 
Stephen's, to St. Dunstan'g, near the city of Canterbury. The 
length of the original line was six miles, one furlong and three 
chains, and the estimate for making it was made by Mr. John 
Dixon, and amounted to the sum of £29,400. 

A company, consisting of twenty-four persons, (amongst whom 
were Sir Henry Montresor, K.C.B. and General Ramsay,) ob- 
tained an act in 1825, entitled, ' An Act for making and main- 
' taining a Railway or Tramroad from the Sea Shore at or near 
' Whitstable, in the county of Kent, to, or near to, the city of Can- 
1 terbury, in the said county,' by which they were incorporated by 
the name of " The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway Com- 
" pany," with power to raise among themselves the sum of 
£31,000, in shares of £50 each, (of which £25,000 was sub- 
scribed before going to parliament,) with unlimited power, under 
the act, for borrowing any additional sum on mortgage of the 
undertaking. 



TONNAGE GRANTED BY THIS ACT. 

». d. 

Limestone, Materials for the repair of Roads, Dung, Com- } 3 per Ton per Mile 

post, and all Sorts of Manure, except Chalk and Lime * 
Coal, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, Stuiie, Marl, Sand,' 

Lime, Clay, Iron-stone, and other Minerals, Building- 
stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate, 

Chalk, Timber, Staves, Deals, Lead, Iron, and other 

Metals, and all Gross and Unmanufactured Articles, 

and Building Materials 

Cotton, Wool, Hides, Drugs, Dry woods. Sugar, Com, Grain, -\ 

Flour, Manufactured Goods, Agricultural I*roduce, fog (jjtto ditto. 

and all other Goods, Commodities, Wares, and Mer- f 

chamlize ) 

For every Person carried in any Carriage upon this Railway 104 

for any Distance not exceeding Two Miles i 

Two Miles and not exceeding Four Miles 8 

Any Distance exceeding Four Miles 1 6 

For every Ton o( (Joods drawn or propelled by the Engines > 2 per Ton per Mile, 

oftheCompany i 

For every Person carried in each Carriage for any Distance Jog 

not exceeding Three Miles J 

Exceeding Three Miles and not exceeding Five Miles 10 

Exceeding Five Miles 1 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 



4 ditto. ditto. 



WHARFAGE RATES. 



For every Description of Goods which does not lay on the Quay or Wharf, I . * 
or remain in the Warehouses more than Six Days ' ™ °"' 



CANTERBURY AND WHITSTABLE RAILWAY. 1)0 

WAREHOUSING SATES, 
d. 

**wSr M *^ e ** ao * <,to «' a8,,,8 • } 2 perTon. } WMeh does not lay on the 

imtoeiawdni'ioooita!!.'.'.'.'.'.'.'".".'.'.'.' 6 ditto. » than Six Days, 

If longer than tbeabove lime, then Ibr » , ditte j 

Wharfage J* ""*• t For the next Seven Days. 

AndfcrWarenaatng ■• a ditto. ) . 

And the like Sam of One Penny and Twopence, respectively, per 7Y», foe every 
farther Seven Days so remaining on Wharf or in Warehouse. 

In 1827, the company again applied to parliament and ob* 
tained an act, entitled, < An Act to authorize the Company of 

* Proprietor* of the Canterbury and WhitstabU Railway, to vary 

* the lane of the Railway, to raise a further Sum of Money for 
< completing their Work*, and to alter and enlarge the Power* of 
1 the Act passed for making and maintaining rte said RaUway,* 
in the preamble of which it is stated, that this measure was neces- 
sary in consequence of the unexpected cost of a tunnel, and the 
insufficiency of the sum appropriated by the original estimate tec 
the purchase of the land required. By this act power is given to 
alter the line of the railway, so that instead of terminating at St. 
Dunstan's, nearly three quarters of a mile from Canterbury, it 
now comes directly to the North Lane, adjoining the River Stour, 
on the north side of the city. The deviation line is three quarters 
of a mile in length, on one inclined plane, with 03 feet fall, and 
the estimate for making it amounts to £5,000. It is fifteen chains 
longer than the part abandoned, so that the total length of the line 
wiB be now six miles, two furlongs and eight chains. The com* 
pany also obtained power to make two short branch railways or 
cart roads ; one to St Dunstan's Street, and the other across the 
Stour, to Pond Lane and St Peter's Lane, in the city. 

ADDITIONAL RATES, 
Tobetahmforthe Uteofthe Ouag;fe. are granted by tku Act, at Jofkntt: — 

*. d. 
For an Goods, Wares and Merchandize, imported or exported from J o 1 per Cwt 

the Piers, Wharfs, Taunting Places, Quays, and other Works J *^ 

For any Parcel less than One Hundred Weight J 

For every Person landed upon or embarked from the said Piers .... 1 

The Commisslflnni for Paving and Lighting the City of Canterbury have, under the 
Powers of an Act of the »7th George m. a Claim of One Shilling per Chaldron or 
Ton on all Coke, CoaL or Cinders brought into or within Three Miles of the said 
City; a Clause is, therefore, inserted in this Act, securing to them the same 
Tonnage on all the above-mentioned Articles brought by means of this Railroad, 
to cease, however, when the Sum of £4,000, which was borrowed to carry the 
Act of the 37th George III. into Execution, s> paid off. 



140 CARLISLE CANAL. 

For the purpose of carrying into effect these extra works, the 
proprietors are empowered to raise among themselves, or by the 
admission of new subscribers, the further sum of £19,000, or they 
may borrow the same of the Exchequer Bill Commissioners, on 
the credit of the undertaking. Seven years are allowed for 
making the railway. 

In the year following the passing of the last-recited act, the 
company had again recourse to parliament, and on the 9th May, 
1 828, the royal assent was given to an act, entitled, ' Jin Act to 
' authorize the Company of Proprietors of the Canterbury and 
1 Whitstable Railway, to raise a further Sum of Money for com- 
( pleting the Undertaking ; and for enlarging and amending the 
1 Powers of the Acts passed for making and maintaining the said 
' Railway and Works connected therewith,' in the preamble of 
which it is stated, that no part of the £l 9,000 they were autho- 
rized to raise under the last-recited act, has been obtained; the 
clause authorizing this is therefore repealed, and power is given to 
raise £10,000 among themselves, or by the admission of new sub- 
scribers, or they may borrow it on mortgage of the rates and duties. 

The object of this railroad is to facilitate the conveyance of 
merchandize in general between London, and other places on the 
Thames, and Canterbury, which will, doubtless, improve the trade 
of the last-mentioned place, and beneficially affect the commercial 
and agricultural interests of its vicinity ; and as the proprietors 
have power to construct piers at Whitstable, (though restricted to 
900 feet in length,) it will have the effect of rendering that 
hitherto exposed bay, a safe and commodious haven ; than which, 
nothing will more directly tend to the advancement of trade in its 
vicinity. 



CARLISLE CANAL. 

59 George 111. Cap. 13, Royal Assent 6th April, 1819. 

This canal commences on the eastern side of the city of Car- 
lisle ; from thence, taking a north-westwardly course, it twice 
crosses the site of the ancient Picts Wall ; whence, continuing by 
Kirkandrews, to Wormanby, it takes a westerly direction, running 



OARLISLE CANAL. 141 

parallel with, and on the south side of, the Picts Wall, by Burgh ; 
thence across the marshes bordering the Solway Firth, by Drum* 
burgh Castle and Glasson, to the Firth, into which it fells at 
Fisher's Cross, near Bowness. The length is eleven miles and 
a quarter, with a rise of 70 feet by nine locks. From Carlisle, 
where there is a commodious basin, the canal continues on one 
level four miles; in the next mile and a quarter there is a fall of 
45 feet by six locks; thence to Fisher's Cross is level, and into the 
sea there is a M of 24 feet by three equal locks of 8 feet each, 
with basins between them, called the Upper and Lower Solway 
Basins. The first basin from the sea is on a level with high water 
at lowest neaps ; and the long pool, or level, of the third lock is 6 
inches above an extraordinary tide (15 feet 6 inches above high 
water at lowest neaps) which occurred in January, 1796. 

The estimate for this canal and basins was made by Mr. W. 
Chapman, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and amounted to the sum of 
£73,392. The act for making it is entitled, ' An Act for making 
' and maintaining a navigable Canal from, or from near, the city 
( of Carlisle, to the Solway Firth, at or near Fisher'* Cross, in the 
' parish of Bowness, in the county of Cumberland,' by which the 
proprietors, consisting of three hundred and four persons, amongst 
whom were the Earl of Lonsdale, Lord Viscount Lowther, Sir 
James Graham, Sir William Musgrave, Sir Hew Dairy mple Ross, 
and Sir Joseph Dacre Appleby Gilpin, were incorporated by the 
name of " The Carlisle Canal Company." The canal is supplied 
with water from the Rivers Eden and Caldew, and from a reser- 
voir on the south side of the canal, in the parishes of Grinsdale and 
Kirkandrews-upon-Eden ; and the company were authorized to 
raise £80,000 among themselves, in sixteen hundred shares of 
£50 each, with an additional sum of £40,000 among themselves, 
or by the admission of new subscribers, or on mortgage of the 
undertaking, or upon promissory notes under the common seal of 
the company. The work is under the management of a com- 
mittee of nine proprietors, possessed of at least ten shares each, 
who are chosen annually. 

The object of this canal was to form a communication between 
the sea and the city of Carlisle, shorter and safer than the naviga- 
tion of the Solway Firth and the River Eden afforded, and to 



142 CARMARTHENSHIRE RAILWAY. 

facilitate the conveyance of lime, coal and general merchandize to 
and from the said city. Having been now some time finished, its 
advantages are duly felt ; and when the railway, proposed between 
Newcastle and Carlisle, (for the making of which an act received 
the royal assent during the last session of parliament,) is effected, 
it will materially increase the revenues derived from this under- 
taking. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

Dung, or Ashes for Manure 1 per Ton, per Mile. 

Coal, Cinders, Culm, Lime, Slate, Stone, Alabaster, Potatoes, j „ ditt ^ am* 

Pig-iron, Bricks, Peats, Gravel, Sand, Clay, and Marl .... J * 
Timber, Malleable and Wrought or Manufactured Iron, Lead, > 2 i d j tto ^^ 

and other Unwrought Metals > * 

c | per Mile, per Qr. 

Corn, Grain, Malt, Peas, and Beans \ of Eight Bushels 

( W. M. 
Wool, Cotton Wool, Cotton Yam, Cotton, Linen and Woollen j 

Manufactured Goods, Hemp, Flax, Groceries, and all >• 3j perTon, per Mile, 
other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize ) 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

Vessels passing through Locks to pay for Forty Tons, whether they have as much or 

uot, provided there is sufficient Water for such a Weight 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
For all Goods loaded from or landed upon any of the Wharfs and J 

Staiths, and which shall remain thereupon not more than Forty- > 3 per Ton. 

eight Hours ) 

For every Day or Part of a Day after this Period l ditto. 

Forty Cubic Feet of Light Goods to be deemed a Ton. 



CARDIFF CANAL. 

(SEE GLAMORGANSHIRE CANAL.) 

CARMARTHENSHIRE RAILWAY. 

42 George III. Cap. 80, Royal Assent 3rd June, 1802. 

This railway commences from the River Bury, near a place 
called The Flats, in the parish of Llanelly, and takes a northerly 
direction by Stradey Furnace, and up the valley of the Lliedi or 
Morfa Bach River, by Pandyback and Gynhydre Farm ; thence, 
in an easterly course, crossing the Gwendraeth Faur River, to 
Castell-y-Garreg Limestone Quarries, in the parish of Llanfihan- 
gel-Aberbythich. It is in length sixteen miles ; and upon the 
line, for the purpose of carrying the same on a more gradual 
inclination, are many deep cuttings and embankments ; among 



CARMARTHENSHIRE RAILWAY. J43 

the latter k one new Munydd Maur, composed of upwards of 
forty thousand cubic yards of earth, &c. At its termination, ia 
Bury River, there is a dock for the reception of shipping. These 
works were projected and laid out by Messrs. Barnes and Morris, 
civil engineers, in 1801. 

The act, under authority of which this railroad was executed, 
received the royal assent on the 3rd June, 1802, and is entitled, 
' An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad, 
'from, or from near, a certain place called The Flats, in the parish 
* of Llanelly, in the county of Carmarthen, to, or near to, certain 
' Lime Works called Castell-y-Garreg, in the parish of Llanfthan- 
1 geUAberhythich, in the said county ; and for making and main- 
' taming a Dock or Basin at the termination of the said Railway 
' or Tramroad,. at or near the said place called The Flats' The 
subscribers, at the time the act was obtained, were fifty-seven in 
number, who were incorporated by the name of " The Carmar- 
" thenshire Railway or Tramroad Company," and authorized to 
raise among themselves, for the purposes of this act, the sum of 
£85,000, in two hundred and fifty shares of ^100 each; and if 
this is insufficient, a further sum of £l 0,000 may be raised among 
themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or by mort- 
gage of the rates. 

RATES OP TONNAGE ON THIS RAILWAY. 

d. 
Dong, limestone. Chalk, Lime, and all other Manure, Clay, ■> 
Breeze, Ashes, Sand, and Bricks, Tin, Copper, Lead, Iron, | 
Stone, Flints, Coal Charcoal, Coke, Culm, Puller's Earth, V 1 J per Ton, per Mile. 
Com, and Seeds, Plow, Malt, and all other Goods, Wares, 
and Merchandixg J 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

DOCK DUES. 

i. 
On erery Ship or other Vessel entering the Dock or ) t per Ton, Register Measure. 

Basin * 

For all Goods exported and imported 1 per Ton, in addition. 

Goods shipped in this Dock, which have not paid One Penny per Ton, on the Railroad, 
to make good this Deficiency, in addition to the usual Charge of Dock Dues. 

TOLLS FOR HORSES OR CATTLE PASSING ON THE RAILWAY. 

*. 
For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Mule, or Ass, (excepting such as are j 
used on the Railway, or which are going to the Farms or V B 

Common) ) 

Cows and other neat Cattle I each. 

Sheep, Swine, and Calves 8 perScore. 

One Hundred and Twenty Pounds to be deemed a Hundred Weight for the Purposes 
of this Act 



144 CARRON RIVER— CART RIVER. 

The work to be managed by a committee, under the control 
of the general meetings. 

The chief object of this railway, is to convey for shipment the 
produce of the several lime-stone quarries, collieries, and iron- 
stone mines, which abound in its immediate vicinity. 



CARRON RIVER. 

The source of this river is among the Campsie Hills, whence 
it takes an easterly direction by the villages of Denny, Larbert, 
and Carron Shore, to the River Forth, into which it falls near the 
termination of the Forth and Clyde Canal. As this river Ls in the 
tideway, and no act has ever been passed relating to it, and there- 
fore free of toll, it is noticed chiefly on account of the celebrated 
Carron Iron Works, situate in its vicinity, the supply of which 
with coal and iron-stone, and the export of the manufactured 
article, constitute the principal trade on this navigation, which is 
only three miles in length. Vessels drawing 7 to 8 feet may get 
up at neap tides. 



CART RIVER. 

20 (ieonce II. Cap. no. Royal Assent Ttli June, I7.M. 
27 George III. Cap. 56, Royal Assent 21st May, 1787. 

Tins river, (which is sometimes called the White Cart,) has 
its source on the north side of the mountains which separate the 
counties of Renfrew and Ayr, from Lanarkshire ; from whence it 
takes a northerly course by Eaglesham and Cathcart, to which 
place it forms the division between the last-mentioned county and 
Renfrewshire. From Cathcart it proceeds directly to Paisley, 
from thence, northward, by Inchinnan, to the Clyde. From the 
Clyde to Paisley the length is about five english miles, and as this 
river was navigable to the latter place only at high water, spring 
tides, an act was obtained in 1753, for the purpose of improving 
it, which act is entitled, ' An Act for laying a Duty of Two Pen- 
' nies Scots, or One Sixth Part of a Penny Sterling, on every Scots 
' Pint of Ale and Beer, which shall be brewed for Sale, brought 



CART RIVER. 145 

' into, tapped, or sold, within the town of Pauley and liberties there- 
1 of, in the county of Renfrew, for improving the Navigation of 
1 the River Cart, and for other Purposes.' The magistrates and 
town council of the burgh of Paisley, are appointed trustees for 
carrying this act into execution, with power to borrow any sum of 
money, for this purpose, on security of the duties hereby autho- 
rized to be collected. In the 27th of the reign of his late Majesty, 
another act was obtained, entitled, * An Act for enabling the 
( Magistrates and Town Council of Paisley, to improve the Naviga- 
1 (mm of the River Cart, and to make a navigable Cut or Canal 
1 across the Turnpike Road, leading from Glasgow to Greenock,' 
in the preamble of which it is stated to be impassable, excepting 
far small boats, in spring tides. By this act, power is given to 
die parties mentioned in the title, to deepen the river from Snedda 
Bridge, and make a side cut for the purpose of passing Inchinnan 
Bridge, so that vessels drawing 7 feet, may, in ordinary spring 
tides, navigate the whole length. The canal not to be more than 
nine hundred yards in length; to be 7 feet deep, and 54 feet in 
width. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

Goods, Warn, Merchandise, or other Things, (except Coal) 8 per Ton. 

Coal 8 ditto. 

For any Article carried no higher than Knockford, half Toll only to be paid. 

EXEMPTION PROM TOLL. 

AD Goods not Drought into the navigable Cut, or past the Month of the B)ack Cart 

River, which falls into this Navigation, near Inchinnan. 

Dong, Lime, Marl, or other Manure, belonging to any Owner or Occupier of Lands, 

within Five Miles of the River, is also free of Toll. 

Commissioners are appointed to carry the act into execution, 
and are empowered to lessen the duties, and particularly that on 
coals, so soon as the money is borrowed far the purposes of this 
act; the power for which is vested in the magistrates and town 
council, who may take up the sum of £3,000 on the security of 
the tolls and duties granted by the act. 

As the burgh of Paisley, by its successful manufactures, has 
become a place of considerable population, the navigation of the 
Cart, from the tideway of the Clyde, is of the first importance ; 



146 CHELMER AND BLACKWATER NAVIGATION. 

end, from the facility with which coal can be brought up, and 
merchandize exported, has been one of the principal means in 
bringing this place to its present flourishing condition. 



CHELMER AND BLACKWATER NAVIGATION. 

8 George HI. Cap. 101, Royal Assent 6th June, 176(1. 
33 George III. Cap. 93, Royal Assent 17th June, 1793. 

The River Chelmer has its source near Thaxsted, in Essex, 
from whence it pursues a southerly course,, by Dun mow, to 
Chelmsford, where the navigation commences. Its course from 
Chelmsford is directly east, to near Maldon, where it joins the 
Blackwater, by which name the wide estuary, opening into the 
sea at Sales Point, is designated. 

When the design was first promulgated for making the Chel- 
mer navigable, Mr. Smeaton was directed to examine its course, 
and he accordingly reported upon it in June, 1762. He recom- 
mended a canal of thirteen miles in length, instead of rendering 
the channel of the river the site of the navigation, and his estimate 
for this amounted to £16,697. 

Four years after Smeaton had viewed and reported as above, 
an act was obtained, entitled, ' An Act for making the River 
' Chelmer navigable from the Port of Maldon, to the town of 
' Chelmsford, in the county of EssexJ by which, commissioners, 
consisting of the principal inhabitants of the country through which 
it passed, or any seven of them, were appointed to carry the 
powers of the act into execution. Twelve years were allowed for 
finishing the necessary works, but no portion was to be commenced 
until an advance of twenty-five per cent had been made upon the 
sum of £ 13,000, which the commissioners were authorized to 
borrow. Under this act, however, it appears that little or nothing 
was done ; but a new company, (twenty-seven years after the 
date of the former act,) consisting of one hundred and forty-seven 
persons, (amongst whom were Lord Petre, the Hon. R. E. Petre, 
the Hon. G. Petre, Sir John Jervis, K.B. and Sir John Henniker, 
Baronets,) obtained an act in the year 1793, entitled, ' Jin Act 
' for making and maintaining a navigable Communication between 



CHELMKR AND BLACKWATBR NAVIGATION. 147 

' the town of Chelmsford, or tome part of the parish of Springfield, 
1 1* the county of Essex, and a place called Comers' Reach, in or 
' near the River Blaekwater, in the said county* They were in- 
corporated under the name of u The Company of Proprietors of 
u the Chelmer and Blaekwater Navigation," and empowered to 
raise among themselves the sum of £40,000, in four hundred 
shares of £100 each, and in case that sum be insufficient, they 
may raise an additional £20,000, either among themselves, or by 
the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage of the under- 
taking, or by granting annuities. Under this company, the 
Chelmer and Blaekwater Navigation, as it now is, was completed. 
The total length, from the basin at Chelmsford to the tideway at 
Colliers' Reach, is a little more than thirteen miles and a half, viz. 
from the head of the navigation to Beleigh Mill, above Maldon, is 
ten miles and seven furlongs, with a fall of 59 feet 5 inches ; from 
Beleigh Mill, by a cut, to the Blaekwater, and by the course of 
that mer, to Heybridge, is one mile and one furlong, with a fall 
of 7 feet 3£ inches; and from thence, by canal, to the basin at 
Colliers' Reach, opposite Northey Isle, one mile and five furlongs, 
with a fall, to low-water-mark, in the basin, of 12 feet 8j inches. 
From Colliers' Reach, the length of the estuary of Blaekwater 
River, where H falls into the sea opposite Sales Point, is nearly 
eleven miles. The spring tides flow 8 feet at Maldon Bridge, so 
that vessels of considerable burthen can enter that port at those 
times; but at neaps it only flows 1 foot The basin at Colliers' 
Reach was executed under the direction of Mr. John Rennie, and 
was opened in the early part of 1706. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

Coal 9 per Chaldron, per Mile. 

Stone 1 per Ton, ditto. 

Ume ftr Manure, Cbaft, Dung, and other > ■ . (Utt0 d{tt0 

Manure* i 

Wheat, Barley, Rye, Peas, Beans, and Tares 1 per Quarter, dttto. 

Oats, Matt, and other Grain or Seeds ditto. ditto. 

Mod or Flour r« Sack, of Five Bushels, per Mile. 

AH otker Goods, Wans, and Merchandize 2$ per Ton, per Mile. 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. 

Stone, GraTel, and Sand, for the repair of Roads, (not being Turnpike), in any Town- 
ship through which this Navigation passes, and which shall not be carried more 
than Five Miles, provided they do not pass a Lock, except at such Times as when 
the Water flows over the Gauge, Paddle, or Waste Weir of the Lock. 

K 2 



148 CHESTERFIELD CANAL. 

For the Purposes of tins Act, Sixteen Cubic Feet of Stone, Ten Yard* Square ofFlag. 
stone (from One Inch and a Half to Three Inches Thick,) Ten Yard* of Lineal Curb 
Stone (from Eleven to Thirteen Inches Wide and from Five to Seven Inches 
Thick,) Fifty Cubic Feet of Round, or Forty Cubic Feet of Square Oak, Ash or 
Elm Timber, or Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, or other Timber 
Wood, shall be deemed One Ton Weight 

Millers upon this Navigation are restrained from drawing their Mill Ponds more than 
Twenty -one Inches below the Height of a full Pond. 

Vessels under Twenty Tons not to pass Locks without leave, or without paying lot 
Tonnage to that Amount 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

«. d. 

Chalk, Lime, or other Manure, when it does not remain > „ „ -—iw 

more than Six Days I ° 8 P* T0 °- 

All other Goods or Merchandtxe for the same Term I ditto. 

And if any of the above-mentioned Articles remain longer) 6 ditto, per Week, 

than Six Days i to addition. 

Goods or Merchandise remainsns; on the Quays or Whari, not more than Twenty Jonr 

Hours, are exempt 

Coal Is likewise exempt from Wharfage Rates. 

The chief object of this navigation is the supply of Chelmsford, 
and the interior of Essex, with coal, deals, timber, and groceries, 
and for the export of corn and other articles which this agricultural 
district produces. 



CHESTER CANAL. 

(SEE ELLESMERE AND CHESTER CANAL NAVIGATION.) 

CHESTERFIELD CANAL. 

11 George IU. Cap. 74, Royal Assent 28th March, 1771. 

This canal commences in the tideway of the Trent, at Stock- 
with, in Nottinghamshire, near to the place where the navigable 
River Idle falls into it, about four miles below Gainsborough. Its 
course is nearly west for six miles, passing round to the norm of 
Gringley Beacon, whence it pursues a southerly course, to East 
Retford ; thence, westward, by Worksop, to Shire Oaks, where it 
enters the county of York ; when passing south of the village of 
Wales, and entering Derbyshire, it proceeds, in a southerly course, 
along the east bank of the River Rother, through a country 
abounding in coal, to Chesterfield, where it terminates. Its length 
is forty-six miles. From the Trent to Worksop it is twenty-four 
miles, with a rise of 250 feet ; from thence, to the summit, at 



CHESTEHFIELD CANAL. 140 

the tunnel near Harthill, nine miles, with a rise of 85 fee*, 
being a total rise of 335 feet From the summit to Chesterfield, 
the distance is thirteen miles, with a fall of 46 feet The number 
of locks is sixty-five. Between Wales and Harthill there is a tun- 
nel two thousand eight hundred and fifty yards in length; it is in 
width 9£ feet, and 12 feet high. Near Gringley Beacon is another 
tunnel one hundred and fifty-three yards in length. Between the 
long tunnel and Chesterfield, many individuals have laid down 
private railways, for the purpose of transporting the production of 
-the mines and iron-works in that district 

This navigation was projected by Mr. Brindley, in 1769, but 
before any application was made to parliament for authority to 
carry it into execution, Mr. Grundy was directed' to view the 
intended line of canal, upon which he reported in August, 1770. 
His proposal was to carry the line of canal from Stockwith, in 
nearly a straight course, to Bawtry, and from thence, by Scrooby, 
Blyth, and Carlton, and to join Brindley's line at the Shire Oaks. 

Mr. Brindley's estimate was £94,908, 17*. and the length, 
according to the original plan made by Mr. Varley, is forty-four 
miles, six furlongs and eight chains and a half, and Grundy's esti- 
mate, by his proposed alteration, is £71,479, 6*. 9$d. being less 
by £33,429, 10*. 2£<£ and shorter by nearly five miles and a 
half; yet, notwithstanding the apparent advantages of Grundy's 
line, such confidence had the proposed company in Brindley's de- 
signs, that they applied to parliament and obtained an act to enable 
them to carry his scheme into execution ; it is entitled, ' An Act 
i for making a navigable Cut or Caned from Chesterfield, in the 
1 county of Derby , through or near Worksop and Retford, to join 
1 the River Trent, at or near Stockwith, in the county of Nottingham.' 
The proprietors, at the time the act was obtained, consisted of one 
hundred and seventy-four persons, amongst whom were *the Most 
Noble the Dukes of Devonshire and Newcastle, Lord Scarsdale, 
the Dean of York, and Sir Cecil Wray, Bart who were incorpo- 
rated by the name of" The Company of Proprietors of the Canal 
u Navigation from Chesterfield to the River Trent," and em- 
powered to raise among themselves the sum of £100,000, in one 
thousand shares of £100 each, for the purpose of carrying the 
into execution, but the canal was not to be begun until the 



150 CHESTERFIELD CANAL. 

whole sum was raised ; and in case the above sum was insufficient, 
they might raise among themselves, or by the admission of new 
subscribers, or by mortgage of the rates and duties, the additional 
sum of £50,000. The work to be managed by a committee, 
under the control of the general assembly. The act, which is very 
long, contains many clauses for the protection of private property ; 
particularly such as belong to the Dukes of Norfolk and Leeds, and 
Lord Byron. Immediately on the passing of the act, the works 
were commenced, under the direction of Mr. Brindley, and so con- 
tinued until his death, in September, 1772, when they were con- 
ducted and finished by Mr. Henshall, his brother-in-law, in 1776. 
From the Trent to Retford, the canal is constructed for vessels of 
fifty to sixty tons burthen; the remaining portion is for such as 
carry about twenty tons only. 

RATES OF TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE. 



Lime : I per Ton, per Mile. 

Coal, Lead, Timber, Stone, and all other Goods, Wares and i ]t ^.^ .ditto. 

Merchandize * 2 

Soap, Ashes, Salt, Salt-scrow, Foul Salt, and Grey Salt, Soot, 

Bone-dust, Pigeons' Dung, Rape or Cole Seed Dust, to be 

used for the manuring of Lands of any Persons, whose , i ,jijt 0- ditto. 

Lands shall be cut through by this Canal, such Lands j 

being in any Township through which it passes, and j 

Rags or Tanners' Bark J 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. 

Hay, and Com in the Straw, not sold, but to be laid up in the Outhouses of the 
Owner; Small Rubbish or Waste Stones, Gravel and Sand for the repair of Roads, 
(not being Turnpike) in any Township through which the Canal passes, and 
which shall not be carried more than Five Miles. 

Dung, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal and Turf, for the Improvement or Lands lying in any 
Township through which the Canal will pass, and belonging to Persons whose 
Lands may be taken for the Canal, provided these excepted Articles do not pass 
a Lock, except w ben the Water is running over the Gauge or N iche of the Lock. 

If any Iron, Iron-stone, Coals, Lime for the Improvement of Lands, or other Goods 
whatsoever, remain on theWbarls longer than Twenty-four Hours, then such 
additional Rate to be paid as may be agreed upon. 

Fifty Feet of Round, or Forty Feet of Square Oak, Ash, or Elm Timber, or Fifty Feet 
of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, and other Timber Wood, shall be deemed One Ton. 

A Ton of Coal or Limestone to be Twenty.two Hundred Weight of One Hundred 
and Twelve Pounds each. 

Vessels under Twenty Tons not to pass Locks without leave unless they pay for that 

Weight. 

RATE, 
To be received by any Lord of the Manor or Otcner of Jxind tcho may erect Wharji. 

d. 
For every description of Goods or Merchandize fora period less than Six Days 3 perTon. 



CLARENCE RAILWAY. 161 

Up to the year 1780, the whole of the work* had cost about 
£153,400, and the following is a statement of the income and 
expenditure of that year :— 

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE. 

£. m. d. 

The Grow Income in that Year, was 8,320 9 a 

"Expendfture, which Included Interest to the Amount of £3,670, ex- > . . .„ . „ 

clostfaofAneais I *' 540 8 3 



Krttlneome 8,780 8 

Upon which a Dirtdend of One per Cent, only was paid, amnnnthig to £980. 

A tolerable idea of the traffic upon this canal, at that period, 
(forty years ago) may be formed, from the following return of 
tonnage made by the proprietors, in 1789. 

RETURN OF TONNAGE. 

Tom. 

Coal , , 49379 

U«d 3,862; 

Line 3,W»; 

Cora 4,366 

Stone 7,569 

boo 1.454- 

Timber 3,444 

Sundries 7,180 



74,81* 

e. «. d. 

Upon which the Duties and Wharfage amounted to &£03 9 9 

.Sixteen yean after this period the proprietors divided six per 
cent and the undertaking has been gradually improving. 

The chief objects of this canal are the export of coal, Hme, 
and lead from Derbyshire, and, of the produce of the iron 
furnaces in the neighbourhood of Chesterfield ; and com, deals, 
timber, groceries, &c on the other hand, are conveyed into the 
county of Derby. 



CLARENCE RAILWAY. 

9 George IV. Cap, 81, Royal Aaeot 23rd Hay, 18x8. 
10 George IV. Cap. 106, Royal Assent 1st June, 1839. 

Tux line of railway contemplated by the act of Oth George IV. 
commenced at the River Tees, near Haverton Hill, about four 
miles north-east of Stockton, and proceeded in a westerly direction, 



152 CLARENCE RAILWAY. 

crossing the Sunderland Road three miles north of Stockton ; thence, 
by the village of Carlton, and across the Little River Skern, to Sim 
Pasture, where it was intended to join the Stockton and Darlington 
Railway, at the point between the 17 J mile post and the 17|post 
from Stockton. A branch was intended from Sim Pasture to the 
Deanery Estate, near Bishop Auckland ; but this was not to be 
made without the consent of the Earl of Eldon ; another from 
How Hills, by Great Chilton, to Broom Hill ; and one other 
branch from Harrowgate House to Brown's Bridge, near Stockton. 

m. k. c. 
The length of the first projected Main Line, from } 

the Tees to the Stockton and Darlington Rail-> 14 4 

way at Sim Pasture, was \ 

The Deanery Estate Branch 3 4 6 

The Broom Hill Branch 7 2 6 

Brown's Bridge Branch 17 7 

Total length of Main Line and Branches. ... 26 7 3 

The line was laid out by Mr. Edward Steel ; and he estimated 
the cost (including an inclined plane upon the Deanery Branch, 
and a steam engine for the Broom Hill Branch) at £98,113. 
The data for the estimate was a single railway, with one-sixth for 
passing places. 

To carry these railways into execution, a company, consisting 
of fifty-eight persons, amongst whom was Sir William Foulis, 
Bart, applied to parliament, and obtained an act, in 1 828, entitled, 
' An Act for making and maintaining a Railway from the River 
' Tees, near Haverton Hill, in the parish of Billingham, to a place 
' called Sim Pasture Farm, in the parish of Heighington, all in the 
' county of Durham, with certain Branches tlierefrom,' by which 
they were incorporated as " The Company of Proprietors of the 
" Clarence Railway." They were empowered to raise among 
themselves the sum of £100,000, (of which £80,000 was raised 
before the act was obtained) in one thousand shares of £100 each ; 
the whole of which was to be subscribed before the work was 
commenced. An additional sum of £60,000 may be raised, on 
mortgage of die rates, if necessary. 



CLAkENCE RAILWAY. 153 
TONNAGE RATES ALLpWED BY THIS ACT. 

i. 

OstI,Cdtm, Coke and «iiden,lbr Exportation * per Ton, per Mile. 

Ditto, ditto, for Home Consumption 1* ditto. ditta 

"MSe* .- '. ;......;!...•..., J ditto. ditto. 

MBriaJSoiVseaWeexi,Dung,Compo»tandallSortsofManure, , , Mftn Mttn 

MMeHalfortherepaiTOfRoads,Stone,Mar1,SatidandClayJ » oma <nu0, 

Lsad, Iron, Tnaber; Stare*, aad Deals, «o4 &U other Goods,, „ „,.„ „ M „ 

Wares, and Merchandise J 3 dltto - d!tto 

Qat, Cntm, Coke, and Oicdera, pauiaK an hwUned Plane.... S per Ton. 
All other Articles . 8 ditto. 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. - 



Six years were allowed for the execution of the works ; but 
upon its being ascertained that the line might be materially 
improved, an application was made in the following session of 
parliament for an act to enable the company to make the altera- 
tions contemplated, which act is entitled, ' An Act to enable the 
'Clarence Railway Company to vary and alter the Line of their 
' Railway, to abandon tome of the Branches thereof, and to make 
1 other Branches therefrom ; and for altering, amending, and en- 
( larging the Powers of the Act passed for making and maintaining 
' tie said Railway' Under the powers of this act, the company 
are authorized -to commence with the main line from Samphire 
Beacon, in the parish of Billingham, instead of Haverton Hill, 
and continue it to Sim Pasture, with some deviations from the 
original line. The Broom Hill Branch, and that to Brown's 
Bridge, near Stockton, are abandoned, and in lieu, one is to pro- 
ceed from near Stillington, to the city of Durham ; another from 
the main line at the Old Durham land Yarm Road, to the River 
Tees, at Stockton; another out of the City of Durham Branch, at 
Ferryhill, to the Kme and coal works at Sherbum ; and another to 
Brer's Green, from the same point of the City of Durham Branch 
from whence the Sherbum Branch proceeds. There is another 
from the City of Durham Branch, which is very short, called the 
Chilton Branch. The power given in the first act to make the 
Deanery Branch remains unrepealed. 

The total rise of the main line, from high water in the Tees to 
Sun Pasture, is 306 feet. The City of Durham Branch leaves the 
nab Hne-at a -distance of little more- than ten miles from its com- 
mencement, and at an elevation of 208 feet. 



154 CLARENCE RAILWAY'. 

To ite summit, within two miles of Durham, it attains an 
elevation, from high water, of 278 feet ; from thence, to the River 
Wear, there is a fall of 163 feet ; thence, to Durham, it is leveL 
At the distance of five miles and three quarters from the com- 
mencement of the last-mentioned branch, the Chilton Branch leaves 
it, at an elevation of 862 feet, and rises 40 feet; upon the same 
level, at the distance of about seven miles and a half, the Sherburn 
and Byer*s Green Branches proceed from it; the first of which 
rises 72 feet, and the latter 115 feet 

k. p. c. 

The length of the Main Line from Samphire J _ 

Batts Beacon, to the Stockton and Darlington > 15 4 2 

Railroad, at Sim Pasture, is \ 

The Deanery Branch 3 4 

The City of Durham Branch IS 

The Sherburn Branch 5 6 3 

The Chilton Branch 3 4 

The Stockton Branch 2 3 2 

The Byer»s Green Branch 5 

Total length of Main Line and Branches. ... 45 5 7 

On the line of the City of Durham Branch, where it crosses the 
River Wear, a cast iron bridge is intended, of one arch, of 100 feet 
span, and 35 feet above the surface of the river. 

The estimates, under the last act, for this railway and branches, 
were made by Mr. Leather, of Leeds, civil engineer, in February, 
1829, and are as follow : — 

ESTIMATES FOR THE RAILWAY AND BRANCHES. 

Main Line £94^411 

Stockton Branch 14,403 

Deanery Estate Branch lt£M 

City of Durham Branch 70,777 

Sherburn Branch 34,744 

Byer's Green Branch 13,707 

Chilton Branch 1,308 

£343,003 

The company are empowered to raise the sum of £100,000, 
in addition to the sums of £100,000 and £60,000, authorised a 
the preceding act; which two latter sums may be borrowed on 



CLASKNCE RAILWAY. 155 

bonds under the common seal, or by mortgage of the undertaking, 
onsscurity of the rates and duties. They are further empowered 
to purchase sixty acres of land, in such place as the company shall 
deem most eligible, for the erecting and constructing of yards, 
staitbs, wharfs, quays, landing places, and other conveniences for 
the loading and unloading of vessels. 

HATE, 

I* addition to the Toll* allowed ftjf t lie former Act. 

d. 

For every Coach or other Carriage used for the Conveyance of Paaaen- j „. 

gen or Small Packages } sperswe. 

Fraction to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as tat a Quarter of a Ttm. 

Clauses are introduced in the act to restrain the company from 
the use of locomotive engines, on that part of the City of Durham 
Branch which passes through the townships of Mainfbrth and 
Chilton, or on the Byer's Green Branch, passing through the 
township of Whitworth, without .the consent of the respective land 
owners, which clauses, if enforced, may act prejudicially to the 
interests of the company should locomotive engines come into 
general use. 

This railway (which, with its branches, is the longest for 
which parliamentary sanction has ever been obtained, with the 
exception of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Carlisle Railway) is 
directed to be carried into execution, by a committee of eighteen 
proprietors, who are allowed six years, from the date of the last- 
recited act, for this purpose. The Deanery Branch is not subject 
to this limitation, as it may be made any time after the consent of 
the Earl of Ekfon is obtained. 

Previous to the second application to parliament, it appears 
the company had it in contemplation to extend the Deanery 
Branch to the Stockton and Darlington Railroad at Bishop Auck- 
land, and another branch, of nearly ten miles in length, from the 
City of Durham Branch to the Hagger Leases Branch of the 
last-mentioned railroad, near St Helen's Auckland, but these were 
•ubseqoently abandoned. 

The object of tins undertaking is to open, more effectually, the 
valuable coal fields and limestone quarries to which the railway 



156 CLYDE RIVER. 

and branches severally extend ; and to afford a cheaper mode of 
conveyance to a place where the minerals can be conveniently 
shipped for exportation. 



CLYDE RIVER. 

32 Geo. II. C. 62, R. A 2nd June, 1759. 8 Geo. III. C. 16, R A. 24th Feb. 1768. 
10Geo.III.C.104,R.A. I2th April, 1770. 14 Geo. III. C.I 03, R. A. MhMav, 1774. 
48Geo.IH.C. 74, R. A. 20th May, 1800. 6 Geo. IV. C. 117, R. A. lOtb June, 1820. 

Tins noble river has its source on the northern side of Queens- 
berry Hill, situate among that lofty range of mountains which 
separate the southerly point of the county of Lanark from Dum- 
frieshire. Its course is northerly, and very circuitous, passing 
Crawford and between the mountains of Tinto and Culter Fell, 
to near Pettinain, where, after changing to a south-westerly course 
for a few miles, it pursues a north-westerly course by Lanark and 
Hamilton, its stream being considerably augmented by the water 
of Avon, which here fells into it. Its course, which is now very 
crooked, continues by Bothwell and Rutherglen, to the city of 
Glasgow, where it becomes navigable ; and hence by Govan and 
Renfrew, a little below which town it joins the navigable River Cart. 
From this point it gradually widens, and becomes a noble estuary, 
which at Port Glasgow is above two miles in width. From Gor- 
bells Bridge, in Glasgow, the course of the Clyde to the Cart 
River is about seven miles; from thence to Port Dundas, where 
the Forth and Clyde Canal communicates with it, is nearly four 
miles and a half; from that place to Dumbarton Harbour, three 
miles; and thence, to Port Glasgow, five miles. The total length 
of the navigable part of this river, to where it falls into the Firth 
of Clyde, opposite the point of land on which is situate Roseneath, 
(the beautiful seat of the Duke of Argyle) is about twenty-five 
miles. This river was, originally, navigable at high water, 
spring tides, as far as Glasgow, but when trade and manufactures 
increased, the necessity of having a better navigation became so 
manifest, that the magistrates and city council of Glasgow, in 
1759, obtained an act to enable thein to improve it, which is 
entitled, ' An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Clyde 
' to the city of Glasgow ; and for building a Bridge cross the said 



CLYDE RIVER. 147 

' River, from the said city to the village of OorbeUt.' The im- 
provements contemplated, were between Dumbuck ford and the 
bridge at Glasgow ; and consisted, chiefly, of a dam and lock at 
Merlin Ford, to deepen the water over the shallows toward the 
cky ; to carry which into execution, the act empowered them to 
borrow £90,000, on security of the following 

TONNAGE AND KEELAGE DUTIES. 

i. 
For every British, Irish, or Plantation-built Ship, coming \ 

into or going oat of the Part of Glasgow, (which com- f lj per Ton, which such 

prebends Port Glasgow and Greenock), from anyf Ship shall Measure. 

Foreign Country or the British Plantations ) 

For every Foreign Ship or Vessel coining in or out 3 ditto. ditto. 

And from the Owners of any Vessel trading to or from > t T 

Glasgow to any Part of Great Britain or Ireland I * pa lon ' 

EXEMPTION FROM TONNAGE AND KEELAGE DUTIES. 

Any Vessel laden with Fish or other Provisions, Corn, Grain, Meal, Stones, Slate, or 
Coal, discharged at any of the Quays or Creeks within the Port of Glasgow, and 
open Boats under Fifteen Tons. 

ADDITIONAL TONNAGE AT MERLIN FORD. 

«^> «. d. 

Goods, Wares, and Merchandize of every Description, (excqBpoal), > , - ~ 

passing through the Lock to be erected at Merlin Ford .71 i ' ,per ™' 

Cosl 8 ditto. 

EXEMPTION. 

Dong, Lime, Marl, and other Manure, carried in any Boat belonging to the Owner or 
Occupier of any Lands within Five Miles of the River ( Sand, Clay, or Wood for 
the Use of any Delph Manufactory ; Brick, Kelp, Soapers' Waste, or Broken Glass 
for the Use of any Glass Works in Glasgow ; Wood, Iron-stone, or Iron-ore, Clay, 
Bricks and Lime-stone for the Use of any Company for making Pig or Bar Iron. 

Vesstls from Foreign Parts discharging -or loading at the Quay of Glasgow, are 
liable only to the tost-mentioned Duties. 

The act of 8th George IIL is entitled, ( An Act for making 
' and widening a Pottage or Street, from the Salt Market Street, 
' m the city of Glasgow, to St. Andrew's Church, in the said city ; 
' and for enlarging and completing the Church Yard of the said 
' Church ; and for making and building a convenient Exchange, or 
' Square, m the said city; and also for explaining and amending 
' a* Act passed in the Thirty-second Year of his late Majesty, for 
' improving the Navigation of the River Clyde, to the city of Glat- 
' gov; and for building a Bridge cross the said River, from the 
1 said city to the village of Gorbells;' but it does not contain any 
danse relating to the navigation. 



158 CLYDE RIVER. 

In the preamble of the act of the 10th George III. it is stated, 
that instead of a lock and dam at Merlin Ford, a more efficient 
navigation may be effected, by contracting the channel of the river 
and dredging ; and that, being apprehensive that the high tonnage 
and keelage duties would be prejudicial to trade, they are there- 
fore repealed. The other tonnage rates are to be paid on all 
articles, as above, passing between Dumbuck Ford and Glasgow. 

The river to be made with 7 feet water, at neap tides; and 
the quay to be repaired and enlarged, and the following quay 
duties are allowed to be taken. 

THE BROOMIELAW QUAY DUTIES. 

d. 

AH Vessels brought to these Quays to load or unload 1 per Ton. 

But these Duties are not to be applied to the Purpose of improving the Navigation. 

For the Purpose of a more equitable payment of the Tonnage Duties, this Act divides 
the Clyde into Three Stages ; the First terminates at Renfrew Ferry, the Second 
at Dalmuir Burn Foot, and the last at Dumbuck Ford. For the First Stage or 
auy Part of it Four-sixths of the above Rate, and for the other Stages One-sixth 
each. 

Fifty Feet ofRound, or Forty Feet ofSquare Oak, Ash, or Elm Timber, or Fifty Feet 
of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, or other Wood, to be deemed a Toil 



The act of the 14th George III. entitled, '■An Act far explain- 
' ing and amending an Act made in the Thirty-second Year of his 
' late Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the River Clyde, 
' to the city of Glasgow ; and for building a Bridge cross the said 
' River, from the said city to the village of Gorbells ; and part of 
1 another Act, made in the Eighth Year of his present Majesty, 
' for amending the said Act; and for repairing, widening, and 
' enlarging the old Bridge cross the River of Clyde, from the city 
' of Glasgow to the village of Gorbells,'' relates, chiefly, to the im- 
position of additional tolls and portages for the passage near the 
new bridge. 

The act of the 49th George HI. is entitled, ' An Act for ex- 
' plaining and amending Two Acts for improving the Navigation of 
' the River Clyde to the city of Glasgow,' 1 in the preamble of which 
it is stated, that in consequence of some doubts which had arisen 
respecting the proper interpretation of such parts of the preceding 
acts as relates to the tonnage upon coal, some further explanation 
was necessary. 



CLYDE RIVER. 150 

TONNAGE RATES. 

The Toll of Eight-pence per Ton on Coal to'be paid until the 8th of July, 1810, and 
from that Period until the 8th of July, 1817, the Tonnage shall be Four-pence, 
when they aha]] entirely cease. 

The Tonnage Rate* upon Bricks, Lime, Limestone, and Pantiles, shall from and after 
the 8th of July, 1810, be diminished from One Shilling per Ton, to Sixpence, and 
so to continue until the 8th of July, 1817, when the Duty is to cease. 

In addition to the Old Quay Duty of One Penny per Ton, a Rate of One Penny per 
Ton is to be leried on ail Ships and other Vessels loading or unloading Coal, 
Bricks, Lime, Limestone, and Pantiles, at the Harbour of The Broomielaw. 

This act, however, authorizes the lord provost, magistrates and 
city council of Glasgow, to make the Clyde 9 feet deep at neap 
tides, in every part of it between the bridge of Glasgow and the 
castle of Dumbarton. They are farther empowered by this act to 
borrow j^SO,00O, for the purpose of enlarging the harbour of 
Broomielaw, on security of the new rates and duties, the former 
sum having been paid off. 

The last act relating to this navigation received the royal assent 
on the 10th of June, 1835, and it is entitled, ' An Act for amending 
1 Three Acts for enlarging the Harbour of Glasgow, and improving 
* the Navigation of the River Clyde, to the said city; and for other 
i Purposes therein mentioned,' by which, power is given to make 
the navigation 13 feet deep, at neap tides, throughout its length ; 
to enlarge the harbour of Broomielaw, and to extend the naviga- 
tion to the south-east extremity of the public green of Glasgow. 
For the purpose of raising a fund for carrying these works into 
execution and discharging a debt of ^54,350, 17*. 9d. contracted 
under the authority of the recited acts, they are empowered to 
collect the following additional rates and duties, and to borrow the 
mm of £100,000, on the credit of the undertaking. 

RATES AND DUTIES. 

Toe One Shilling- Rate upon all Goods, Wares, and other Commodities, (with the 
Exception of the exempted Articles in the last-recited Act), to be increased One- 
third, if necessary, according to the Stages of the River. 

Coal, Bricks, Pantiles, Freestone, Whinstone, and other Articles, a River Rate of 
Two-pence per Ton. 

Use cad Limestone, Dang, Jtorl, and other Manure, as also Brick, Kelp, Sand, 
Soapeis' Waste, or Broken Glass, for the Use of any Glass Works, in Glasgow, 
are exempt from the above Rate. 

NEW HARBOUR AND QUAY DUTIES. 

For eTery Ship or other Vessel loading or unloading at the Quays, Two-pence per Ton. 

Steam VesKls, for the Conveyance of Passengers, to pay only Half of the Duties for 

each Time beyond the First Arrival on the same Day. 



160 CLYDE RIVER. 

NEW HARBOUR AND QUAY DUTIES CONTINUED. 

The Shed Duties for every Articleare particularly specified, but as the enumeration of 
them would far exceed the Limits of our Publication, we refer the Reader to the 
Act. The highest Kates are Two-pence per Ton, and the lowest One Penny ; and 
if those Duties shall, on an Average of Three Years, exceed fifteen per Cent, of the 
Cost of Erection, the Duties to be reduced until the Annual Revenue be fifteen 
per Cent. 

For the Navigation of the River above The Broomielaw, a River Duty of Two-pence 
per Ton upon all Articles; but when the Annual Revenue, thus derived, exceeds 
£600, then the Duty to be reduced to One Penny per Ton ; and, again raised to 
Two-pence per Ton if the Revenue should be below ±'600, or, the Proprietors may, 
at their option, take the full Produce of the One Penny Rate. 

For the further Purpose of improving the Clyde Navigation, above the Harbour of 
Broomielaw, from and after the opening of the Communication, they are entitled 
to a further Duty of from Three-pence to One Shilling per Ton, as the Trustees 
shall determine, on all Wares and Merchandize whatever, navigating the said 
proposed Extension. 

Coal brought downwards and unshipped at the Harbour of Broomielaw are exempt 
from the above Duty if not re-shipped. 

Vessels and Goods passing up the River to the Quays of Glasgow are not liable to the 
Charges on the Extension to the East of the City. 

For the more equitable Payment of the River Duties, the Clyde is again divided into 
Three Stages. The First Stage comprehends the space between the Harbour of 
Broomielaw and the Old Ferry of Renfrew ; the Second Stage is between the 
last-mentioned Place and the Mouth of Dalmuir Burn ; and the last extends to the 
Castle of Dumbarton ; and the Rates and River Duties are to be paid on these 
Stages in the Proportion recited in the preceding Act. 

None of the New or Additional Duties shall be paid on any Goods, Wares, or Merchan- 
dize, which shall pass from the Forth and Clyde Canal into any Part of the River 
lying Westward of Dalmuir Burn, (except Coal, which shall pay a Duty of One 
Farthing per Ton) ; and at the Expiration of Nine Years from the Date of this Act, 
the present Duty of Two-pence per Ton on all Goods (except Coal) conveyed on 
the lowermost Stage, on entering the Forth and Clyde, or vice versa, shall be 
reduced to One Penny per Ton ; and if after the Expiration of the above Term of 
Nine Years, an Annual Revenue, exceeding One-third of the Annual Expenditure 
on these Works, below Dalmuir Bum, the Duties of One Penny and One Farthing 
per Ton shall be so reduced until the Revenue from this Stage be no more than 
One-third of the Expenditure on this part of the Navigation. 

AH Vessels (including those propelled by Steam, going direct between Glasgow and Dum- 
barton) belonging to the Royal Burgh of Dumbarton, are, by Virtue of a Contract, 
entered into with the Corporation of Glasgow, in the Year 1700, exempt from 
River and Harbour Dues upon the Clyde. If Steam Vessels make any Voyages, 
except direct from Dumbarton and Glasgow, they are liable to the River and 
Harbour Duties; so are Coals not bona fide for the Use of the Burgesses of Dum- 
barton. This Exemption does not extend to the Navigation beyond the Harbour 
of Broomielaw. 

The Burgesses of Glasgow are likewise exempted, by Virtue of the original Contract 
above-mentioned, from the Payment of any Duties on entering the Harbour of 
Dumbarton. 

Ships or Vessels in His Majesty's Service are exempt from any Rates or Duties by 
Virtue of this Act. 



In addition to the great advantages which the city of Glasgow 
experiences, from the facilities which this excellent navigation 
gives for importing colonial and other produce, and for exporting- 
the vast quantity of manufactured cotton goods, which a population 
of one hundred and fifty thousand souls continues to produce, it is 
connected with the Great Lanarkshire Coal Field, by means of 



COLNE RIVER. 161 

the Monkland Canal and the Gamkirk Railway, which coanect 
with the Bajlochney add the Garturk and CariongiB Railways, by 
means of which, coal is, Supplied, at a comparatively low rate j 
besides these, considerable advantages arise front a branch of the 
Forth and Clyde Canal, terminating on the east side of the city, 
which gives certain communication with the Forth, and city of 
Edinburgh. ' ; 

Some idea may be formed of the traffic to the Clyde, from a 
return to parliament, by which it appears, that three hundred and 
ten British, and thirty-seven Foreign Ships, entered it in the 
year 1824. 

Before the American War, the import of tobacco from Mary- 
land and Virginia, into this river, was from 35 to 45,000 hogsheads, 
and the year immediately preceding that event, the amount was 
57,143 hogsheads. From the West Indies, 540,198 hogsheads of 
sugar, 1,451,900 gallons of nun, and 6,530,177 lbs. of cotton were 
imported. Of the exports, which consist chiefly of their own manu- 
factures, we need not do more than state, that in 1815, there were 
at cotton mills, containing 51 1,200 spindles; 18 works for weaving 
by steam power, which weekly produced 8,400 pieces ; 39 ca- 
lenders, which worked oS, daily, 118,000 yards ; besides dressing 
116,000, and glazing 30,000. 



COLNE RIVER. 

aiJuns LC.34,R-i 1693. SJclOWtLOLC 19.R.A. ISthHty, 1698. 

SOeo. 1.C.31.H. A.18thApr.l7l8. 13tieo. 11. C. 30, R. A. 29th Apr. 1740. 

SSQeo. aC. 19, K. A. 12th Apr. 1730. 2f Geo.IH.C.30,R.A.18thMay, 1781. 

Tais river rises a few miles north-west of Castle Hedingham, 
in the hundred of Hinckford, Essex, by which places it runs to the 
town of Habtead ; from whence, it takes a more eastwardly course 
by Earls Colne Priory, to The Hythe, near the town of Colchester, 
from which place to the sea, into which it falls at Mersea Island, 
it is navigable. From The Hythe to Wivenhoe, the distance is 
three miles and a half, and from thence the river opens into an 
estuary, terminating in the sea opposite the eastern end of Mersea 
Island, at the distance of four miles and a half. It is one of the 
earliest navigations, as appears by an act of the 21st James I. 

L 



162 COLNE RIVER. 

entitled, ' An Act for the repairing and maintaining of the Haven, 
' River, and Channel running unto the Borough and Town of 
' Colchester, in the County of Essex, and also for the paving of the 
' said Town.' The succeeding acts relate only to the river above 
Wivenhoe, for to that place the navigation has always been of 
sufficient depth, and where now there is a dock-yard for building 
frigates and merchant-men. 

By the act of the 9th and 10th William III. entitled, ' An Act 
i for cleansing and making navigable the Channel from The Hythe, 
' at Colchester, to Wivenhoe,' certain duties were granted to the 
corporation of Colchester, on all goods navigated between Wivenhoe 
and The Hythe, for the term of twenty-one years, and the powers 
of which said act was, by another of the 5th of George I. entitled, 
' An Act for enlarging the Term granted by an Act of the Ninth 
1 and Tenth of William III. for cleansing and making navigable 
' the Channel from The Hythe, at Colchester, to Wivenhoe, and for 
' making the said Act more effectual,' extended to the 1st of May, 
1740. 

By another act, dated the 29th of April, 1740, entitled, ' An 
1 Act for further enlarging the Term granted by an Act of the 
' Ninth and Tenth Years of the Reign of King William III. for 
' cleansing and making navigable the Channel from The Hythe, at 
' Colchester, to Wivenhoe, and for making the said Act, and another 
1 Act of the Fifth Year of the Reign of his late Majesty King 
1 George the First, for enlarging the Term granted by the said Act 
' of the Ninth and Tenth Years of the Reign of King William the 
1 Third more effectual,' the powers of the former acts, together 
with the additional powers, should be in force for ever. 

DUTY ON SEA COAL. 

That the Duty on Sea Coal should be Three-pence per Chaldron, to be levied for 
Forty Years, from the 1st of May, 1740, and that no other Duty should be raised 
upon any other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize. 

In the preamble, however, of the 23rd of George II. it appears, 
that in consequence of the powers of the mayor and commonalty 
to collect a large amount of arrears of rates, due under the former 
acts, having ceased, together with the loss of a considerable sum of 
money, then laying in the hands of the representatives of the late 



COLNE RIVER 163 

receiver general of these duties, and for the payment of which no 
legal discharges could be given, that the only lock upon this navi- 
gation, together with other of the works, had necessarily fallen 
into decay ; fresh powers are, therefore, indispensable ; accordingly, 
an act received the royal assent on die 13th of April, 1750, 
entitled, ' An Act for making more effectual teveral Acts of Parlia- 

* ment passed for cleansing and making more navigable the Channel 
'from The Hythe, at Colchester, to Wivenhoe, in the County of 
1 Essex, and for repairing and cleansing the Streets and Lanes of 

* the Town of Colchester.* By this act an additional duty of three- 
pence per chaldron is levied on sea coal for thirty years, from the 
1st of May, 1750, the collection of which is plaeed in the hands of 
a number of gentlemen, who are entitled, "The Commissioners 
u for putting in Execution the several Acts of Parliament made 
u for cleansing and making navigable the Channel from The 
" Hythe, at Colchester, to Wivenhoe." 

The last act relating to this navigation was passed in 1781, and 
is entitled, ' An Act for continuing, and making more effectual, 

* several Acts of Parliament passed fot cleansing and making navU 
' gable the Channel from The Hythe, at Colchester, to Wivenhoe, in 
' the County of Essex; and for repairing and cleansing the Streets 

* of the Town of Colchester; and also for lighting the Streets and 
f Lanes, and for preventing Annoyances in the said Town,' by 
which the powers of the above-recited acts are extended to the 
further term of forty years, and from thence to the end of the then 
next session of parliament. Commissioners are appointed for 
putting the acts in execution, who are directed to apply for and 
dispose of the sum of £2,000, which was vested in the fund called 
The South Sea Annuities, for the purpose of keeping this naviga- 
tion in sufficient repair. 

The chief objects of this navigable river are the import of coal, 
deals, and groceries, and the export of farming produce, and 
Colchester Oysters from the banks below Wivenhoe. 



l 2 



164 CONWAY RIVER— COOMBE HILL CANAL. 



CONWAY RIVER. 

Tins river has its source in that mountainous tract which 
separates the counties of Denbigh and Carnarvon from Merio- 
nethshire ; from whence it takes a northerly course by the village 
of Yspytty Efan, near which place it is crossed by the Holyhead 
Mail Road; having in its way received the waters of the Llygwy, 
it pursues a north-easterly route to Llanrwst, whence, at high 
water, it continues navigable to its fall into the sea, about a mile 
below the Conway Saspension Bridge. Conway Harbour, situated 
at the mouth of this river, is well protected from the north and 
east, by the promontory called Great Orme's Head, but is fit 
only for vessels of small burthen, and the channel is very difficult 
to navigate. 

The length of this navigation is about thirteen miles and a 
half. Being a tideway river, and not being the subject of any 
parliamentary enactment, it is toll free ; and is chiefly used for 
the trade of Conway and Llanrwst. 



COOMBE HILL CANAL. 

32 George III. Cap. 8a, Royal Assent Ilth June, 1792. 

This canal proceeds from the River Severn at Fletcher's 
Leap, in the parish of Deerhurst, in nearly a straight course, 
to Coombe Hill, a village situate about seven miles from Glou- 
cester, on the road to Tewkesbury. It is three miles and a half 
in length, with a rise of 1 5 feet, and was made under the authority 
of an act, entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a navi- 
1 gable Canal from the foot of Coombe Hill, in the parish of Leigh, 
' in the county of Gloucester, to join the River Severn, at or near a 
' place called Fisher's otherwise Fletcher's Leap, in the parish of 
' Deerhurst, in the said county,' at the sole expense of T. Burgess 
and W. Miller, Esquires, and Mrs. Sarah Mumford. 

The principal object proposed was the shortening and ren- 
dering more cheap, the communication between the River Severn 
and the town of Cheltenham, which is about five miles distant from 



COVENTRY CANAL. |8f 

Coombe Hill; but since the Gloucester and Cheltenham Railway 
hag been oonBtructed, the bnsiness on this canal has been materially 
reduced. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

, *. d. 

Coal, Iron, Ironstone, Timber, and Bfl > „ „ _; , ... v • ^- . 

oUkt Good* Wait^ art Merchandize} 3 6 P« Ton, for the whole Datance 



COVENTRY CANAL. 

8 George ill Cap. 36, Royal Assent 29th January, 1768. 
26 George m. Cap. 30, Royal Aaaent 22nd May, 1786. 
48 George IIL Cap. 62, Royal Aaaent 14th June, 1819. 

The original line, for which the act of 8th George HI. was 
obtained, commences at the Trent and Mersey or Grand Trunk 
Canal, on Fredley Heath, from whence it takes * southerly direc- 
tion to Huddksford, where it is joined by the Wyrley and Easing- 
ton Canal ; afterwards by Hopwas to Fazeley, near Tamworth, 
where the Birmingham and Faxeley Canal locks down into it. 
From this place Hs course is across the River Tame, in a north? 
eastwardly direction by AniHngton, where it approaches the banks 
of the Little River Anker; thence, it takes a south-easterly direc- 
tion, and runs in nearly a parallel course with the river above 
mentioned ; then by Polesworth, to the west side of the town of 
Ataerstone ; by HartshiU, the town of Nuneaton, and the villages 
of Bedworth and Longford, to the city of Coventry, .where it 
terminates. 

The original subscribers to this canal were one hundred and 
thirteen in number, amongst whom were Lord Archer, Lady 
Mary Greatheed, and Sir Roger Newdigate, Bart, who were in- 
corporated by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the 
" Coventry Canal Navigation." The act of 8th George III. so 
incorporating them, is entitled, * An Jet for making and main- 
4 taining a navigable Canal from the city of Coventry, to communis 
1 cafe, upon Fradlty Heathy in the county of Stafford, with a Canal 
1 nam making between the Rivers Trent and Merteyf and it em- 
powered the subscribers to raise, among themselves, for the 



166 COVENTRY CANAL. 

purposes of this act, the sum of £50,000, in five hundred shares 
of £100 each, and an additional sum of £30,000, if necessary, by 
creating new shares. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

H. 
Coa], Timber, Stone, and all other Goods, Wares, and 1 j. Ton jj^ 

Merchandize i * ' 

Lime and Limestone J ditto. ditto. 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. 

Paving-stones, Sand, Gravel, and all other Material for the repair of Roads; Dun?, 
Soil, Marl, and all sorts of Manure, provided they do not pass a Lock, except at 
such Times as the Water flows over it. 

Vessels under Fifteen Tons not to pass Locks without leave. 

Wharfage to be paid for all Goods remaining more than Twenty-four Hours on the 

Wharfs, but no Charge to be made for the Use of the Crane, which the Company 

are required to erect on the Bank of the Canal, near Tamworth. 

Proprietors of Lands may erect Wharfs, but that no more than Three-pence per Ton 

shall be charged for Goods which shall not remain more than Six Days. 

Mr. James Brindley was the original engineer to this canal, and 
made the estimate for constructing it ; but it appears that the amount 
of subscriptions was expended in executing between sixteen and 
seventeen miles of the line, viz. from Coventry to Atherstone ; 
and as the company failed to raise any portion of the £30,000, 
which the act of 8th George III. authorized them to do, an end 
was put to the further prosecution of the remaining twenty-one 
miles of canal, until 1782, when a meeting of delegates from the 
Coventry, Oxford, and Trent and Mersey Canal Companies, and 
the subscribers to a proposed canal from the Wednesbury Col- 
lieries, to join the Coventry Canal, at Fazeley, took place at 
Coleshill, on the 20th of June in that year, where it was agreed 
that the Trent and Mersey Canal Company and the subscribers to 
the proposed canal, should execute the line from Fradley to Faze- 
ley, (which is eleven miles in length and level,) and divide it 
equally between the last-mentioned company and the Birmingham 
and Fazeley Canal Company. 

In an act passed on the 24th of June, 1783, authorizing the 
making of the Birmingham and B'azeley Canal, the agreement 
above referred to is confirmed, and that half lying between B aze- 
ley and Whittington Brook, is declared to belong to the last 
mentioned company, and the other half, terminating at Fradley, 
to the Trent and Mersey Canal Company; and, it was further 



COVENTRY CANAl* Jg7 

agreed, that the tonnage upon all coal navigated from Birmingham 
to Fazeley, and upon all or any part of the Coventry and Oxford 
Canals, should not exceed one penny per ton, per mile. 

The act embodying this agreement, and authorizing the 
several parties to carry the works into execution, was passed on 
the 13th June, 1785, (25th George III. cap. 08,) and is entitled, 

* An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Navigation 
'from the Trent to the Mersey, and the Company of Proprietors of 
' the Navigation from Birmingham to Fazeley, to make a navigable 
4 Canal from the said Trent and Mersey Navigation on Fradley 
1 Heath, in the county of Stafford, to Fazeley, in the said county ; 
' and for confirming certain Articles of Agreement entered into 

* between the said Trent and Mersey, the Oxford, and the Coventry 

* Canal Navigation Companies.'' The act also confirms an. agree- 
ment Between the Coventry and Trent and Mersey Canal Compa- 
res, to this effect, viz. that within two months after notice had 
been given to the Coventry Canal Company that the part between 
Whhtington Brook and Fradley Heath was completed, such com- 
pany should be at liberty to purchase this portion at the original 
east, with interest, from the time of advancing the several sums 
expended thereon. 

In the preamble of the act of the 26th George III. entitled, 
' An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Coventry 
' Canal Navigation, to complete the said Canal to Fradley Heath, 
' w the county of Stafford, and for other Purposes therein men- 
' Honed,' it is stated, that the sum of £50,000 had been expended 
in making. the canal from Coventry to Atherstone, and that' they 
had not been able to raise any portion of the additional sum of 
£30,000, which the act of 8th George III. authorized them to do. 
For the purpose, therefore, of enabling the company to execute 
the remaining part of the canal, between Atherstone and Fazeley, 
and to purchase that half-part of the canal between Fazeley and 
Fradley, belonging to the Trent and Mersey Canal Company, 
authority is given to raise, on mortgage of the undertaking, the 
sum of £40,000. This act limited the dividends, on that part of 
the navigation already executed, to three per cent, until the whole 
was completed ; it also repeals that part of the original act limit- 
ing the number of shares to be held by one person, to ten, unless 



168 COVENTRY CANAL. 

they came by will or act in law ; instead of which, it enacts that 
any person may have any number of shares not exceeding thirty. 
The line of canal from Fazeley to Fradley being completed, and 
notice given to the Coventry Canal Company, in January, 1787, 
they agreed to purchase the half-part above-mentioned, and it was 
accordingly conveyed to them in October, 1787. The whole line 
of canal was completed and opened in July, 1790. The length of 
this canal, from Fradley Heath to Coventry, was thirty-seven 
miles and three-quarters, including the portion of the original line 
now belonging to the Birmingham Canal Company. The first 
eleven miles, to Fazeley, is level ; there is then a rise, to Glascote, 
near Tamworth, of 14J feet, by two locks; thence, to Grendon, 
six miles and a half, is level ; from Grendon to Atherstone, a dis- 
tance of two miles and a half, there is a rise of 8l£ feet; from 
which place, to its termination at Coventry, it is level. At 
Marston Bridge, near Bedworth, the Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal 
joins it, and at Longford, the Oxford Canal communicates with it. 
Between Nuneaton and the junction with the Ashby-de-la-Zouch 
Canal, there is a short branch of three-quarters of a mile in length, 
to some collieries; and at Griff, near Marston Bridge, there is 
another branch. It is here worthy of remark, that these three 
canals conjointly preserve the longest canal level in England, 
being upwards of seventy miles, exclusive of branches. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

By an Act of the 9th George III. for making the Oxford Canal, it is stipulated that the 
Coventry Canal Proprietors shall receive all the Rates, arising from Coal, on the 
Oxford Canal, on the Two Miles nearest the Coventry Canal ; and, that the 
Oxford Canal Company shall have all the Rates, arising from all Articles except 
Coal, which shall be navigated upon any Part or Farts of the Oxford Canal, and 
afterwards upon the Coventry Canal, within Three Miles and a Half from the 
Junction of the Two Canals towards Coventry; and by the Act of 34th George 
III. for making the Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal, the Coventry Canal Company are 
authorized to collect Five.pence per Ton upon all Coal, Goods, and Merchandize 
whatsoever, which shall be navigated upon the Ashby de-la-Zouch, and after- 
wards upon the Coventry, Oxford, or Grand Junction Canals, or upon any of the 
above-mentioned Canals and afterwards upon the Ashby Canal. 

EXEMPTION. 

An Exemption to this Toll is extended to Corn or Grain; Sheep or other Cattle ; Iron, 
Stone, Wrought Iron, got or made upon the Banks of the Ashby-de-la-Zouch 
Canal ; Dung, Ashes, and Marl, for Manure ; and Gravel, Sand, and Stone, for the 
repair of Roads. 

The last act relating to the Coventry Canal Navigation, re- 
ceived the royal assent on the 14th of June, 1819, and is entitled, 



CREE RIVER OR WATER OF CRKE-CRINAN CANAL. 100 

' An Act for amending several 'Acts of hit present Majesty, rela- 
' ting to the Coventry Canal Navigation,' and was obtained chiefly 
fertile purpose of enabling proprietors of abates to transform por- 
tion equal to one or more tenths, and for enabling the company to 
create a fond for repairs, but which is not to exceed £M,0OQ. 

Thai canal was a part ofM*. Brindley's scheme for c o mple ti ng 
an inland navigation between the ports of Tondon, Liverpool, and 
Hon, and bow that that object is effected, its revenue is derived 
chiefly from cargoes passing between those places, as will appear 
from the circumstance, that shortly after the completion of the 
Oxford Canal, the original snares were quadrupled in valued and 
have, since that period, considerably advanced. 

CREE RIVER OR WATER OF CREE. 

This river has its source in Loch Moan, situate among the 
bras which separate the counties of Kirkcudbright and Ayr; 
from whence its course is southerly, by Newton Stewart, to 
Carty, to which place it is navigable for small vessels. From 
hence its course is very crooked to Creetown, where it empties 
hsetf into Wigton Bay. The navigable part of it is nearly eight 
mOes in length, and is free of toll. 

There is no proper harbour in Wigton Bay, although there 
are several places where vessels may stop in moderate weather, or 
with oft-sbore winds. 

The channel to the water of Cree lies on the east side of the 
bay, but as there is neither buoy or perch, it is difficult to find ; 
however, a vessel drawing 9 to 10 feet, at four hours flood, may 
get up a considerable distance. 

This river is chiefly useful for facilitating the importation of 
coal from Ayr, Troon, and Irvine, to Newton Stewart and its 
vicinity. 

CRINAN CANAL. 

33 George in. Cap. 104, Royal Assent 8th May, 1793. 
39 George HI. Cap. 27, Royal Assent 10th May, 1799. 

Tins canal was made across an isthmus in Argyleshire, lying 
between Lochs Crinan and Gilp, under the authority of an act, 



170 CRINAN CANAL 

entitled, ' An Act far making and maintaining a navigable Canal 
^ from Loch Gilp to Loch Crinan, in the shire of Argyll.' It 
commences at the point of Ardreshaig, in Loch Gilp ; thence, by 
Oakfield, Craiglass, Auchinshellach and Leikachluan, to Loch 
Crinan, into which it falls near Duntroon Castle. It is nine miles 
and a half in length, and 12 to 15 feet deep; there are fifteen 
locks upon it, with a rise of 58 feet from Loch Gilp, and a fall of 
59 feet to Loch Crinan. Mr. Watt surveyed the line, in the first 
instance, but Mr. John Rennie was afterwards appointed engineer, 
and we believe it was carried into execution under his direction. 

The subscribers, at the time the act was obtained, consisted of 
two hundred and eighty-eight persons, amongst whom were the 
Duke of Argyle, the Marquesses of Tweedale and Lome, Earl of 
Breadalbane, Lord Frederick and Lord J. Campbell, Lord Mac- 
donald, Sir A. Edmonstone, Sir J. Sinclair, Sir A. Campbell, and 
Sir James Riddell, Baronets, and Sir J. Campbell, Knight, besides 
nearly fifty other gentlemen bearing the last-mentioned name of 
CampbelL They were incorporated by the name of " The Com- 
" pany of Proprietors of the Crinan Canal," and empowered to 
raise among themselves the sum of ^120,000, in two thousand 
four hundred shares of -£?50 each, and an additional sum of 
,£30,000, should the former sum prove insufficient, or they may 
borrow the last-mentioned sum on mortgage of the undertaking, 
or by granting annuities on lives. The work is under the manage- 
ment of a director and fourteen other persons, who are called, 
" The Governor and Directors of the Company of Proprietors of 
" the Crinan CanaL" The width of the canal and towing path is 
not to exceed 450 feet, except where the canal is raised higher or 
cut deeper than 16 feet from the surface of the ground. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

«. d. 
All Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Commodities whatsoever 3 perTon, per Mite- 
Coal, Salt (Outward-bound), Lime, Limestone, Shell-sand,} . „ ..,, ... 

Marl, and all Sorts of Manure .1° 2 d,,ta d,Uo - 

Open Boats, not exceeding Seven Tons Burthen 1 2 per Mile each. 

Empty or Light Vessels (for every Ton Burthen) IperMile. 

HARBOUR DUES. 

t. d. 

Goods landed or loaded in the Harbour or Basins 1 per Ton. 

Vessels entering the said Harbour or Basins without unload- j . 

ing or passing upon the Canal J 



CBXNAN CANAL. 171 

Fractions, to betaken at kt a Quarto ofa Too, Had at for a Quarto ofa Mile. 

No Wharfage to be taken for any Goods unleaa they have been upon the Wharfs or 

Quays more (ban Twenty-four Hours. 

The. Wharfage Bates are flsed by the Bye-Laws of tbc Company. 



By an aetofSWh George 1IL entitled, * An Act for amending 
* and rendering mare effectual an Act patted in the Thirty-third 
' Tear of the Rtign of hit present Majesty, entitled, An Act for 
* making and m aintainin g a navigable Canal from Loch Gilp to 
1 Lock Crinan, tit the thire of Argyll,' the company are autho- 
rised to raise or borrow the ram of £30,000, (although the whole 
of the sum of £150,000, allowed to be raised by the above-recited 
act, may not have been raised,) on mortgage of the undertaking, 
by granting annuities, or by creating new shares, or by bonds, or 
promissory notes under the common seal of the company ; but as 
there afterwards appeared little probability of raising the above 
mm, in consequence of many of the subscribers being unable to 
make good their engagements,, the lord chief baron and other the 
batons «f the court of exchequer, of Scotland, were, directed, under 
authority of an act of 39th George III. cap. 71, entitled, ' An Act 
i fer empowering the Company of Proprietors of the Forth and 
' Clyde Navigation to repay into the Court of Exchequer, in 
' Scotland) the Sum advanced to them for the Purpose of completing 
' tkt said Navigation ; for repealing so much of an Act of the 
' Twenty-fourth Year of hit present Majesty at relates to the said 
( Company, and for enabling the Barons of the said Court of Ex- 
' chequer to advance Part of the Sum, so to be received, to the Com- 
'pasty of Proprietort of the Crinan Canal, on certain Conditions,' 
to pay to the Crinan Canal Company, on security of the rates and 
duties, the sun of £35,000: the interest of which sum, and the 
other moiety of the sum of £50,000, to be paid by the Forth and 
Clyde Navigation Company, is by the same act directed to be laid 
out in the repair of the roads and bridges in the highlands of 
Scotland. 

The chief object of this ship canal is the shortening of the pas- 
sage between the ports in the highlands, or the Caledonian Canal 
and the River Clyde, by avoiding the circuitous route round the 
peninsula of Cantire. The distance thus saved is more than 
seventy miles, and when we take into consideration the difficulty 



172 CROMFORD CANAL. 

of this circuitous navigation, the islands and rocks to be avoided, 
the tacks and evolutions necessarily occasioned by contrary winds 
and lee-shores, and the certainty that the wind which favours ves- 
sels to the Mull of Cantire must be directly opposed when the 
point is doubled, the advantages arising to the navigation from 
the execution of this canal, and the safety and certainty with 
which the voyage through it can at all times be accomplished, 
must be much more largely appreciated, than from the mere con- 
sideration of the saving of time and distance. 

CROMFORD CANAL. 

29 George III. Cap. 74, Royal A«ent 31st July, 1789. 

30 Ueorge 111. Cap. 58, Royal Assent 1st April, 17U0. 

Tins canal commences in the Erewash Canal, near Langley 
Bridge, in the county of Nottingham, and near its junction with the 
Nottingham Canal, from whence it pursues a northerly course, fol- 
lowing the line of the River Erewash, which it crosses, but still 
proceeds along its banks to Codnor Park Iron Works, when it takes 
a westwardly course to Butterley Park, where it enters a tunnel of 
two thousand nine hundred and sixty-six yards in length, termina- 
ting a short distance west of Butterley Iron Works, under which it 
passes. From hence its course is by Buckland Bottom to Bull 
Bridge, where it crosses the River Amber by an aqueduct two 
hundred yards in length and 50 feet high. Near this place it 
enters a short tunnel, and from thence takes a north-westwardly 
direction, following the course of the Derwent, by Hepstandell 
Bridge, a mile beyond which, at Lea Hurst, it enters another short 
tunnel, and at a little distance further crosses the last-mentioned 
river by an aqueduct two hundred yards long and 30 feet high. 

The span of the principal arch of the Derwent Aqueduct, 
through which the river flows, is 80 feet. From this place it is 
about a mile and three-quarters to the wharf at Cromford, where 
the canal terminates. Within half a mile of Cromford it is joined 
by the Cromford and High Peak Railway, now in execution. 
Near the Derwent Aqueduct there is a branch a quarter of a mile 
in length, extending towards Lea Bridge ; and at the Bull Bridge 
Aqueduct it is joined by a railway a mile and a quarter in length, 



CBOMFORD CANAL. 173 

(tab the Criofai Ilaaestone Quarries. Near' Codnor Park Itoa 
W«ckt, a, branch from, die Mansfield and Pinxtoa Railway com-, 
■annkates with this canal ; and ahoat half a! mile northwest of 
this junction, a cut called the Pinxton Branch of this canal, pro- 
ceedt from the main line to Pinxton ; and at Jhe basin, at its 
termination, the main Kne of the Mansfield and Pinxton Railway 
commences. At the place where the canal crosses the River 
Erewash, a short railway is laid from it to the colHeries lying east 
of the village of Codnor, and at Langley Bridge, communicating 
with another railway from the coal works near the village of 
Heanor. ., , > 

This canal is eighteen miles in length ; in the first four miles 
of which, to Codnor Park Iron Works, it rises 80 feet; the re- 
maining fourteen miles, and the Pinxton Branch of nearly three 
sales, are leveL It is, in a great measure, supplied with water 
from a stream taken in by means of a feeder at the Cromfbrd End, 
wAted by reservoirs ; one of which, near the tunnel at Butterley 
Iron Works, is fifty acres, and, when full, will contain two thou- 
arad eight hundred locks of water ; besides this, there are other 
reservoirs of smaller capacity ; one of which is situated at the 
eastern end of the Great Tunnel, and another where the Pinxton 
Branch commences. The head level of the canal of fourteen miles 
m length, acts also as a reservoir, in consequence of being made 1 
foot extra depth of water. 

Mr. William Jessop designed this canal for narrow boats draw- 
ing 2£ feet only, the tunnels being 9 feet wide at the surface of 
the water. 

• The act authorizing die execution of this canal, is entitled, 
''An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from, or 
l from near to, Cromford Bridge, in the. county of Derby, to join 
' and communicate with the Erewash Canal, at or near Langley 
' Bridge; and also a collateral Cut from the said intended Canal, 
1 at or near Codnor Park Mill, to or near Pinxton Mill, in the said 
l tounty.' 

The original subscribers were seventy-eight in number, amongst 
whom were the Duke of Newcastle and Sir Richard Arkwright, 
who were incorporated by the name of " The Cromfbrd Canal 
" Company," with power to raise among themselves the sum of 



174 CROMFORD CANAL. 

£46,000, in four hundred and sixty shares, of £100 each, and an 
additional sum of £20,000, if necessary, either among themselves, 
or on mortgage of the undertaking. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

». d. 
Coal, Coke, Lime, and Limestone, intended to be burnt > n i per Ton, per Mile. 

into Lime > 

Iron, Iron-stone, Lead, and other Minerals, Marble, and ^ 

Alabaster, and other Stone, Timber, and all other Arti-f ji ditto, ditto, 

eles not before specified, and which shall not have f 

passed from the Erewash Canal ' 

For every Article which shall have passed from the Ere- ) Q „ „,, 

wash Canal * 

Coal, or Coke conveyed towards Cromford upon any part J 

ofthisCanal.fromtheAqueductovertheRiver Amber, > 1 OperTon, in addition. 

or from any place within Two Miles of it J 

For all Goods (except Lime and Limestone intended to be J 

burnt into Lime) passing out of the Erewash Canal or > 3 ditto, ditto. 

going into it ) 

Fractions to be paid as for a full Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

EXEMPTION FROM RATES. 

Small Rubbish or Waste Stones, Paving or other Stones, Gravel and Sand for the 
repairs of Roads, in any Township through which the Canal passes ; Dung. Soil, 
Marl, Ashes of Coal and Turf, and all other Manure, (except Lime used for the 
Improvement of Lands, in any Township through which the Canal is made, and 
carried only at such Times as when the Water is running over the Lock Weirs ) 

By a Clause in 29th George HI. the Erewash Canal Company agree to take only One- 
half of the Rates they were authorized to take by the 17th George 111. for all 
Goods (except Coke or Coal) which shall pass along the said Canal out of the 
Cromford Canal. 

The Cromford Canal Company are entitled to Wharfage for any Article laying longer 
than Six Months. 

For the Purposes of this Act Fifty Cubic Feet of Round, or Forty Feet of Square Oak, 
Ash, Elm, or Beech Timber, or Fifty Feet of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, or other 
Timber Wood, shall be deemed One Ton. 

Nine Score Pounds Avoirdupois of Limestone; and Six Score Pounds of Umvrought 
Stone, Coal, and other Articles, shall be deemed a Hundred Weight 

Proprietors of estates may make railways and cuts to communi- 
cate with this canal, on payment of damages done by crossing the 
lands of other persons; they may also erect warehouses and wharfs, 
but the charges for the latter are limited by the act as follows. 

RATES ON PRIVATE WHARFS. 

d. 
Coal, Lime-stone, Lime, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Timber, Stone, Bricks, j . _, 

Tiles, Slate, or Gravel } ' va 10n ' 

All other Goods and Things 3 ditto. 

Provided that they do not remain more than Six Days (except Coal, Iron, and Iron- 
stone which may remain Six Months,) and Timber, Clay, Lime, Iron-stone, Stone, 
Brick, Tile, Slate, or Gravel, may remain Thirty Days. If any Articles remain 
for the Space of Ten Days over the several Periods as above, One Penny per Ton 
per Day for every Day such Ten Days, aa above-mentioned, are exceeded. 



CROMFORD AND HIGH PEAK RAILWAY. 175 

In the year following the passing of the original act, another 
wat obtained for the purpose of amending the provision relating 
to the supply of water ; it it entitled, ' An Act to alter and amend 
( an Act patted in the lattSeetion of Parliament, for making and 
' maintaining a navigable Canal from, or from near to, Cromford 
1 Bridge, tn the county of Derby, to join and communicate with the 
1 Erewath Canal, at or near Langley Bridge ; and also a collateral 
1 Cut from the said intended Canal at or near Codnor Park Mill, to 
' or near Pinxton Mill, in the taid county.' It enacts, that for the 
supply of the canal, not more shall be taken than one-twentieth of 
the water of the River Derwent at Cromford Bridge, and that only 
between the houn of eight o'clock on every Saturday afternoon, 
and eight o'clock on Sunday afternoon ; but at all times when lest 
than five hundred and seventy tons per minute shall be passing 
Cromford Bridge, then the company are restrained from taking 
any water from the Derwent, or from any of the streams which 
flow info it. 

The chief object of the promoters of this canal, was to open a 
better communication with the valuable and extensive mineral 
districts on its lioe ; but it has partaken amply of the advantage 
arising from an extended trade, by becoming a part of the tine of 
communication between London and the northern counties. 



CROMFORD AND HIGH PEAK RAILWAY. 

6 George IV. Cap. 30, Royal Assent 2nd Hay, 182$. 

This railway commences from the Cromford Canal, about half 
a mile from its termination at Cromford Wharf; from whence it 
takes an eastwardly course by the village of Middleton, and within 
a mile of the town of Wirksworth ; thence, by a circuitous course, 
by Carsington Pasture, Brassington, and over the high grounds of 
the parish of Harrington, by Hurdlow, and Church Stemdale, to 
the north side of the range of hills called Axedge, where the line 
makes a considerable detour, for the purpose of passing a valley; 
from this place its course lies within Kttle more than a mile of 
Buxton, passing Goyts Bridge, to the Peak Forest Canal, at 
Whaley Bridge, where it terminates. It is in length thirty-three 



176 CROMFORD AND HIGH PEAK RAILWAY. 

miles and seven furlongs, and it attains an elevation of 990 feet 

above the head level of the Cromford Canal, and 1271 feet above 

the level of the sea at low water, by means of six inclined planes, 

which are thus disposed— the first inclined plane, from Cromfonl, 

is, four hundred and sixty yards in length, rising 240 feet; another 

at its termination, two hundred and forty yards, rising 225 feet; 

from thence, it is level one mile, three furlongs and four chains; 

next then is another inclined plane of five hundred and fifty yards 

in length, with a rise of 265 feet ; then a level for the distance of 

one mile, six furlongs and seven chains ; next a plane of three 

hundred and thirty yards in length, rising 70 feet; from the end 

of this inclined plane, it continues level for six miles, one furlong 

and seven chains; then a rise of 45 feet only in the next three 

miles and three furlongs; it is afterwards level three miles and six 

chains to the foot of the last inclined plane at Hurdlow, which is 

four hundred and eighty-four yards in length, with a rise, to the 

summit, of 145 feet. The summit level is maintained 'for the 

distance of twelve miles, three furlongs and eight chains, and in 

Us course passes under a hill 150 feet below the summit, by means 

of a tunnel six hundred and thirty-eight yards in length. From 

the end of this elevated stretch of railway, there is a fall of 710 feet 

to the Peak Forest Canal, by three inclined planes; the first is nine 

hundred yards in length, with a fall of 460 feet, at the foot of 

which, the line of railroad crosses into Staffordshire, near Goyts 

Bridge ; ,t then runs level two miles, four furlongs and two chains, 

to an mchned plane of seven hundred yards, with a fell of 237 

feet; lt is then level five furlongs and two chains; and the last 

mchned plane descends 43 feet in one hundred and ten yards, from 

the foot of which it is level to the Peak Forest Canal, a distance of 

one furlong and two chains. 

Mr Josias Jessop was the engineer employed to lay out this 

railroad, and he estimated the cost (including ^0,000 for station- 

ary engines to work the inclined planes,) at the sum of ^155,079, 

10*. Sd. The act for making it received the royal assent on the 

2nd May, 1825, and is entitled, ^„ Act for making andmaintain- 

«* « Rarity or Tramroadjrom the Cromford Canal, atornar 

to Cromford, m the parish of Wirks^orth, in the coun/y „/ 

Derby, to the Peak Forest Canal, at or near to WkaUy, fothJLii 



CROMPORD AND HIGH PEAK RAILWAY. 177 

' Ya nhle i f cwn-WhaleyJ tn the county palatine of Chtttet.' It 
ww obtained by a company confuting of one hundred and sixteen 
persons, amongst whom were the Dowager Viscountess Anson, 
the Honourable Edward Curzon, Sir Charles H. Colville, and 
Admiral Digby, who were incorporated by the name of "The 
u Cromfbrd and High Peak Railway Company," and empowered 
to raise among themselves die sum of £104,000, in sixteen 
hundred and forty shares of £100 each, (which sum was sub- 
scribed before going to parliament,) and, if necessary, the farther 
som of j§32,880, by mortgage of the undertaking. 



TONNAGE RATES. 

i. 
Dang, Compost, and Manure, Lime-stone, F reest o n e, \ 

Paving-stone, and all other Stone, Mineral, and f , __.•.„_ „un. 

Metallic Ores, Pig-feon, rWeks, Tiles, Slate, Clay.f ' P» ™n, per urne. 

and Sand J 

Coal, Coke, Lime, Bar and Plate Iron, and Iron Cart- > , ..„ .. 

logs, Lead, and other Metals, and Timber i '* <uno - <una 

Cora, Matt, Flour, and Meal 2$ ditto, ditto. 

All other Goods, Want, and Merchandize 3 ditto, ditto. 

AD Articles (except Lime and Limestone) which do ) . __/r~, i. .jjw„ 

not pats the whole Length of Railway } 6 I» Ton, in addition. 

All Goods, Wares, and Merchandize, conveyed on any 1 1| per Ton, at each of them, 

of the Inclined Planes i inaddition. 

Fractions to be taken as fee Half a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 
Forty Cubic Feet of Oak, Mahogany, Beech and Ash, and Fifty Cubic Feet of all other 

Wood, shall, for the Purposes of this Act, be deemed a Ton. 

Waggons of Four Wheelsnot to be allowed to carry more than Six Tons, including the 

Weight of such Carriages, and Waggons of Six Wheels to be allowed Nine Tons. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
Coals, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Copper-ore, or ) 
. asyotherOres; limber, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Gravel, or other V I per Too. 
Things, remaining on the Wharfs any Time less than Ten Days.... J 

if longer than Ten Days, One Penny per Ton, in Addition ; and Sixpence per Ton 
for the Warehousing the same for the succeeding Week; and the like Sum of One 
Penny and Sixpence for every subsequent Week. 

CRANAGE RATES. 

». d. 

For any Weight to be raised by One Lift, being leas than Two Tons SperTon. 

Ditto, being Two Tons, and less than Three 1 ditto. 

Ditto, being Three Tons, and leas than Four I 6 ditto. 

And so progressively, advancing Sixpence per Ton for greater Weights. 

l%e chief object of this railway, is to open a nearer and more 
convenient communication between the counties of Derby, Notting- 
ham and Leicester, with the port of Liverpool, and the towns of 
Manchester and Stockport A glance at the accompanying map 



178 CROUCH RIVER-CROYDON CANAL. 

will shew, in less time than words can express it, the great 
advantages which cannot fail to attend the execution of this grand 
scheme, for passing such a mountainous tract of country. 



CROUCH RIVER. 

This river has its source about three miles east of the magnificent 
seat of Lord Petre, called Thorndon Hall, in Essex ; whence, its 
course is easterly, passing to the south of the town of Billericay, 
and Wickford, to Hull Bridge, to which place it is navigable for 
barges at high water. From hence its course is directly east, by 
Cricksey and Burnhain, to Foulness, where it falls into the Thames. 
It is sixteen miles in length, and being a tideway river, is con- 
sequently free of toll. 

A9 a navigation, it is chiefly used for the importation of fuel 
and groceries, and for the export of agricultural produce. 



CROYDON CANAL. 

41 George HI. Cap. 127, Royal Asuent 27th June, 1R0I. 
48 George III. Cap. 18, Royal Assent 14th April, 1808. 
51 George IU. Cap. 11, Royal Assent 4th April, 1811. 

This canal commences in the Grand Surrey Canal, about three 
quarters of a mile west from Deptford Dock Yard ; from whence 
its course is southerly, crossing the London and Greenwich Road 
near New Cross, and shortly afterwards enters Kent, whence it 
passes Brockley, Sydenham, and re-enters Surrey, on the east side 
of Penge Common, over which it passes in a direct course, to its 
termination at Croydon, where there is a convenient wharf and 
basin. Its length is nine miles and a half; in the first of which it 
rises 70 feet, by twelve locks; from whence, it continues level 
something more than three quarters of a mile, where another series 
of locks, terminating at the entrance into Forest Wood, and rising 
7Q\ feet in the space of three quarters of a mile, conducts to its 
summit level, which is seven miles in length. The act for making 



CBOYDON CANAL. 17t 

H was obtained in 1801, by a company consisting of two hundred 
and four persons, (amongst whom were the Duke of Norfolk, Lord 
Gwydir, Sir Francis Baring, Sir C. W. Blunt, Sir iohn Bridger, 
Admiral Pigot, Sir Thomas Turton, and Sir Benjamin Hammett 
and Company,) who were incorporated by the name of " The 
u Company of Proprietors of the Croydon Canal." It is entitled, 
' An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from, or 
i from near, the town of Croydon, in the county of Surrey, into the 
' Grand Surrey Canal, in theparith of St. Paul, Deptford, in the 
1 county of Surrey ; and for supplying the towns of Croydon, 
1 Streatham, and Duhoich, and the district called Norwood, in the. 
' parish of Croydon, in the said county of Surrey, and the town of 
1 Sydenham, in the county of Kent, with Water from the said Canal? 
Many clauses are introduced in the act for the protection of the 
null owners on the Rivers Wandle and Ravensboume, or any 
streams running into them, and as the company are prohibited 
from taking water from any of these, they are, with this view, 
required to maintain the surface of the summit pool of the canal 2 
feet above the highest part of Croydon Common. To carry this 
canal into execution, the company were empowered to raise 
among themselves the sum of £50,000, in five hundred shares of 
£100 each, and, if necessary, a further sum of £30,000, or by 
mortgage of the undertaking. 

This canal is 5 feet deep, and the locks are 60 feet long and 9. 
feet wide, and it is supplied with water by small reservoirs, (one of 
which is situate on the edge of Penge Common,) and by drains 
cat in the adjoining lands, though the act gives authority to raise 
water for this purpose from the Grand Surrey, which is en a level 
with high water in the Thames; but at that time it seems to have 
been the intention to use inclined planes instead of locks; and the 
steam engines to be used in raising the water, to replace the loss by 
leakage and e va por a tion, were also intended to draw tha boats up 
the inclined planes. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

A. 
Timber, Stooe, Cool, Bricks, Tiles, and all other Goods and > . „ fc „„,. 

Commoditka, except as hereinafter mentioned S 3 per ron, per wie. 

IHnig, Chalky Marl, Clay, Lime, Compost, and other Manure. . \\ ditto, ditto. 
Fraction* to be takes as for a Quarter of a Ton, and aa (or a Quarter at a Mile. 

H 2 



180 CROYDON CANAL. 

TOLLS FOR PASSING ON THE TOWING PATHS. 

t. d. 
For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Mule, or Ass, except such as are » _ . 

drawing any Boat or Vessel J ° l eacn- 

Drove of Oxen or Neat Cattle 1 8 per.Score. 

Swine, Sheep, or Lambs 10 ditto. 

And so in proportion for any greater or less Number. 

Forty Cubic Feet of Round, and Fifty Cubic Feet of Square Oak, Ash, Elm, or Beech 

Timber, and Forty Feet of Fir or Deal, Balk, Poplar, Birch, or other Timber or 

Wood, not cut into Scantlings, shall be deemed a Ton. 

Boats under Twenty Tons, not to pass any Lock without leave, unless Tonnage is 

paid for that Weight. 

A clause is introduced in this act, securing to the corporation 
of London, as conservators of the Thames, the annual sum of £40, 
as a compensation for any diminution which may arise in the tolls 
and duties made payable by an act of the 17th of George III. for 
particulars of which, see article, ' Thames River.' 

Mr. John Rennie and Mr. Ralph Dodd were the engineers 
originally employed upon this canal. 

In 1808 the company found it necessary to apply again to par- 
liament for an act to enable them to raise more money, which is 
entitled, ' An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the 
1 Croydon Canal, to complete the same,' by which it appears, that 
of the £50,000 and £30,000 authorized to be raised by the former 
act, they had obtained, by subscription, £47,508, and borrowed 
the sum of £20,357, and from rents of land and sale of timber and 
clay, £195, 16*. 6<f. making, together, £68,060, 16*. 6d. the 
whole of which had been expended on the works, with the 
exception of a balance of £449, 19*. Id.; and that to complete the 
works and repay the money borrowed, the sum of £30,000 will 
be required, which sum the act of 48th George III. enables them 
to raise, by creating new shares, or by promissory notes under the 
common seal of the company, or by mortgage. 

Three years after the passing of the last act, an application 
was again made to parliament, when another was obtained, 
entitled, ' Jin Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the 
1 Croydon Canal, to raise Money to complete the said Canal and 
' Works ; and for amending the former Acts relative thereto,'' in the 
preamble of which it is stated, that the company have raised the 
sum of £30,000, authorized by the last-recited act, by creating 
new shares of the value of £19,900, and by borrowing, on mort- 
gage, the sum of £10,100; and they have, by virtue of the powers 



CROYDON, MERSTHAM AND GODSTONE RAILWAY. 181 

of the act of 41st George III. (since lie last-recited act,) raised, 
by shares, £9,647, which said stuns have all been expended on the 
canal and works, except the sum of £2,658, 9*. 7<f. ; but in conse- 
quence of the high prices of the land required for the canal and 
reservoirs, and the expenditure in the necessary erection of wharfs, 
warehouses, &c the company have incurred a debt of £85,700. 
It further states, that for the purpose of constructing the reservoirs, 
bridges, and other additional works, they will require the sum of 
£37,343; and for the discharging of their debts and completing 
the canal and works, the further sum of £50,385. This act, 
therefore, authorizes them to raise these by granting annuities, 
with benefit of survivorship, if required, for the works above- 
mentioned, and to pay off the mortgage debt of £20,615. The 
work is directed to be put under the management of a committee 
of from fifteen to twenty-one persons, who are severally possessed 
of five shares at the least 

The principal object of this canal is the supply of Croydon and 
hs vicinity with coal, deals, and general merchandize, and the 
export of agricultural produce, chalk, fire-stone, fuller's-earth, &c. 
to London. 



CROYDON, MERSTHAM AND GODSTONE 
RAILWAY. 

43 George III. Cap. 33, Royal Assent 17th May, 1803. 
48 George IH. Cap. 93, Royal Assent 3rd July, 1808. 

This railway commences at the south end of the Surrey Iron 
Railway, on the west side of the town of Croydon, from whence it 
proceeds, in a southerly direction, running parallel with the 
Brighton Road, to the village of Merstham, from whence, the act 
gives authority to continue it by Gatton Park, the residence of Sir 
Mark Wood, Bart to the town of Reigate. The Godstone Green 
Branch commences at Merstham, whence it takes a south-east- 
wardly course by Pendhill and Chevington, and terminates at 
Godstone Green, on the high road between Croydon and East 
Grinstead. From Croydon to Merstham the length is nearly eight 
miles and three quarters, and from thence to Reigate, three miles 



182 CROYDON, MERSTHAM AND GODSTONE RAILWAY. 

and three quarters; and the Godstone Branch is in length three 
miles and a quarter. The estimate for the whole was made by 
Mr. William Jessop, and amounted to the sum of £52,347, of 
which, £35,800 was subscribed before going to parliament, and 
the act, authorizing its execution, is entitled, ' An Act for making 
1 and maintaining a Railway from, or from near, a place called 
1 Pitlake Meadow, in the town of Croydon, to, or near to, the town 
1 of Reigate, in the county of Surrey, with a collateral Branch from 
' the said Railway, at or near a place called Merstham, in the 
' parish of Merstham, to, or near to, a place called Godstone 
' Green, in the parish of Godstone, all in the said county of Surrey.'' 
It was obtained by a company consisting of seventy-three persons, 
amongst whom were Sir R. Barclay and Sir J. Lade, Baronets, 
who were incorporated by the name of " The Croydon, Merstham 
" and Godstone Iron Railway Company," who are empowered to 
raise among themselves the sum of £60,000, in six hundred 
shares of £100 each; and if this is found insufficient, they may 
raise an additional sum of £30,000, or by mortgage of the rates 
which are as follows. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

rf. 

Dung a per Ton, per Mile. 

Limestone, Chalk, Lime, and all other Manure, (except Dung) i , .... .... 

Clay, Breeze, Ashes. Sand, and Bricks J luo - a, "°- 

Timber, Copper, Tin, Lead, Iron, Stone, Flints, Coal, Charcoal, j 

Coke, Culm, Fuller's Earth, Corn and Seeds, Flour, Malt V 4 ditto. ditto. 

and Potatoes J 

All other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize 6 ditto. ditto. 

Fractions of a Mile to be paid for as for a full Mile, but Fractions of a Ton 
as for a Quarter. 
One Hundred and Twenty Pounds Avoirdupois, to be deemed a Hundred Weight. 
Owners of Lands may erect Wharfs, but if they refuse, the Company may do it and 
charge a reasonable Sum for all Goods remaining longer than Twenty four 
Hours. 

In the preamble of an act of the 46th George III. entitled, ' An 
' Act for better enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Croydon, 
' Merstham and Godstone Iron Railway, to complete the same,' it is 
stated, that the company had been enabled only to raise the sunt 
of £45,500, instead of £90,000 ; the act, therefore, empowers 
them to raise the remaining sum of £45,500 among themselves, 
or by creating new shares, or by promissory notes under the 
common seal of the company, or by mortgage or annuities secured 
on the rates. 



DANK RIVER. 183 

By the first recited act, two yean only were allowed to make 
that part of the Hne towards Reigate, which passes through Oatton 
Park Estate, and as this was not done within the time, the power 
to make it has consequently ceased. The railway is double 
rbwaghout, and is, with the carriage driver's path on each side, 
U feet hi width. 

The principal object is to facilitate the transit to London, of 
the heavy mineral} and other produce, found in the vicinity of its 
southern end, which is effected by its connection with the Surrey 
Iron Railway, and the Oraydon Canal; and, in return, to bring 
•ea-borne coal and other general merchandise, for the supply of 
tail district of country. 

DANE RIVER. 

7 George L Cap. 17, Royal Assent 7th June, 1720. 

This river rises on the west side of Axedge, a mountain in 
Derbyshire, from whence it pursues a soutb-eastwardly course, 
finning, for several miles, the division between the counties of 
Derby and Chester, and afterwards of Stafford and Chester; from 
whence it flows past the town of Congleton, and by the beautiful 
seats of Somerford Park, Swettenham Hall, and Davenport Park ; 
thence, by Holmes Chapel, and within a mile of Middlewich, 
where it is crossed by the Trent and Mersey or Grand Trunk 
Canal; from which place it pursues a north-eastwardly and very 
serpentine course, by Bostock Hall and Whatcroft, to the town of 
Northwich, where it falls into the Weaver Navigation, a Utile 
above the bridge. 

As no portion of this river is navigable, we introduce it 
merely because an act was passed for making it so, in the early part 
of the reign of George I. which is entitled, ' An Act far mating 
' navigable the River Doom, from- Northvrich, where it joint the 
* River Weaver, to the falling of Wheeloek Brook, in the county of 
1 Ckuter.' The stream here mentioned, enters the River Dane at 
the place where the Grand Trunk Navigation crosses it, in its 
coarse to Northwich, so that whatever object the original projec- 
tor* had in view, it is presumed that it will now be much more 
rafectuaDy answered. 



184 DARENT RIVER-DART RIVER. 



DARENT RIVER. 

This river rises in Surrey, two miles from Westerham, from 
whence it takes an eastwardly course down one of the most 
beautiful vales in Kent, passing Hill Park, Brasted Place, and 
Chipeted, to River Head, where it takes a northerly course by 
Lullingstone Castle, (the seat of Sir Thomas Dike, Bart) Far- 
ningham and Darent, to the town of Dartford. From this place 
to the Thames, into which it falls in Longreach, it is navigable for 
barges at high water. The navigable part is in length about four 
miles, all tideway and free of toll ; and it is chiefly used for the 
trade of Dartford. The celebrated Dartford Gunpowder Mills 
are situate on its banks, besides other manufactures in the vicinity, 
which reap the benefit necessarily resulting from this navigation. 



DART RIVER. 

This river rises on the south side of Cut Hill, on Dartmoor 
Forest, in the county of Devon ; from whence it pursues a southerly 
direction to Two Bridges, and thence, south-eastwardly, by New 
Bridge and Buckfastleigh, to a mill weir about a mile above the 
town of Totness, to which place it is navigable. Its course, to the 
sea, is very crooked, by the above-mentioned town, Stoke Gabriel, 
and the port of Dartmouth, a mile below which place it falls into 
the English Channel, in Dartmouth Harbour. The navigable 
part, by the low water channel, is twelve miles and a half in 
length ; the tide flows throughout, and it is free of toll. The 
entrance to the river forms an excellent harbour, and as Dart- 
mouth is a port, into which, in the year 1824, seventy-three 
English and six Foreign ships entered, some estimate may be 
formed of its importance. 

As a navigation, the chief uses to which it is put, are the con- 
veyance of coal and shell-sand manure from Totness and vicinity ; 
and to export the produce of the tin, lead and copper mines, which 
are worked to a considerable extent on the borders of Dartmoor 
Forest 



DBARNE AND DOVE CANAL. 185 



DEARNE AND DOVE CANAL. 

38 George uT Cap. IIS, Royal Aaent Sid Jane, 1793. 
39 * 40 George IIL Cap. 37, Royal Assent 30th May, 1800. 

This canal commences in a side cut belonging to the River 
Donn Navigation,' near to the Dunn Pottery, in the township of 
Swinton ; from whence, it takes a north-westwardly course through 
a short tunnel, about a mile from the Dunn; thence, by Wath, 
Brampton, Wombwell and Ardsley, to its termination at the aque- 
duct conducting the Barnsley Canal over the River Deame, near 
Bamsley. The length is nine miles and a quarter, with a total 
rise, at the above-mentioned point of junction with the Barnsley 
Canal, of 127 feet In little more than half a mile from its com- 
mencement, there are six locks, rising 36 feet 9 inches; from thence, 
to within a quarter of a mile of the Cob Car Ing, or Elsiker 
Branch, H is three miles and a half, and level ; to the above-men- 
tioned branch it riaes 30 feet 3 inches, by four locks, and from 
thence, to within less than half a mile of the Worsbrough Bridge 
Branch, it is level ; in the next half mile, to the last-mentioned 
branch, there are eight locks, rising 60 feet; from thence, to the 
Barnsley Canal, it is leveL The branch to Worsbrough is two 
mHea in length, and level; and the branch to Elsiker Iron Works, 
(belonging to Earl Fhzwilliam,) is two miles and a half, rising 48 
feet, by six locks. This canal is chiefly supplied with water from 
reservoirs situate at Elsiker, and in the vale of Stainbro', called the 
Worsbrough Reservoir. From some extensive collieries situate 
to the south of Stainbro' Hall, there is a railway extending to the 
basin at Worsbrough Bridge, which, together with the produce of 
the iron furnace working there, furnishes considerable tonnage 
upon this branch. 

The first act relating to this navigation, received parliamentary 
•Miction in 1793, and is entitled, ' An Act for making andmain- 
' tainiug a navigable Canal from the River Dunn Navigation Cut, 
' tii the township of Swinton, to or near, the town of Barnsley, m 
( the parish of Silkstone, tn the West Riding of the county of York ; 
' and certain collateral Cuts branching out of the said CanaL' 



186 DEARNE AND DOVE CANAL. 

It was obtained by a company of two hundred and eleven per- 
sons, amongst whom were the Duke of Leeds, Earl Fitzwilliam, 
Sir L. Copley, Sir G. Wombwell, and Sir F. Wood, Baronets, 
who were incorporated by the name of " The Dearne and Dove 
" Canal Company," and authorized to raise among themselves, 
for the purposes of this act, the sum of £60,000, in six hundred 
shares of £100 each, and, if necessary, a further sum of £30,000, 
or by mortgage, on assignment of the undertaking as a security. 



TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Wheat, Shelling, Beans, Peas, Vetches, and Lentils, ) . „„ ,„. rf „ „ r ,; :„ k , 
Rape, Line, Coal, ahd Mustard Seed ; Applet i* T "T^ ° f 1*" 

Pears, Onions, and Potatoes ) Winchester Bushels. 

Barley 3 ditto. ditto. 



It = 



OatsandMalt I"..".!!!!!!!". 2\ ditto! ditto. |"c*S 

£.22 



Wool, Dried Pelts, or Spetches ( 4 per Pack, or Sheet, of 

I 312108. Avoirdupois. 
Coal, Slack, Cinders, Culm, Charcoal, and Lime . . 1 per Ton, per Mile. 

Limestone j ditto. ditto. 

If any Boat, carrying up Lime, or Limestone, return j 

with Coal or any other Article to the Amount of \ J ditto, ditto. 
Thirty Tons, the Tonnage on the Liineshall be only J 

And on the Limestone | ditto. ditto. 

Stone, Iron-stone, Flag Paving-stone, and Slate 1 ditto, ditto. 

If any Boats, carrying up the last-mentioned Articles, } 

shall return laden with any other Article to the f j ..„ .. 

Amount of Thirty Tons, then they shall be t * <u " ' aiua 

charged only ) 

Cast Metal Goods and Bar.iron 2 ditto, ditto. 

Old or Pig-iron I perTon. 

English Oak. Timber, and Plank \ li perTon of 40 Cubic Feet, 

'per Mjle. 
Elm, Ash, and other English Timber I per Ton of 50 Cubic Feet. 

Fir, and other Kinds of Foreign Timber { J per Ton of 50 Cubic Feet, 

'per Mile. 
Deals and Battens, equal to Thirty Deals of Twelve j 

Feet in Length, Three Inches Thick, and from > I \ per Ton, per Mile. 

Nine to Twelve Inches Broad j 

Groceries, Linen and Woollen Yam, Cotton, Flax, 1 

Hemp, Manufactured Goods, and any other Wares { 2 ditto, ditto. 

and Merchandize J 

Vessels passing any one of the Locks of this Navigation shall pay for Six Miles, and the 
lading shall be charged as not less than Thirty Tons j and in case the lading be of 
Articles charged of various Rates, any Quantity that it is wanting of Thirty Tons 
shall be charged at the highest Rates ; but if such Boat be going up, and return 
with Coal or other Matters, and shall pay the Rates for Thirty Tons or upward* 
in coming down, then such lading shall be charged Rates according to the Quan- 
tity and Distance carried. 

Fractions of a Mile to be charged as a whole Mile, and Fractions of a Ton, according 
to the Number of Quarters. 

As it was apprehended that the Barnsley Canal would be made to communicate with 
this Navigation, it was enacted that any light Vessel going up from Swinton, and 
through a Junction Lock, (directed to be made within One Hundred and Fifty 
Yards,) into the proposed Barnsley Canal, and not return loaded the same Way, 
shall pay the full Rates of Three-halfpence per Ton, per Mile, upon Thirty Tons; 
and if down the Canal light, and return loaded, the same Rates as before specified. 



DBARNE AND DOVE CANAL. 



187 



CRANAGE AND PORTERAGE RATES. 

d. 
ft>ev<^T»eraoooa\ Ws^or ether Merdnndize, loaded mtaadM) . -—t-- 
&om, or on to any Wharf belonging to the Company .....' " 



WHARFAGE RATES. 



DBSCCIFTIOlf OF GOODS. 



For every Ton of Goods, Wares, Mer- \ 
ehtndize, and Commodities, and/ 
other Things, (except what are here- 1 
in-after enumerated)..... ) 

For every Ton of English Timber of all > 
Kinds, and Pig and Bar-Iron i 

For ev e r y Ton of Coals, Stone, Iron-stone, » 
FBnt, Limestone, Clay and Sand. ... i 

For erery Ton of Lime, Bricks, Tiles, > 
Plaster, and Soapers' Ashes i 

For every Quarter of Com of all Kinds, j 
Cole, Rape, line, and Mustard Seed, I 
Apples, Pears, Onions, and Potatoes) 



C) 



*. d. 

o e 

3 

o i 
1 

o i 



(+) 



*. J. 

& 

8 

I 

2 

1 



W 



«. i. 
1 

9 
1J 
3 

Oli 



(«) 



«. d. 
1 3 

I 
3 
4 

3 




' Note than 34 Hours, and not more than Six Days. + Six Days, but less than One 
Month, t One Month, bat less than Six Weeks. \ Six Weeks, but lea than Two 
Months. I Two Month*, but leas than Ten Weeks. 

Sixteen Cubic Feet of Stone, Ten Superficial Yards of Flag Paving-stone, (from One 
to Two Inches and Three Quartern Thick,) Ten Yards of lineal Curb Stone, (from 
Eleven to Thirteen Inches Wide and from Five to Seven Inches Thick,) Forty Cu- 
bic Feet of English Oak Timber, Fifty Cubic Feet of Elm, Ash, and other English 
Timber, Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir, and all other Foreign Timber, Thirty Deals of 
Battens, (Twelve Feet Long, Three Inches Thick, and from Nine to Twelve 
Inches Broad,) shall be respectively deemed One Ton for the Purposes of this Act 

EXEMPTION FROM TONNAGE RATES. 

Dong, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal and Torf, and ell other Manure, except Lfane, for the 
Improvement of Lands through which the Canal is intended to pass; all Materials 
for the repairs of Roads, (except Flag, Curb, and Paving-stones,) provided they do 
not pass a Lock, except at such Times as when the Water flows over the Waste 
Weir. 

Vessels of less Burthen than Thirty Tons not to peas through Locks without leave, 
unless they pay Tonnage far the same as for a Boat of Thirty Tons, laden with 
Coal. 



The company are restricted from taking, for the supply of the 
canals and branches, any water from Blacker Brook or HolUn 
Well Spring, in the township of Wonbrough ; or from the River 
Dove or Dodworth Brook, except for the purpose of filling the 
reservoir in Stainbro' Valley, at a time of flood water. 

This act authorizes proprietors of lands to make railways to 
any mines within one thousand yards of the canal ; but in the 
parish of Wath, they may extend them two thousand yards. The 



188 DliARNE AND DOVE CANAL. 

canal is 4 feet 6 inches deep, and the locks are 53 feet in length, 
and 14 feet 4 inches wide ; admitting such vessels as usually navi- 
gate the Dun, and Aire and Calder Navigation. 

Seven years subsequent to the date of the first act, the com- 
pany were, after having completed a considerable portion of the 
canal, under the necessity of applying to parliament for another 
act, to enable them to borrow more money and to increase the 
rates; which act received the royal assent on the 30th May, 1800, 
and is entitled, ' An Act to enable the Dearne and Dove Canal 
' Company to finish and complete the said Canal, and the several 
' collateral Cuts branching therefrom ; and for explaining, amend- 
' ing and enlarging the Powers of an Act, passed in the Thirty-third 
1 Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making and main- 
' taming the said Canal and collateral Cuts ; and for increasing 
' the Tolls thereby granted. 7 This act empowers the company to 
raise among themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or 
by calls upon the original shareholders, the sum of £30,000, 
instead of by mortgage, as prescribed by the former act ; if by a 
new subscription, the act directs it to be raised by dividing the 
same into six hundred half shares of £50 each ; and if this sum be 
insufficient, they may borrow an additional £10,000, on mortgage 
of the undertaking. 

Power is also given to demand one-half, or fifty per cent 
additional tonnage, and the same advance upon cranage, porter- 
age, warehouse and wharfage rates, upon every article, except 
flag paving-stone, limestone or lime, which shall have been 
previously navigated up the Barnsley Canal from Wa'kefield. 

Mr. Whitworth, who projected and laid out this canal, conti- 
nued to be the engineer till the time of his death. The works 
were finished and the opening took place in 1804. 

The chief object of the undertaking was to open a cheaper 
communication with the mining districts towards its western ter- 
mination, in order that their rich and various productions should 
find a more advantageous market ; and to give greater facilities 
for the transit of the manufactures of Barnsley to the port of Hull. 



DEBEN BIVER-DEE RIVER 189 



DEBEN RIVER, 



This river has its source near the town of Debenham, in Suf- 
folk, from whence it takes a south-eastwardly course by Nonewden 
Hall, Easton, and by Campsey Meer and Abbey, to near Beve- 
rets, whence it pursues a south-westwardly course by Ufford and 
Bromswell, to Wilford Bridge, about a mile above the town of 
Woodbridge, to which place it is navigable. The course from 
Woodbridge is nearly south, passing Waldringfield and Hemley, 
to within a mile and a half of FeKxstow, where it falls into the sea 
about four miles north-west of the port of Harwich. From Wood- 
bridge, the river, at high water, has the appearance of a consider- 
able estuary, being in some parts, and in particular opposite the 
village of Waldringfield, above half a mile in width. 

The length of the navigation is about nine miles and a half, 
and at Woodbridge there are docks for the building of ships and 
other vessels, besides commodious wharfs and quays ; there is also 
a dock for ship building near Ramsholt, situate about six miles 
down the river. The tide flows its whole length, and it is free of 
toll, the principal trade upon it being the import of coal and deals, 
and the export of the surplus agricultural produce of this part of 
Suffolk. 



DEE RIVER. 

HfcI»WaUXC.S*,R.A.llthApr. 1700. 6Geo. n.C.S0,R.A. 13th June, 1734. 
14 Oca U.C. 8, & A. Slat Mar. 1740. 17 Geo. n.C.28.R.A.l»thMay.l744. 
360eo. n.C.3J,R.A.lSthMay,1743. 31 Geo. III. C. 88, R. A. 10th June, 1791. 

This river has its source on the north side of a mountain in 
Merioneth, North Wales, called Arennig ; from whence it flows 
by the town of Bala, and from thence, north-eastwardly, by Cor- 
wen, to Llantysilio, to which place, from Bala Lake, it is used as 
feeder to the Ellesmere Canal From Llantysilio it runs by Llan- 
gollen, and thence to the place where the famous Pont-y-Cysyhy 
Aqueduct has been thrown across it ; it then proceeds within a 
•bort distance of Wynnstay, (the seat of Sir Watkin Williams 



190 DEE RIVER. 

Wyiin, Bart) from whence it pursues a northerly and serpentine 
course, passing Eaton Hall, the splendid mansion of Earl Gros- 
venor, to the city of Chester, from which place, to the sea, it is 
navigable. The length of the present navigation, from Hand 
Bridge to the end of the new channel, where it opens into the 
estuary of the Dee, is little more than eight miles ; and from 
thence, by the low water channel, passing Park Gate, to the 
opening into the Irish Sea, off Great Helbre Island and Light- 
House, the distance is fifteen miles and a half. 

The first act of parliament relating to this river occurs in the 
11th and 12th years of the reign of William III. entitled, ' An 
i Act to enable the Mayor and Citizens of Chester to recover and 
* preserve the Navigation of the River Dee,' in which it is stated, 
that the Dee was anciently navigable to Chester for ships and ves- 
sels of considerable burthen, but by neglect of the said river, and 
for want of sufficient protection against the flux and reflux of the 
sea, the channel had become so uncertain, that the navigation was 
nearly destroyed. It was upon this River Dee, as history relates, 
that Edgar the Peaceable was rowed by eight tributary princes. 

By the act of William, however, the mayor and citizens of 
Chester were authorized to make the Dee navigable, between 
Chester and the sea, for ships of one hundred tons burthen or up- 
wards ; and for which certain rates on coal, lime, and limestone, 
were allowed to be collected for the term of twenty-one years ; in 
which time, however, the river was not made navigable, although 
considerable sums of money were spent in endeavouring to attain 
this desirable end. 

Another act was therefore obtained in 1734, entitled, l An 
' Act to recover and preserve the Navigation of the River Dee, in 
' the county palatine of Chester,' by which Nathaniel Kinderley, 
his heirs and assigns, were appointed undertakers of the naviga- 
tion, and authorized to make the river navigable to Wilcox 
Point, with 16 feet water in moderate spring tides. 

Seven years were allowed for the execution of the necessary 
works, and certain rates were allowed to be collected ; but it 
appears that Kinderley was in trust for Thomas Watts and 
Richard Manley, Esquires, who afterwards nominated forty per- 
sons as the undertakers. 



DEI K1VEB. 191 

By an instrument dated Oth of April, 1734, these last-men- 
tioned gentlemen, together with Joseph Davis and William Par- 
sons, of London, and ninety others, agree to raise a joint stock of 
£40,000, in four hundred shares of £100 each, for the purpose of 
carrying the act into execution ; but, as more money was wanted, 
it was agreed by deed-poll, on the 17th of August, 1736, to ad- 
vance ten per cent, on the original subscription, and in a little time 
afterwards twenty per cent. ; and it further appears, that the sum 
of £47,830 was expended m making a new channel for the Dee, 
and vesting £10,000 in South Sea Annuities, to answer any claim 
for damages in making the navigation. 

The new channel was opened in April, 1737, and the whole of 
the works completed before the 25th of March, 1740 ; and on the 
Uth of December in the same year, it was agreed that the joint 
stock should be increased to £52,000, and that the company 
should be incorporated. Accordingly an act was obtained in the 
14th George II. entitled, * An Act for incorporating the Under- 
* taken of the Navigation of the River Dee,' by which they were 
incorporated by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the 
u Undertaking for recovering and preserving the Navigation of 
u the River Dee," and empowered to do what Nathaniel Kinder- 
ley was authorized to do in the preceding act; but as the high 
rates granted under the 6th of George II. were injurious to the 
trade of Chester, it was again agreed to reduce them. An act 
was in consequence obtained in the 17th of George II. entitled, 
' An Act for explaining and amending an Act pasted in the Sixth 
' Year of his present Majesty's Reign, entitled, An Act to recover 
' and preserve the Navigation of the River Dee in the county polo-, 
i tine of Chester; and another Act passed in the Fourteenth Year 
' of his present Majesty's Reign, entitled, An Act for incorporating 
' the Undertakers of the Navigation of the River Dee ; and for 
1 repealing the Tonnage Rates payable to the said Undertakers? 
' and for granting to them other Tonnage or Keelage Rates in lieu 
1 thereof; and for other Purposes therein mentioned ;' by which 
the rates allowed in the former acts are repealed, and the follow- 
ing substituted. 



2 per Too. 



192 DEE RIVER. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

For every Vessel conveying any description of Goods, Wares, or' 
Merchandize, (except Lead, Oysters, Slates and Paving-stones, 
which are exempted from payment of Toll,) to or from Chester, 
or to or from any Place between the said City and Park Gate, 
on the North Side of the Dee, or to or from any Place between 
Chester and the Town of Flint, on the South Side of the Dee, 
and to or from any of the saic) Places, to or from any Place 
between St. David's Head, or C*lisle 

For any Vessel coming or going from any Place between St. David's 1 

Head and the Land's End, or beyond Carlisle, to or from any Part r 3 ditto 
South of the Shetlands, or to or from the Isle of Man ) 

Ditto, from or to any Part oflreland 4 ditto. 

Ditto, from or to any Place up the King's Channel, beyond the I o 4 ditto 
Land's End or the Shetlands * 

Ditto, from or to any Part of Norway, Denmark, Holstein, Holland, J 

Hamburgh, Flanders, or any Part of France, without the Straits > 8 ditto. 
ofGibraltar, or the Islands of Jersey or Guernsey ) 

Ditto, to or from Newfoundland, Greenland, Russia, and within the ) 

Baltic, Portugal and Spain, without the Straits, Canaries, Ma- > 1 ditto, 
deiras. Western Isles, or the Azores ' 

Ditto, to or from the West Indies, or any other Part of America, Africa, 1 

Europe or Asia, within the Straits, or not named before, or any > 1 6 ditto. 
Part of Africa without the Straits, or Cape de Verd Isles ' 

And for every Vessel carrying Goods from, or bringing Goods to \ 

Chester, to be put on board or discharged from any Ship or Ves- f « ditto 
set lying at Park Gate, Flint, or any other Place within the Port I 
ofCbestcr J 

And so in proportion for any greater or less Quantity than a Ton, and to pay but 
once a Voyage, notwithstanding they may have lading both inward and out- 
ward. 

«. d. 

Cheese conveyed in Barges to any Ship lying at Park Gate or Flint, 1 . „ — 
employed by the Cheesemongers of London S ™ 

For the Purposes of this Act the Tonnage of Vessels is directed to be ascertained in the 
following Manner— the Length of the Keel to be multiplied by the Breadth be- 
tween Planks on the Midship Beam, and that Product again by Half the Breadth 
for the Depth, and the Whole divided by 94 ; the Quotient, under this Operation, 
to be deemed the Number of Tons Burthen of such Ship. Skins or Wool to be 
charged by Weight, and not by the Burthen of the Ship. Vessels loaded within 
any Dock, to pay, according to the Burthen of the Ship, Sixpence per Ton. 

Of the Sum of £10,000, invested in the South Sea Annuity Stock, the Sum remaining, 
amounting to £7,180, 3«. (id. was, by the Act, transferred to the Company ; and 
it is also enacted, that unless the River Dee is maintained a Fifteen Feet Naviga- 
tion at moderate springs, that the Rates and Duties are entirely to cease, until it 
is restored to that Depth. 

By an act of the 26th George II. entitled, ' An Act for con- 
' firming an Agreement entered into between the Company of Pro- 
1 prietors of the Undertaking for recovering and preserving the 
' Navigation of the River Dee, and Sir John Glynne, Bart. Lord 
' of the Manor of Hawarden, and several Freeholders and Occu- 
' piers of Land within the said Manor ; and for explaining and 
' amending Three several Acts of Parliament of the Sixth, Four- 
' teenth, and Seventeenth Years of his present Majesty's Reign, for 
' recovering and preserving the Navigation of the River Dee, y we 
learn that the works belono-iiio- to the navigation had cost the 



DBBBY CANAL. 193 

company £60,000 over and above what bad been paid out of tbe 
rate*; and as more money was wanted for repairs of dams, &e. 
the company are hereby empowered to make a call of twenty per 
cent upon the capital stock, besides eight and a half per cent, 
which remained uncollected of the previous per centages. 

The last act relating to this navigation, was obtained princi- 
pally with a view of confirming certain arrangements relating to 
the waste and salt marshes adjoining the Dee, and is totally void 
of any thing of public interest; it is dated 10th ^pne, 1791, and 
entitled, ' An Act far confirming an Agreement entered into between 
* the Company of Proprietors of the Undertaking for recovering 
1 and preserving the Navigation of the River Dee, and certain 
' Lords of Manors and other Persons entitled to Right of Common 
'upon the Wastes and Commons, and the Old Common Salt 
1 Marshes, lying on the South Side of the said River, below or to 
' the North-East of Greenfield Gate, in the county of Flint, and an 
1 Award made in consequence thereof.' 

Though Chester is a port into which, in the year 1824, twen- 
ty-four English and four Foreign ships entered, yet it foils into 
perfect insignificance, when placed in comparison with the neigh- 
bouring port of Liverpool, into which one thousand five hundred 
and fifty-four English and five hundred and ten Foreign ships 
entered its capacious docks in the year above-mentioned. And, as 
a proof of the small revenue derived from this navigation, we need 
only to observe, that when the act was passed for making the 
EOesmere Canal in 1 793, a protecting clause was introduced by the 
Dee Navigation Company, stipulating that if their annual income 
should ever fall short of £210, the Ellesmere Canal Company 
should make up the deficiency. 

The objects of this navigation are of a general nature, as may 
be inferred from the tonnage rates. . 



DERBY CANAL. 

33 George TO. Cap. 102, Royal Assent 7th May, 1793. 

This canal commences on the northern bank of the River 
Trent, near the village of Swarkstone, and enters the Trent and 



194 DERBY CANAL. 

Mersey or Grand Trunk Canal at the distance of three furlongs to 
the northward. The main line proceeds from the last-mentioned 
canal, a quarter of a mile to the eastward of the junction above- 
named, whence it takes a northwardly course by Osmaston Hall 
to Derby, on the east side of which town it crosses the Hirer 
Derwent, thence, by Little Chester and Breadsall, to Little Eaton, 
where it terminates. The branch to join the Erewash Canal com- 
mences from the main line, on the north side of the Derwent, near 
Derby, whence, taking an eastwardly course, by Chaddesden, 
Spondon, Borrowash, and Breaston, it terminates in the Erewash 
Canal, about three quarters of a mile south of the village of 
Sandiacre. The length of the mam line, from the Grand Trunk 
Canal to Derby, is five miles and a quarter, with a rise of 12 feet ; 
and, to its termination at Little Eaton, it is three miles and a 
quarter, with a further rise of 17 feet The branch to the Ere- 
wash is eight miles and a half, with a fell of 29 feet From the 
northern end of the main line at Eaton, a railway proceeds by 
Horsley and Kilboum, to Smithy House, which is nearly four 
miles and three quarters in length. From Smithy House there is 
a branch one mile and three quarters in length, to the collieries at 
Henmoor, situated one mile and a half east of the town of Bel- 
per; another one mile and a half in length, by the potteries, to 
the extensive coal works near Denby Hall; with a collateral 
branch out of die last-mentioned branch, three quarters of a mile 
b length, to other collieries north of Salterswood. 

The canal is 44 feet wide at top, 24 feet at the bottom, and 5 
feet deep ; but the head level of the canal, which is two miles in 
length, and terminates at Little Eaton, is made 1 foot deeper, that 
it may act as a reservoir. The locks are 90 feet in length, and 15 
feet wide. 

This canal and railways were made under the authority of an 
act of the 33rd George HI. entitled, ' An Act for making and 
1 maintaining a navigable Canal from the River Trent, at or near 
' Swarkstone Bridge, to and through the borough of Derby, to Little 
' Eaton, with a Cut out of the said Canal in or near the taid bo~ 
1 rough, to join the Erewash Canal near Sandiacre, and for making 
* Railway* from tuch Canal to several Collieries in the parishes or 
1 liberties of Denby, Horsley, and Smalley, all in the county of 



DERBY CANAL. 105 

' Derby.' The proprietors of this canal and railways were incorpo- 
rated by the name of "The Derby Canal Company," with power 
to raise among themselves the sum of £60,000, in six hundred 
shares of j£l00 each, and a further sum of j£30,000, if necessary. 
Hie dividends of this concern are not to exceed eight per cent ; 
and after the sum of £4,000 is accumulated for the purpose of 
meeting any emergency, the rates are to be reduced, so that the 
profits may be no more, in future, than eight per cent 

TONNAGE RATES UNDER THli ACT. 

«. d. 
Lime, Lime-stone and other Stone, Coal and Coke, navigated only ) 

on that pen of the Canal between the River Trent and the V 3 per Ton. 

Grand Trunk Canal •. J 

Lime, Lime-itone and other Stone, Coal, Coke, and all other Goods ) 

and Merchandise, carried between the River Trent and the \ ditto. 

Town of Derby J 

Lone and Lime-stone carried between Derby and Little Eaton, and > „ . muo. 

upon the Railways > 

Coal, Coke, and other Goods, ditto 1 J ditto. 

Bricks, Gritstone, or Freestone, for Building, ditto .... 3 ditto. 

Coal, Coke, Lime, Lime-stone, and other Goods, Wares, or Her- > . , n Mtt 

chandize, carried between Derby and the Erewash Canal J "'" araa 

TOLL ON THE RAILWAYS 

d. 
For every Hone, Mare, Gelding, Mule or Ass, (not carrying or drawing) which) . 

shall pass along the Railways i 

For all Cows and Homed or Neat Cattle , \ 

Boats laden with Straw, Corn in the Straw, or Hay, or any Kind of Manure, shall not 
pass a Lock without consent, unless the Water be running over the Waste Weir. 

d. 

In Consideration of the gnat Advantage which the Erewash Canal Com- ■. 
pany would, in all probability derive from this connexion with the I 
Derby Canal, it is enacted, that for Coal or Coke navigated on the > 8 per Ton. 
Erewash and passing thence into the Derby Canal, the Erewash I 
Canal Company's Toll shall be no more than J 

And M uca ntile Goods which shall pass on the Erewash, between the } , Mtt 
Derby Canal and the River Trent J * 

Lime and all other Articles navigated on the Erewash, and afterwards brought on the 
Derby Canal, One-half only of the Rates and Duties which they are empowered 
to charge under the Act of the 17th George ID. but, should the Derby Canal Com- 
pany ever permit any other Canal or Railway to be made between the Erewash 
Canal and the Town of Derby, in such Case, the Erewash Canal Company will be 
entitled to demand the full Toll granted by the above-mentioned Act. The Ton- 
nage Rates on the Trent Navigation are also reduced in the same Proportion, 
upon all Goods which shall not have been carried on the Trent for a greater Dis- 
tance than Three Miles, and which shall be carried on the Derby CanaL on the 
North Side of the Grand Trunk CanaL 

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL. " 

Gravel and Sand for making and repairing any public Roads (Turnpike Roads 
excepted,) in any Township through which the Canal or Railways shall pass; 
also Dung, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal or Turf, and all other Manure (except Lime.) 
to be used only on the Lands in any Township through which the Canal or Rail- 
ways pass; also Puncheons, Clogs, or other Wood to be used under ground in any 
of the Collieries on the Line of Canal, &c provided Three HounNotice be given, 
and that they do not pass a Lock, except at such Times as when the Water Bows 
over the Waste Web-. 

N 2 



196 DERBY CANAL. 



WHARFAGE. 



For any Goods which shall remain more than One Month on the Wharf, a reasonable 
Satisfaction to be made. 

For Goods which shall be carried into or out of the Grand Trunk or Trent or Mersey 
Canal, and navigated along that part of the Derby Canal which connects the 
River Trent and the Grand Trunk, the last-mentioned Company are entitled to 
One Shilling per Ton. 

EXEMPTION FROM THE ABOVE TOLL. 

Coal, Coke, Lime, Lime-stone, and Unwrought Stone, brought along the Derby Canal 
from its Northern Extremity, or from any of the Villages on the Line ; or gotten 
in any of the Parishes of Melborne, Stanton-by-Bridge, and Castle Donnington ; 
and such Goods, Wares, anil Merchandize to be used by Persons residing between 
the Trent and Mersey Canal and the River Trent, within the Parish of Swark- 
stone. 

The Trent and Mersey Canal Company are also authorized to charge, for all Goods 
carried along or crossing the Canal, the same Amount of Toll as though they had 
navigated a full Mile; also for all Goods (except Bricks manufactured in the 
Parishes of Barrow, Twyford, Stenson, Findeni, and Wiliington, and not passing 
any Lock of this Canal,) which shall be carried from the Westward of Swarkstone, 
and along the Derby Canal, and down the Derby Canal to Swarkstone, and from 
thence Westward on the Trent and Mersey Canal, such Tonnage Rates as the 
said Trent and Mersey Canal Company would have been entitled to, had such 
Goods been conveyed along their Canal from Swarkstone to Shardlow. 

The Derby Canal Company are bound by this Act to make a Cut at Weston CllfT, to 
join the River Trent with the Grand Trunk Canal, (which is close on its Northern 
Bank.) whenever the Proprietors of Breedon Lime-stone Quarries shall require it. 
but not until a Canal or Railway be made between the Trent, at Weston Cliff, 
and the Works above-mentioned. 

The Company have also engaged to make good to the Trustees of the Mansfield Road 
any Reduction on the Toll on Coal, which the making of their Canal may have 
occasioned ; that is, if such Reduction is below Four per Cent. 

As this canal would greatly injure the revenue derived from 
the navigation of the River Derwent, which runs through Derby, 
this company were required to purchase it, which they did for the 
sum of ,£3,996. 

For the use of the poor of Derby, five thousand tons of coal 
are annually permitted to pass, toll free, on this navigation, the 
distribution of which is under a committee of three members of the 
corporation of Derby, and the same number of proprietors of this 
undertaking. 

This canal was finished in 1794, and it was made chiefly with 
the view of better supplying the populous town of Derby with 
coal, by means of its connection with the Erewash and Cromford 
Canals, and by the railways which extend to the collieries north of 
the town. 



DERWENT RIVERS. 197 

DERWENT RIVER. 

• George L Cap. 87, Royal Aaent 7th April, 17S0. 

This river has its source on the western side of that well 
known mountainous tract, in the northern part of Derbyshire, 
called the High Peak; whence, it pursues a south-eastwardly 
course, forming, for some miles, the division between the counties 
of Derby and York ; thence, to Dinbank, where its stream is 
'considerably augmented by its junction with the mountain stream, 
called the Ashop. From this place its course is southerly, by 
Mytham Bridge, through a romantic country, by Baslow, and 
through the princely grounds of Chatsworth, the seat of the Duke 
of Devonshire ; thence, to Rowsley, where the Wye falls into it 
Its course hence is by Matlock, Cromford, and Belper, to Derby. 
From the last-mentioned place, its course is more eastwardly and 
very circuitous, until it falls into the Trent, at Wilden Ferry, 
below Shardlow, and at the place where the Trent and Mersey or 
Grand Trunk Canal forms a junction with that river. 

This river, from the Trent to the town of Derby,* was made 
navigable under powers granted by an act of 6th George I. en- 
titled * An Act for making the River Derwent, in the county of 
Derby, navigable ;' but, as by the making of the Derby Canal 
and branches, its use would be nearly superseded, all interest in it, 
as a navigation, was disposed of to the Derby Canal Company, 
for the sum of £3,996. The navigable part is thirteen miles in 
length, and it was used chiefly for the supply of Derby and its 
vicinity with coal. 

DERWENT RIVER. 

I Anne, Cap. 30, Royal Aaent 6th Hay, 1701. 

This river has its source on the moors, near the Flask Inn, 
about twelve miles north-west of Scarborough, and three miles 
south-west of Robin Hood's Bay. It pursues a southerly course 
through Harwood Dale, and by Hackneas, the seat of Sir John 
Vanden Bempde Johnstone, Bart, thence, by East Ayton, to near 



< 



198 UKRWENT RIVER 

Ganton, whence it runs due east to Yedingham Bridge, to which 
place it is navigable for small barges. From Yedingham it pur- 
sues a sluggish course through the low marshy grounds north of 
Scamston Hall, to near Wycomb, where it is greatly augmented 
by the united waters of the Rye and Costa, which here fall into 
it Hence, its course is by the town of New Malton, to which 
place, from the Ouze at Barmby-on-the-Marsh, it was made navi- 
gable under the powers of an act of the 1st of Anne, entitled, 
' An Act for making the River Derwent, in the county of York, 
1 navigable.' . 

The course of the Derwent from Malton, lies through a 
beautifully diversified district, passing by Welham House, Menni- 
thorpe, the ruins of Kirkham Abbey, Howsham Hall, Aldby Park, 
Stamford Bridge, and Kexby, to East Cottingwith, where the 
Pocklington Canal locks down into k. Thence, its course lies 
directly south, by Bubwith and Wressel Castle, to Barmby, where 
it falls into the tideway of the River Ouze, about seven miles 
below Selby. 

The length of the original navigation to New Malton, is 
thirty-eight miles, viz. from the Ouze to the first lock, between 
Sutton-upon-Derwent and Elvington, is fifteen miles and a half; 
from thence, to Stamford Bridge Lock, six miles and a half; to 
Buttercrambe Lock, it is two miles and three quarters further; 
from whence, to the fourth lock, near Howsham Hall, it is three 
miles and a half; thence, to the last lock at Kirkham Abbey, it is 
two miles and a half; and to New Malton, it is seven miles. 
From the last-mentioned town, the river was made navigable, in 
1805, to Yedingham Bridge, a distance of nearly eleven miles 
and a half, making a total navigation of forty-nine miles and a 
half in length. 

This river, as a navigation, is the private property of Earl 
Fitzwilliam, and was, by his ancestor, the Marquis of Rockingham, 
let on lease to Mr. William Fenton, for the term of twenty-one 
years, commencing on the 20th of October, 1755 ; and subse- 
quently, by the present noble owner, to Thomas and James Fenton, 
who quitted possession of it on the 25th March, 1805; since that 
period, we believe, it has been in the occupation of the proprietor, 
and is used cliiefly for the supply of Malton, and the country 



DEVON RIVER-DORSET AND SOMERSET CANAL. 109 

through which h passes, with coal, desk, and general merchandise ; 
and for the export of die surplus agricultural produce, to the 
populous manufact u r i ng districts of the Wett Biding. 



DEVON RIVER. 

This river rises on the south side of the Ochil Hills, in the 
county of Perth, from whence it takes an eastwardly course by 
Glendovan, whence it pursues a south-eastwardly direction by 
Muckhart to Fossaway, from whence it changes to a westwardly 
course by Dollar, Tillioouterie, and Sauchie, and falls into the River 
Forth about two miles and a half west of Alloa. As a tideway 
river it is navigable for some distance ; and at Cambus Quay, about 
one furlong from the mouth of the river, there is 12 feet water at 
neap tides, and a rise at spring tides of 20 feet. In 1765, an^l 
again in 1768, Mr. Smeaton examined the river, at the request of 
Lord Cathcart and the proprietors of the extensive collieries on its 
banks, with a view to extend the navigation to Mellock Glen Foot, 
either by deepening the river or making a canal along side of it 
The estimate for the latter mode was £9,357, Is. ; but, as no act 
was obtained for improving this navigation, it does not appear to 
have ever been carried into execution. 

For the purpose of avoiding the difficult and circuitous course 
of the Forth between Alloa and the mouth of the Cambus, a cut 
was proposed between the last-mentioned town and the Devon, 
near Menstrie Bridge; but it has not been executed. The object 
of these projected improvements was to facilitate the conveyance 
of coal to the Forth to be shipped. 



DORSET AND SOMERSET CANAL. 

30 George in. Gap. 47, Royal Aatent 24th March, int. 
43 George 111 Cap. 108, Royal Assent 4th July, 1803. 

Tax fine of this projected canal commences from the navigable 
River Stour, at Gains Cross, in the parish of Shillingston Okeford, 
and county of Dorset, whence it proceeds in a nortb-westwardly 
direction by the towna of Starraiaater Newton, Staftridge, and 



200 DORSET AND SOMERSET CANAL. 

within a mile of Wincaunton, whence it takes a northerly course, 
crossing the River Frome two miles north-west of Bruton ; thence, 
along its western bank, and by Marston House to Frome, where it 
again crosses the river, and follows its course by the village of 
Road to the Kennet and Avon Canal at Widbrook, near the town 
of Bradford. A branch proceeds from Frome, by a very circuitous 
course, to the collieries at Nettle Bridge, situate near the eastern 
termination of the Mendip Hills. 

The royal assent was given to an act for making this canal on 
the 24th of March, 1796, which is entitled, ' An Act for making at 
' navigable Canal from or near Gains Cross, in the parish of 
* Shillingston Okeford, in the county of Dorset, to communicate 
' with the Kennet and Avon Canal at or near Widbrook, in the 
' county of Wilts ; and also a certain navigable Branch from the 
' intended Canal.' The subscribers to this undertaking were in- 
corporated by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the 
" Dorset and Somerset Navigation," and empowered to raise 
among themselves the sum of £\ 50,000, in fifteen hundred shares 
of £100 each, and an additional sum of ,^75,000, either by the 
admission of new subscribers, or on mortgage of the undertaking. 
Although another act was obtained in 1803, entitled, ' Jin Act for 
1 enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Dorset and Somerset 
1 Canal Navigation to raiie a further Sum of Money towards 
' completing the said Canal, and for altering and amending an Act 
' passed in the Thirty-sixth Year of the Reign of his present 
' Majesty, for making and maintaining the said Navigation,' yet it 
does not appear that any portion of the main line of canal was ever 
executed. AportionoftheNettleBridgeBranchwasexcavated; and 
upon a fall of 21 feet at Mells, near Frome, one of Fusell's balance 
locks was erected, and publicly tried on the 6th of September and 
13th of October, with vessels of ten tons burthen; but, in conse- 
quence of the abandonment of the works generally, it never came 
into useful operation. The parliamentary line of this canal was 
forty miles in length, and the branch nine miles. 

The chief object proposed by the projectors of this scheme, was 
to open an inland communication between the mining and manu- 
facturing districts of Somerset, Gloucester, and Wilts, with the 
English Channel and the agricultural counties of Dorset and Hants. 



DOUGLAS NAVIGATION-DRIFTIKLD NAVIGATION. 201 

DOUGLAS NAVIGATION. 

(SEE LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL.) 

DRIFFIELD NAVIGATION. 

7 George ID. Cap. 87, Royal Assent 20th May, 1767. 
41 George III. Cap. 144, Royal Assent and July, 1801. 
57 George HL Cap. 64, Royal Assent 7th July, 1817. 

This navigation commences at Aike Beck Mouth, in the River 
Hull, about four miles and a half north of Beverley, and half a 
mile above the place where the Leven Canal falls into that river. 
Ite course is northwardly, passing Baswick Steer and Emmotknd, 
to Fisholme Clough, to which place the navigation is continued 
along the original course of the Hall River, excepting in one 
instance, where a cat of three quarters of a mile in length is made 
near Hempholme, for the purpose of avoiding a circuitom part of 
the river. From Fisholme Clough, the remainder of the navigation 
to Great Driffield, is by an entire canal of nearly five miles and a half 
in length. The river part of this navigation, to Fisholme Clough, 
k five miles and three quarters ; but the navigation is extended up 
Frodingham Beck, to the bridge, a distance of nearly a mile. 
From thence there is a private navigable cut made to Foston 
Milk, by the proprietor thereof, which is about three quarters of a 
nmein length. 

The first act relating to this navigation was passed in the 7th 
of George III. and is entitled, ' An Act for improving the Navi- 
' gation of the River Hull and Frodingham Beck, from Aike Beck 
' Mouth to the Clough, on the East Corner of Fisholme, and for 
' intending the said Navigation, from the said Clough, into or near 
' the town of Great Driffield, in the East Riding of the county of 
' York;' in the preamble of which it is stated, that it was then 
navigable to Fisholme, but might be greatly improved. Accord- 
ingly commissioners were appointed by this act to carry the 
necessary measures into effect, and to cut the canal to Driffield ; for 
which purpose, they are empowered to borrow any sum of money, 
on security of the rates and duties, and, for the repayment of 
which, and legal interest, the act empowered them to demand the 
following tonnage rates. 



202 DRIFFIELD NAVIGATION. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

a. d. 

Wheat, Rye, Beans. Peas, or Rapeseed 6 per Quarter. 

Malt, Oats, Barley, or any other Sort of Grain 4 ditto. 

Meal or Flour per Sack. 

Coal, Culm, or Cinders { 3 6 P^' U i? 1< i"? lof 

(48 Bushels. 

Brick, Stone, Tile, or Lime, for Building 3 6 per Ton. 

All other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize whatsoever 4 ditto. 

And so in proportion for any greater or less Weight. 
For any Goods, Wares, or Merchandize carried to or from the Village of Brigham, 
(which is situate Three Quarters of a Mile from Fisholme Clough,) a Moiety only 
of the above Tolls is to be demanded. 
Pleasure Boats to pay for passing through each Lock the Sum of Sixpence. 
A Public Wharf with Cranes is directed to be made at Great Driffield ; the Rates and 
Duties payable thereat, to be settled by the Commissioners, or any Seven of 
them. 

In the preamble of another act, passed in the 41st of George 
III. entitled, ' An Act to amend an Act, passed in the Seventh Year 
1 of the Reign of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for improving 
' the Navigation of the River Hull and Frodingham Beck, from 
' Aike Beck Mouth to the Clough, on the East Corner of Fisholme, 
' and for extending the said Navigation, from the said Clough, into 
' or near the town of Great Driffield, in the East Riding of the 
1 county of York, and to extend and improve the said Navigation,' 
it is stated, that the commissioners had made considerable improve- 
ments in the navigation, but it was still very imperfect ; they, 
therefore, obtain power to make cuts for avoiding considerable 
bends, particularly one from opposite Goodall Clough to Seven 
Hills ; another from Emmotland to Corps Landing, situate on the 
West Beck ; and to widen and make navigable the beck to Frod- 
ingham Bridge ; also to take down and rebuild, within six years, 
Hull Bridge, near Beverley, and to maintain a towing path from 
that bridge to Fisholme. 

In addition to the tolls granted by the preceding act, the 
following may be demanded for every article passing on any of 
the cuts. 

ADDITIONAL RATES. 

i. d. 

Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas, or Rapeseed o 3 per Quarter. 

Malt, Oats, Barley, or any other Grain 2 ditto. 

MealorFlour c 3 per Sack of Five 

l Bushels. 

Coal, Culm, or Cinders { ' » P" <"l«Mrnn of 

., . , , * -48 Bushels. 

Brick, Stone. Tile, or Lime, fur Building I 9 per Ton. 

All other Goods, Wares or Merchandize 2 ditto. 



DRIFFIELD NAVIGATION. 903 

TOWING PATH RATE. 

«. d. 

For every Description of Merchandize towed along the ) 

River by the Haling Paths from Han Bridge to > Oj per Ton, per Mile. 
Rsbolme, Corps-landing, and Frodingham ) 

After Hon Bridge is rebuilt, * Pontage Rate of Two Shillings and Sixpence will be 
levied on every Vessel passing under it, in lieu of the present Charge of Four- 
pence, which has hitherto been paid to the Corporation of the Town of Beverley, 
to whom the Bridge belonged. 

For the Purpose of determining what Rates the Owners or Occupiers of Foston Mills 
(to which there is a private Navigation from Frodingham Bridge,) shall pay, an 
Arbitrator is appointed, whose A ward is to be final 

The last act relating to this navigation received the royal assent 
on the 7th of July, 1817, and is entitled, * An Act to amend and 
i enlarge the Powert of Two Acts of his present Majesty, for im- 
' proving the Navigation of the River Hull and Frodingham Beck, 
' and extending the same to the town of Cheat Driffield, in the 
' county of York,' in the preamble of which it is stated, that the 
commissioners borrowed, under authority of the act of 7th George 
ILL the sum of £15,176, which sum was yet owing when the act 
was passed, together with an arrear of interest, amounting to 
£8,194, 10*. ; and for carrying on the works directed to be done 
tinder the act of 41st George III. the sum of £6,143, 8*. was 
raised by subscription, of which sum, £4,300, 7s. Qd. was repaid, 
leaving due £l,843, 0*. 3d; this act, therefore, directs that so 
toon as the principal and interest due to the mortgagees is paid off, 
the tolls are to be reduced, so that no greater income be derived 
from this navigation than is necessary to keep it in proper repair, 
and pay other incidental expenses. 

To prevent the water in the river at Frodingham Bridge from 
being raised so as to injure the drainage of the adjacent lands, a 
mark was made in a stone on the steeple of Frodingham Church, 
on the 15th of September, 1815, which is 15 feet 11 inches above 
the level of the surface water; and by which the height of the 
water is to be hereafter regulated. 

This navigation is chiefly used for the import of coal from 
the West Riding, and timber, deals, and groceries from Hull; 
and to export wool, corn, and* other farming produce from the 
East Riding. 



204 DROITWICH CANAL. 



DROITWICH CANAL. 

8 George III. Cap. 37, Royal Assent 29th January, 1768. 
• 

This canal commences at Chapel Bridge, in the town of Droit- 
wich, whence it takes a south-eastwardly course, running parallel 
with, and on the south bank of the Salwarp River, by the village 
of that name, and at a short distance from Westwood, the seat of 
Sir John Packington, Bart.; hence its course is continued by 
Woods Mill, and it terminates half a mile west of Hawford Lodge, 
and where the above-mentioned river falls into the Severn. 

It is five miles and three quarters in length, with a fall, to the 
Severn, of 56 feet 6 inches, by eight locks ; and it was made under 
the authority of an act of 8th George III. entitled, ' An Act for 
' making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from the 
' River Severn, at or near a place called Hawford, in the parish of 
' Claines, in the county of Worcester, to or near a place called 
' Chapel Bridge, within the borough of Droilwich, in the said 
1 county.' The subscribers to this undertaking were incorporated 
by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the Droitwich 
" Canal Navigation," with power to raise among themselves the 
sum of £33,400, in three hundred and thirty-four shares of £100 
each ; and a further sum of £20,000, either among themselves or 
by the admission of new subscribers. The original proprietors are 
restricted to seven shares each ; unless new ones be taken, for the 
purpose of raising the additional £20,000, in which case they may 
have five in addition. 

TONNAGE HATES. 

i. il. 

Salt, Coal, Stone, Slate or Flags 1 6 per Ton. 

Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas, Malt, Barley, Oats, or other Grain 2 per Quarter. 

Meal 2 per Six Bushels. 

All other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize I 6 per Ton. 

A clause is inserted in an act of the 31st George III. cap. 59, 
for making the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, by which that 
company are bound to make compensation to the Droitwich Caiial 
Company for any diminution which may be made in the profits of 
their concern below five per cent, on every share, each being 



DUDLEY CANAL. * 805 

reckoned at £160 at the least This navigation was carried into 
execution by Mr. Brindley, and for the excellency of the works, is 
thought to be his chef ePouvre. 

The principal object the proprietors of this concern had in 
view, was to bring coal up to Droitwich, and to export salt, which 
is made from ,the brine springs abounding in the vicinity of that 
town, and which have so strongly impregnated the water of this 
canal, that the common fresh- water fish cannot live in hV 

DUDLEY CANAL. 

IS Geo. m. C. 66, R A. 2nd Apr. 1776. 25 Geo. III. C. 87, R A. 4th July, 1785. 

30 Geo. HL C. 66, R. A. 7th May, 1790. ' 83 Geo. in. C. 121, R A. 17th June, 1793. 

37 Geo. III. C. 13, R. A. 23rd Dec. 1796. 

This canal commences from the Worcester and Birmingham 
Canal, near Selly Oak, in Worcestershire, and proceeds in a 
westwardly course to near Stone House, where it enters the Lapal 
Tunnel, which is three thousand seven hundred and seventy-six 
yards in length. From the west end of the tunnel at Lapal Lane 
(which is in a detached part of Shropshire,) the canal pursues a 
northerly course by the Leasowes, and within half a mile of the 
town of Hales Owen ; a short distance beyond which, it enters 
another tunnel six hundred and twenty-three yards long, and 
egresses into the county of Stafford, near Gosty Hill, whence it 
continues a north-westwardly course to near Netherton ; and after 
taking a circuit round the base of a hill to Dudley Woodside, enters 
a third tunnel two thousand nine hundred and twenty-six yards in 
length, and emerges near Tipton Green, within a short distance of 
which, it communicates with the Birmingham Canal. From near 
Dudley Woodside, a branch proceeds to join the Stourbridge Canal 
at Black Delph, about a mile north of the town of Stourbridge. 

The main line of canal is thirteen miles in length, ten miles and 
a half of which, from Selly Oak, is level ; thence, to the entrance 
of the Dudley Tunnel, there are five locks, rising 31 feet, and in 
the last furlong, before entering the Birmingham Canal, there is a 
fall of 13 feet, by two locks. The Black Delph Branch is two 
miles in length, with a fall, to the Stourbridge Canal, of 85 feet, 
by nine locks; the lockage water of which is chiefly supplied from 
Cradley Pool Reservoir. 



206 DUDLEY CANAL. 

The first act relating to this navigation was obtained in the 
16th of George III. and entitled, ' An Act for making and main' 
1 taining a navigable Canal, within and from certain Lands 
' belonging to Thomas Talbot Foley, Esq. in the parish of Dudley, 
1 in the county of Worcester, to join and communicate with the 
i Stourbridge Navigation, at a place called Black Delph, upon 
' Pensnet Chace, in the parish of Kingswinford, in the county of 
' Stafford.' The original subscribers to this canal were only 
twenty-one in number ; amongst whom, however, was the Right 
Honourable John Lord Dudley and Ward. They were incor- 
porated by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the 
" Dudley Canal Navigation," with power to raise among them- 
selves the sum of £7,0OO, in seventy shares' of £ 100 each ; and an 
additional sum of £5,000, either among themselves, or by the 
admission of new subscribers. By this act were also granted the 
following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Iron, Iron-stone, Coal, Timber, Stone, and all other Goods, Wares, and * „ ~ 
Merchandize, {for the whole Length, or any part of it) S * 

Wharfage to be charged for any Goods lying more than Twenty.four Hours. 

EXEMPTION. 

Lime and Lime-stone to pay only One-third of the above Rates; but Paving-stones, 
Gravel, Sand, and other Materials for the repair of Roads, (except Lime-stone) 
Dung, Soil, Marl, and all Sorts of Manure for the Improvement only of Lands be- 
longing to Persons whose Lands may be taken for this Canal is exempt, provided 
they do not pass a Lock, except at such times as when the Water flows over the 
Lock Weir. 

Forty Feet of Round, or Fifty Feet of Square Oak, Ash, or Klin Timber, anil Fifty 
Feet of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, and other Wood, shall be deemed a Ton ; and 
Six Score Pounds Avoirdupois shall be deemed a Hundred Weight for the Purposes 
of this Act 

Boats under Fifteen Tons not to pass Locks without leave. 

Owners of lands may erect wharfs, and are allowed the follow- 
ing rates. 

RATES OF WHARFAGE. 

d. 
For Coal, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Gravel, Timber, Stone, Brick, 1 

Tile, or Slate, which shall lie on the Wharfs more than Six Hours > 1 1 per Ton. 

during the Day J 

Any other Goods or Merchandize which shall not continue more than ■» _ .... 
SixDays } 3 d,tto - 

The second act was obtained in 1785, for the purpose of 
opening a communication with the Birmingham Canal, which they 
were prohibited from doing by a clause in the former act. It is 



DUDLEY CANAL. 207 

entitled, < An Ad for extending the Dudley Canal to the Birming. 
1 ham Canal, at or near Tipton Greeny in the county of Stafford, J 
sad by which the Dudley Canal Company are empowered to 
incorporate a certain number of new subscribers, to enable them 
to raise the sum of ^22,000, and an additional ^5,000, if necessary, 
for the purpose of carrying into execution the works proposed ; 
and the following are the additional rates allowed to be taken on 
tint canaL 

. ADDITIONAL TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Coal, Coke, and Iron-stone, which shall bare paid Tonnage to the Bir. i . __ »,„ 

mrogham Canal 1 3 perTon. 

For the same Articles, for which no Rates shall have been paid to the J 

slid Canal, and which shall pass through any part of the Dudley f 3 ditto. 

Tunnel ' 

For the same Articles which pass between the South End of the Tunnel } _ .... 

and the present Dudley Canal J a ama 

For the same Goods got or raised within a Mile of the Birmingham and J 

Fsieley Canal, and which shall pass into the said Birmingham > J ditto. 

Canal ) 

LimeandLime-stonewhichshftllpassoutoftbeSouthEndoftheTunnel 4| ditto. 

For the same which shall pass into the Birmingham Canal J ditto. 

For all Stone, Timber, and other Goods 6 ditto. 

The original shares in the Dudley Canal were sixty-five ; and 
they may, by this act, be increased to one hundred and thirty. 

In consideration of the permission granted to the Dudley Canal 
to connect with the Birmingham Canal, the proprietors of the 
last-mentioned navigation have had secured to them certain ton- 
nage rates; for particulars of which, see Birmingham Canal 
Navigation, p. 68. 

By another act which received the royal sanction on the 7th of 
May, 1 790, entitled, ' An Act for effectually carrying into Execution 
' Two Acts passed in the Sixteenth and Twenty-Jifth Years of the 
1 Reign of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining a 
' navigable Canal from the Stourbridge Navigation to the Birming- 
' ham and Birmingham and Faxeley Canal Navigation, in the 
' counties of Worcester and Stafford,' the company are authorized 
to raise among themselves, for the purposes set forth in the title of 
the act, the sum of ^10,100, to be divided into new shares. They 
may also, if necessary, borrow the further sum of j§10,000, on 
mortgage of the undertaking. 

The act of the SSrd George HI. enabling the Dudley Canal 
Company to connect their navigation with the Worcester and 



208 



DUDLEY CANAL. 



Birmingham Canal, received the royal assent on the 17th June, 
1793 ; it is entitled, * An Act for making and maintaining a navi- 
' gable Canal from the Dudley Canal, in the county of Worcester, 
' to the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, now making at pr near 
' Selly Oak, in the said cbunty ; and also certain collateral Cuts to 
' communicate therewith.' The new subscribers to this extension 
are incorporated and made part of the Dudley Canal Company, 
who are hereby empowered to raise £90,000, in nine hundred shares 
of £100 each, and an additional sum of £40,000, if necessary. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

<r. d. 

Coal or Coke passing through the Lapal Tunnel, towards! 

the Birmingham and Worcester Canal, but which shall 1 

not pass along the last-mentioned Canal, towards Bir. I 

mingham, nor have paid any of the Rates or Duties r 2 

payable to them under the Act of the 25th or his pre- 

sent Majesty J 

For the same Articles which shall have passed in the ^ 

Direction above-mentioned, and which have paid any 

of the Rates and Dues under the said Act of 25th 

George 111 

For all Coal and Coke conveyed in the Direction above- 
described, and which shall have passed towards the 

Town of Birmingham, along that part of the Wor- 
cester and Birmingham Canal, and none other, nor 

have paid any of the Duties under the Act above- 
recited 

For the same Articles passing in the above Direction 

towards Birmingham, and which shall have paid the 

Dues authorized to be demanded under the Act above- 
mentioned J 

Coal. Coke, and Iron-stone carried between the present j 

Dudley Canal and the Lapal Tunnel, and which shall f 

not pass into or through the Tunnel, or into the present C 

Dudley Canal * 

The above Articles carried between the Lapal Tunnel, and \ 

which shall pass out of this Canal, and into the present f 

Dudley Canal, without having passed into or out off 

the said Tunnel ' 

Forall Gooils, Wares, and Merchandize, (except Coal, Coke, ^ 

Lime.and Lime-stone,) which shall pass into or through f 

Lapal Tunnel, and which shall not have paid any off 

the Duties liable under the Act of 25th George 111 .... J 
For the above Articles which shall pass into or through 1 

the Tunnel above-mentioned, and which shall have > 

paid the Charges under the above-recited Act ) 

Forall Goods, Wares, and other Merchandize (except Coal, -\ 

Coke, Iron-stone, Lime and Lime-stone,; carried be- f 

tween the present Dudley Canal and Lapal Tunnel, l 

without passing into or through such Tunnel 

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize, Lime, Lime-stone, and \ 

other Commodities, carried between the Worcester and f 

Birmingham Canal, and the East End ol I -apal Tunnel, C 

and which shall not have passed througli such Tunnel > 
Lime and Lime-stone, which shall have paid the Tonnage -, 

imposed by the Act of2.'>thUeorgellI.upon Lime and 1 

Lime-stone, passing out of the South End of the Dudley > 

Tunnel, and which shall not pass through the Gosty 

Hill Tunnel 



per Ton. 



1 9 ditto. 



^20 ditto. 



1 9 ditto. 

2 per Ton, per Mile. 
per Ton. 

2 ditto. 

1 6 ditto. 

2 per Ton, per Mile. 

3 per Ton. 

per Ton, per Mile. 



DUDLEY CANAL. 209 



TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED. 



Lime and Limestone, which shall have paid the Tonnage j 

as above directed, and which shall pass through the > 4| per Ton. 

Goaty Hill Tunnel J 

Lime and Lime-stone, whichkas not paid the Duties under ^ 

the Act of SMhQeorge in. uponLtmeand Lime-stone, f 9 ditto. 

passing ont of the South End of Dudley Tunnel, and I 

tor which no other Rate is imposed by this present Act J 
Bor aU Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Commodities,-. 

navigated on that part of the Dudley Canal made 1 

onderthePowen of aaActofthelSfh George ULand U I per Ton, per Mile. 

which shall not be liable toany other Rates in the 16th I 

and SAth of George III. or this present Act J 

There is a clause in this act which restrains the Dudley Canal 
Company from reducing the rates on any goods passing out of the 
Stourbridge Canal into this navigation, without first obtaining con- 
tent from the Worcester and Birmingham Canal Company, which 
company have, in return, agreed that when any reduction of the 
customary rates for navigating their canal shall take place, a simi- 
lar reduction shall be made on all goods passing from the Dudley 
Canal, except such as go towards Birmingham ; and they further 
agree to take such rates only as will be found particularly described 
under the head, ' Worcester and Birmingham Canal.' 

A stop lock is, by this act, directed to be made within five 
hundred yards of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, to pre- 
vent loss of water ; and if the two canals are not kept on one level, 
the passage may be stopped. It is also enacted, that if by reason 
of making this canal, the profits of the Stourbridge Navigation 
shall be reduced below £\% on each share, the Dudley Canal 
Company shall make up the deficiency, provided it does not amount 
to more than £3 per share, and provided the last-mentioned com- 
pany shall, in the same year, have received by their rates £b 
on each share. 

The Worcester and Birmingham Canal Company are also, by 
this act, exonerated from the operations of that clause which 
rendered them liable to make up deficiencies to the Dudley Canal 
Company. 

The last parliamentary enactment relating to this canal, occurs 
in the 37th of George III. and is entitled, < An Act to enable the 
' Company of Proprietors of the Dudley Canal Navigation, to raise 
' a further Sum of Money for completing the said Navigation ; and 
i for amending the several Acts relating thereto ;' in the preamble 



210 DUPFRYN LLYNVI AND PORTH CAWL RAILWAY. 

of which we leant, that a considerable portion of the work, 
authorized by the preceding act of the 33rd George III. had been 
done, but that the sums they were empowered to raise by the 
above act being insufficient, the proprietors obtained power to 
raise among themselves, in proportion to their respective shares, 
(which amount to the sum of £175,325, deducting the sum of 
£6,000, which was directed to be raised by mortgage of the 
undertaking, or by the admission of new subscribers,) the sum of 
£40,000, which shall be raised and be made payable in the same 
way as if the whole sum of £40,000, authorized to be raised by 
the last-recited act, had been paid. The calls to be made in 
respect of the last-mentioned sum, is not to exceed, at any one 
time, the sum of £3 per cent on the sum of £175,325, deducting 
the sum of £6,000 borrowed, or to be borrowed on mortgage, save 
and except two calls of £6 per cent each on the above sum, to be 
made in March and September next ensuing the passing of this 
act The proprietors have power to raise the above sum of 
£40,000, by mortgage of the undertaking, should they prefer it 
to the mode above-recited ; or the company's committee may 
borrow the above sum on their bond. 

The depth of this canal is 5 feet, and width of the locks 7 feet; 
and the principal articles carried upon it are coal, iron-stone, lime, 
lime-stone, and manufactured iron goods; but in consequence of 
the communication which is effected with the Severn, by means of 
the Stourbridge Navigation, and by the Worcester and Birming- 
ham Canal to the town of Birmingham, and thence, by numerous 
canals, to all parts of the midland counties and the eastern ports, a 
general and very extensive trade has been established upon this 
truly useful and improving navigation. 

DUFFRYN LLYNVI AND PORTH CAWL 
RAILWAY. 

6 George IV. Cap. 104, Royal Aaent 10th Jane, IMS. 
10 George IV. Cap. 38, Royal Aaent 14th May, 1839. 

This railway commences at the harbour of Pwll, or Porta 
Cawl, near Newton Nottage, in Glamorganshire, whence it pro- 
ceeds by the above-named village, South Comeley and North 
Comeley, to Pyle, then taking an eastwardly course by the iron 



DDFFRYN LLYNVI AND POHTH CAWL RAILWAY. 211 

works near Cefh Gribbwr, at which place the Bridgend Railway 
communicates with it. Hence, its course is by the collieries west 
of St Brides Minor^ it then changes to a northerly direction, 
running parallel with, and on the west side of the Little River 
Llynvi, by Cavenydan, the village of Llangonoyd, and round the 
east side of Troedrhwy Garth ; and at about a mile north of this 
place, it crosses the river, near Typhylly Chwyth, to DufFryn 
Llynvi, where it terminates. Its length is sixteen miles and three 
quarters ; the first seven of which, from the sea, is one inclined 
plane, rising 200 feet; in the next seven miles and a quarter, it 
rises 180 feet; it then rises 110 feet in the following two miles and 
seven chains; from whence, to its termination at DufFryn Llynvi, 
it is level. The estimate for this work was made by Mr. John 
Hodgkinson, and amounted to the sum of £40,000. The act for 
making it received the royal assent on the 10th of June, 1825, and 
is entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or 
* Tramroad from, or from near to, a certain place called Duffryn 
' Llynvi, in the parish of Llangonoyd, in the county of Glamorgan, 
1 to, or near to, a certain Bay, called Pwll Cawl, otherwise Porth 
' Cawl, in the parish of Newton Nottage, in the same county ; and 
'■for extending and improving the said Bay, by the Erection of a 
i Pier and other suitable Works for that Purpose.' The subscribers 
consisted of fifty-seven persons, amongst whom were the Earl of 
Dunraven, Sir John Nicholl and Sir Digby Mackworth, Baronets, 
who were incorporated by the name of u The Duffryn Llynvi and 
u Porth Cawl Railway Company," with power to raise among 
themselves the sum of £40,000, in four hundred shares of £100 
each, for the purposes of this act, (and which had already been 
subscribed before application was made to parliament,) and a 
further sum of £20,000, on mortgage of the undertaking. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Lmejtooe. Lime, Materials for the repair of Turnpike Roads, , __«._ __ M ii. 

or Highways, Dung, Compost, and all Sorts of Manure . . \ * va lOT ' pa """• 
Coat, Culm, Coke, Cinders, Stone, Marl, Sand, Clay, Iron- \ 

stone, Iron-ore, and other Minerals, Building-stone, Pitch- ( „ . ,. 

fag and Paving-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, and all Gross t ' <ntta aitt0, 

and Unmanufactured Articles J 

Iron, Lead, Timber, Staves, and Deals, and all other Goods, j „, .... .... 

Wares, and Merchandise J 2 * ditta mto - 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 
For the Purposes of this Act, Twenty-one Hundred Weight shall be deemed a Ton. 

o 2 



212 DUFFRYN LLYNVI AND PORTH CAWL RAILWAY. 

HAKBOUR DUES. 

rf. 
For every Ship or Vessel (except his Majesty's Vessels, and such as shall \ 

by Stress of Weather, be driven into, or in consequence of Accident ( „ T 
at Sea, enter the said Bay, and shall not unload her Cargo for the C * Jer 
Purpose of Sale) * 

The Burthen to be ascertained and charged according to the Custom-House Register. 

Lords of manors or owners of lands may erect wharfs, but they 
are restricted to the following 



WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
Coal, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Iron-ore, Lead- ) 

ore, or any other Ores, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles, Slate, Gravel, or V 1 per Ton. 

other Things ) 

For any Package not exceeding Fifty-six Pounds Weight 2 

For any Package above Three Hundred Pounds Weight and not exceed- > . 

lug Six ' 

For any Package exceeding One Thousand Pounds Weight 6 

The above Rates to be paid if the Goods remain on the Wharfs more than Two Calen- 
dar Months; but should such Articles continue above that Time, there shall be 
paid the further Sum of One Penny per Ton for Wharfage and Two-pence per 
Ton for the Warehousing for the next Seven Days ; and the like Sum of One 
Penny and Two-pence respectively, per Ton, for every further Seven Days which 
such Articles shall remain upon such Quays, Wharfs, or Warehouses. 

In 1 829 the proprietors again applied for another act, entitled, 
' An Act to alter, amend, and enlarge the Powers of an Act passed 
1 in the Sixth Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making 
1 and maintaining the Duffryn Llynvi and Porth Cawl Railway, 
' and other Works connected therewith,' in the preamble of which 
we learn, that the sum of £40,000 (being the amount of the 
estimate,) had been expended, and also the sum of £8,000, which 
last sum was all the money the company were enabled to raise of 
the £20,000 which the act of 6th George IV r . empowered them 
to borrow by way of mortgage. 

This last act is, therefore, chiefly obtained for the purpose of 
raising the remainder of the last-mentioned sum of £20,000, and 
to enable the company to admit mortgagees to become proprietors, 
to the amount of their respective claims upon the company. 

The object of this railway is to open the extensive limestone 
and freestone quarries, and the numerous mines of iron-ore and 
coal, which abound in the immediate vicinity of its course. 



DULAIS RAILWAY. 213 



DULAIS RAILWAY. 

7 George IT. Cap. 103, Royal Assent 38th Hay, 1838. 

This railway, commencing at Aber Dulais, near the canal 
which crones the River Neath at its junction with die Dulais River, 
runs parallel with the latter on the western bank, for nearly five 
miles, to Ynis-y-bout ; at this place it crosses the river and keeps 
the eastern bank till it reaches the lime works of Cwm-Dulais. It 
is on one inclined plane of eight miles, five furlongs and five chains, 
from Aber Dulais to its termination, in which distance there is a 
rise of 426 feet. The survey and estimate, amounting to £8,730, 
were made by Mr. William Brough, civil engineer. 

The act for executing this work is entitled, 'An Act for making 
1 and maintaining a Railway, or Tramroad, from or from near a 
* certain place called Aber Dulais to or near to a certain other place 
1 called Cwm Dulais, both in the parish of Cadoxtone-Juxta-Neath, 
1 in the county of Glamorgan.' 

The company, which consisted of fifteen persons, at the time 
the act was obtained, were incorporated under the name and style 
of u The Dulais Railway Company." They subscribed the sum 
of £l 0,000 which was divided into two hundred shares of ^50 
each, and power was granted to raise a further sum of j£4,000, by 
way of mortgage of the rates. It is provided by the act that no 
more than three tons, including the weight of die carriage, shall be 
conveyed on this road in a waggon having two wheels, nor more 
than four tons, also including die weight of the carriage, in waggons 
having four wheels. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
For all Iron-stone, Iron-ore, Charcoal, Coal, Culm, Stone 1 

Coal, Coke, Cinders, Timber, Stone, Tiles, Bricks, Clay, > Ij per Ton, per Mile. 

Lime-atone, Lime and Manures ) 

For all Pig-iron , 3$ ditto, ditto. 

For all Iron Castings 8 ditto, ditto. 

For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things > a ditto. <H*ta. 
not before enumerated » 

Tolls to be taken for fractional Parts of a Ton or Mile. 



214 DUNDEE AND NEWTYLE RAILWAY. 



DUNDEE AND NEWTYLE RAILWAY. 

7 George IV. Cap. 101, Royal Assent 2fith May, 1820. 
1 1 George IV. Cap. 60, Royal Assent 29th May, 1830. 

Tins railway commences on the north side of the royal burgh 
and port of Dundee, whence it takes a northwardly course, through 
Stirlings Park, the parish of Mains, and across Bakers Brig Burn ; 
thence, through the parish of Strathmartin, and over the water of 
Dighty, to within a short distance of Auchterhouse Castle; from 
whence it passes over a low part of the Sadley Hills, to the mill at 
Newtyle, where it terminates. It is in length eleven miles and a half; 
in the first six furlongs of which, from Dundee, it rises 84 feet 5 
inches from the level of low water, spring tides ; there is then an in- 
clined plane seven hundred and three yards in length, rising 244 
feet 4 inches, from the end of which it is continued level for the 
space of nearly four miles and three quarters ; from whence ano- 
ther inclined plane extends sixteen hundred and ninety yards, and 
rises 200 feet ; from the engine, placed on the top of this plane, 
it continues, for the distance of four miles and a furlong, with a 
rise of only 3 feet 9 inches ; at this point another stationary engine 
is to be erected, and from whence, to its termination at Newtyle, 
there is another inclined plane one thousand and twenty c ve 
yards in length, descending 244 feet 7 inches. Mr. C. Langdale 
designed and laid out this railway, and estimated the cost, in- 
cluding three steam engines of sufficient power to work the in- 
clined planes, at the sum of £27,600. The first act for making it 
received the royal sanction on the 26th of May, 1826, and is 
entitled, ' Jin Act for making a Railway from the Royal Burgh 
' and Port of Dundee, in the county of Forfar, to Newtyle, in the 
' said county ;' and by which the subscribers, eighteen in number, 
together with the magistrates and town council of Dundee, were 
incorporated by the name of " The Dundee and Newtyle Railway 
" Company," and empowered to raise among themselves the sum 
of £30,000, in six hundred shares of £50 each ; and, if necessary, 
a further sum of £10,000, on the credit of the undertaking. 



DUNDEE AND NEWTYLE RAILWAY. 215 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

For every Description of Goo(3s, Wares, Merchandise, or other) . _, „.,„ 

Things J 8 P™ ion,perMUe. 

Fee eachft u Bt ngc i traveUtagmany Carriage upon the Railway 8 per Mile. 
Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

Land-owners may construct wharfs and erect warehouses, for 
which the following rates are allowed. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
Coal, Culm, Lime, Lime-atone, Clay, Iron-stone, Stone, Bricks, Gravel, ) 

Hay, Straw, Corn in the Straw, or Manure (remaining leas than Six > i per Ton. 

Months) , S 

Iron, Lead-ore, or other Ore, Tin, Timber, Tiles, and Slates (ditto) J ditto. 

For any other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize (ditto) 3 ditto. 

ADDITIONAL WHARFAGE RATES, 

7b *e paid bg the Month, for tueh Article* a* remain more than Six Daft beyond the 
Period of Sis Month*, and to in Proportion for say ten Time than a Month. 

d. 

For the First Series of Articles as above enumerated 1 per Ton, per Month. 

For the Second List of enumerated Articles J ditto. ditto. 

And (or the Last 1 per Ton. 

Seven years are allowed by the above-named act for the due 
execution of its provisions; and if the railway is not then finished, 
the power to do so will cease, except as to such part of it as may 
then be completed. 

But the company of proprietors of this railway having raised 
and nearly expended all the money authorized to be raised under 
the authority of the 7th George IV. and their works being yet 
incomplete, applied to parliament last session for power to raise an 
additional sum; accordingly the royal assent was given on the 
29th May last to an act, entitled, ' An Act to amend an Act for 
' making a Railway from Dundee to Newtyle.' By this last act they 
are empowered to raise amongst themselves, or by the admission 
of new subscribers, in addition to the sum authorized by and under 
the act of 7th George IV. the further sum of £10,000, to be ap- 
plied in the first place to paying the expense of obtaining this act, 
then in paying the sums borrowed under the former act, and after- 
wards in completing the necessary works; and such further sum 
is directed to be divided into shares of £50 each x to be consolidated 
with the original shares. The proprietors may also borrow the 
further sum of £80,000 over and above the sum of £10,000 



218 DUN RIVER NAVIGATION. 

which the first recited act enables them to raise, and to pay off 
and again borrow, when necessary, any portion of the above mum; 
but the company are restrained from ever increasing their debt to 
more than £30,000 at one time. 

For the purpose of facilitating the communication between the 
railway and the port of Dundee, the proprietors have authority to 
treat with the owners of property for a branch railway, upon 
which, this act empowers them to demand the same tonnage rates 
as upon the original line. 

This railway will be very important to the mountainous ds»- 
trict of country through which it passes, affording access to the 
port of Dundee, which heretofore seemed quite impracticable. 

DUN RIVER NAVIGATION. 

13 Geo. L C. 38, R A. 34th May, 1736. 13 Geo. L C. 30, R. A. 34th Apr. 1737. 
8 Geo. 1L C. B, R. A. Slit Mar. 1733. 13 Geo. n. C. 11, R A. l»th Mar. 1789. 
3 Geo. IV. C. 46, R. A. 7th May, 1831. 7 Geo. IV. C. 97, R. A. 36th May, 1836. 

The River Dun has its source near Saltenbrook, in the high 
moorlands which separate the counties of York and Chester, and 
pursues an eastwardly course by Thurlstone and Periston, whence 
it takes a south-eastwardly direction by Huthwaite, and near 
to Wortley Hall, die residence of Lord Whamcliffe ; its line from 
hence is through a deep and romantic dale, overhung by extensive 
woods ; thence it passes the villages of Oughtibridge and Wadsley, 
to the town of Sheffield, on the north-east side of which it is joined 
by the River Sheaf. Its course hence is nortb-eastwardly by the 
village of Attercliff to Tinsley, where this navigation commences. 
In describing the line of this navigation, we shall introduce the 
numerous cuts and improvements which the act of 7th George IV. 
enables the company to make, and which are now in progress. 
This navigation begins in the Dun River, near the village of 
Tinsley, thence by the Tinsley Cut, which was made to avoid a bend 
in the river, under powers of the act of 14th George I. ; and, at the 
distance of five furlongs it locks down into the river. The Dun is 
here the course of the navigation to the Ickles Cut, constructed 
under the powet»of the above-recited act, upon the north side of 
the river, and which is something more than three furlongs in 
length. The river again becomes navigable to the Rotherham 



DUN »1VER NAVIGATION. 217 

Cat, which cut runs parallel with the old river, and on its northern 
bank, for the length of a mile, where it lock* down into the river 
at Eastwood ; but, instead of this, a new canal is to be continued 
from Eastwood, along the north side of the river, to near Aldwark 
Mill, which is in length twelve hundred and twenty yards; the 
river from hence becomes the course of the navigation for a short 
distance, where another cut, of three hundred and seventy yards in 
length, is intended to be made, for the twofold purpose of avoiding 
a considerable bend in the river, and passing the mill ; the Old 
Aldwark Cut will consequently be abandoned. From the east end 
of the intended cut at Aldwark, the navigation is continued for two 
miles in the old bed of the Dun; it then enters the Kilnhurst Cut, 
along which, and through Swinton and Mexbrough Cuts, it conti- 
nues on die north side of the river, to near Mexbrough Church, 
where it again locks down into the Dun ; but the canal is to be ex* 
tended to the river, near the west end of the Denaby Cut, where 
the navigation is to be continued along the old line of the river as 
a canal, while a new channel, three hundred and sixty yards in 
length, is to be excavated for the river, between the present course 
and Denaby Cut From the Dun, at Bull Green, a Kttle above 
the east end of the last-mentioned old cut, a new canal is intended 
to be made along the north bank of the river, to a bend about a 
furlong west of the place where the Dearne River foils into the 
Odd. The length of the new cuts, from Mexbrough Church to the 
bat-mentioned place, are two thousand two hundred and twenty 
yards. Hence the navigation is continued along the river, about 
half a furlong beyond the junction with the Dearne, to a place in 
the river called the Devil's Elbow, where a new river channel, one 
hundred and thirty yards in length, is to be opened. Hence the 
river is continued as the navigation to within half a furlong of 
Conisbrongh Cut, which is to be abandoned, and a new canal, in 
Ben thereof, four hundred and forty yards in length, is intended to 
be made on the north side of the river and cut; from the end of 
which, the navigation continues in the river to near Sprotbrough 
MiBs; but to pass which there is an old cut three furlongs in 
length. From Sprotbrough Cut, the navigation makes a consider- 
able detour by Sprotbrough Hall, (the seat of Sir John Copley, 
Bart) towards Balby, and by Hexthorpe and Newton, to Doncasteiv 



218 DUN RIVER NAVIGATION. 

The length of the navigation from Tinsley to Doncaster, by 
the old course, is twenty-one miles, and by the course as it is 
intended to be improved, it will be eighteen miles only, with a fall 
of 67 feet 6 inches, by eleven locks. From Doncaster Mill the 
course of the navigation is very circuitous to Milethorne, or Redcliffe 
Lock, where there is a short cut ; thence passing by Wheatley 
(the residence of Sir W. B. Cooke, Bart.) in a crooked course to 
about midway between Wheatley and Long Sandall, where a new 
channel for the river, nearly three furlongs in length, is directed 
to be made on the west side of the river, which shortens it consi- 
derably. The river is again the navigation to Long Sandall Cut, 
where it will be" diverted to the west side of its present line, and the 
old bed of the river will become the continuation of the Kirk San- 
dall Cut, from Long Sandall Lock to the cut last-mentioned; 
thence taking a direct course to Barmby Dun, and across the low 
grounds to South Bramwith and Stainforth, a distance of five miles, 
where it locks down into the river, and also communicates with the 
Stainforth and Keadby Canal. From this point the river proceeds 
to Fishlake Ferry, from which place the navigation company have 
the power to charge dues. The navigation hence proceeds in 
an eastwardly course to Thorne Quay, whence it runs directly 
north, to New Bridge ; it then proceeds eastwardly, and in nearly 
a straight line, until it enters the Ouze, at the port of Goole. 
From New Bridge, the original course of the Dun was by Turn- 
bridge, to the River Aire, into which it entered about three quar- 
ters of a mile west of Rawcliffe ; but, since its waters have been 
directed into the Dutch River, the ancient course has been suffered 
to silt up. The present line of the navigation, from New Bridge 
to Goole, was formerly two parallel drains, cut by Sir Cornelius 
Vermueden, a Dutchman, in the beginning of the reign of Charles 
the First, for the purpose of draining the low lands in the vici- 
nity of Hatfield Chase ; and his successors, now called the partici- 
pants, levy an acre-age rent upon the lands so benefited. A great 
flood happening about the year 1688, the sluices at Goole were 
carried away, and the tides having free access to these drains, they 
had the effect of destroying the division between them ; so that as 
nothing but the outward banks remain, it assumes the appearance 
of a very wide canal, which, at high water, in spring tides, is 



DUN BIVBB NAVIGATION. 218 

navigable for brigs of three hundred tons burthen. There are three 
draw bridges over this part of the River Dun or Dutch River, 
which are kept in repair by the Dun Navigation Company, to 
whom a certain pontage is paid for every vessel passing through 
die same. The length of the navigation, from Doncaster Mills to 
Fahlake Ferry, which formerly was above twelve miles, is now 
reduced to ten miles and a quarter; and from thence to New 
Bridge, five miles and a half; from New Bridge to Goole, by the 
Dutch River, is five miles and a quarter. When the tide flows 15 
feet at Goole, it will flow only 7 feet at Fishlake, and but 3\ 
at Bamnby Dun Ford. 

The total length of the navigation, from the River Ouze to 
Tinsley, when the improvements are completed, will only be 
thirty-nine miles, and the total rise, by sixteen locks, from low 
water mark in the Dutch River, is 92£ feet ; vis. from low water 
mark to the crown of Doncaster Mill Weir, 24$ feet, by five locks ; 
and from thence to the highest level on the navigation 67£ feet, 
by eleven locks. 

This navigation » joined by the Sheffield Canal in Tinsley 
Cut; and, from the west end of the Ickles Cut on this navigation, 
a private canal, called the Holmes Goit, proceeds from it to 
Masbrongh Iron Works. From the west end of the Old Rother- 
ham Cut, there is another private canal, extending to the 
Greasborough.Coal and Iron Works. In the side cut of the Don, 
■ear Swinton Pottery, the Dearoe and Dove Canal forms a junction 
with this navigation ; and, at Stamforth, the Stamforth and Keadby 
Canal proceeds from it 

The first parliamentary enactment relating to this navigation 
was in the 13th George I. and entitled, * An Act for making the 
' River Dun, in the West Riding of the county of York, navigable 
'from Holmstile in Doncaster, up to the utmost extent of Tinsley, 
' westward, a township within two miles of Sheffield ;' by which the 
masters, wardens, searchers, assistants, and commonalty of the 
company of cutlers in HaHamshire, in the county of York, were 
appointed undertakers of the navigation, with power to make it 
navigable at their own expense, within the limits prescribed by 
the title of the act ; by which also the following tonnage rates 
were allowed. 



220 DUN RIVER NAVIGATION. 

TONNAGE RATES OF IS GEORGE I. 

«. d. 

LeadorLead-ore « 6 perFodder. 

Iron, Steel, Horns, Hoofs, Borne* and Box-wood 3 pet Too. 

Deals, Boards, or Foreign Timber, Cheese, Salt, Corn, Cutlery > 3 • Auto. 

Wares, Iron Wares, Groceries or other Merchandise i 

Lime or Lime-stone brought up to Rotherham or Aldwark Wash 6 ditto. 

Lime or Lime-stone brought up to Tinsley 9 ditto. 

Ditto carried up or down the said River, to Doncaster Wash, or > 

any other Place between Aldwark Wash and Doncaster ....J ° 8 ™'* - 

Coal, Stone, Iron, Sough, Metal, and Foreign Timber, from Tins- 1 — 

ley down to Holmstlle or Doncaster, or vice vena J * • amo - 

Wood and English Timber from Tinsley to Doncaster, and > ..„ 

viceverta i Ultra. 

Ditto, from Rotherham to Holmstlle : 1 ditto. 

Coal, Stone, Iron, Sough, Metal, and Foreign Timber, from Ro- > . . -„. 

therham to Holmstlle t s ° dm °- 

Ditto, from any Place between Rothfrhnm and Kllnhurst Works ; > . ..„^ 

and from thence to Denaby, Hexbrough, and Conisbrough I ' " ^^ 

Or on any part of the Navigation between Conisbrough and > . „ -^ ' 

HolmstilT. j I ditto. 

In addition to these, Is a Toll of One Penny for every customary Ton of Goods carried 
upwards or downwards through the Township of Tinsley, to be applied to the 
making and repairing of the Road between Tinsley and Sheffield. 

There is also another Toll of One Penny for every customary Ton of Twenty-five Hun- 
dred Weight, which shall be brought to, or carried from, any Wharf at or near 
Tinsley, to be carried up or down the said River. 

The year following the passing of the above-recited act, the 
mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of the borough of Doncaster, 
obtained an act, entitled, ' A n Act for improving the Navigation of 
' the River Dm, from a place called Holmstlle, in the township of 

* Doncaster, m the county of York, to JFilsick House, in the 
1 township of Barmby Dan, in the said county,' by which they are 
appointed undertakers of this part of the navigation. 

In addition to the tonnage rates granted for the lower part of 
this navigation, certain duties are directed to be paid to the 
corporation of Doncaster, as a remuneration for the expenses they 
are at in maintaining three draw bridges over the Dutch River, 
which are by this act granted to them, besides the annual sum of 
£90, payable by the participants and owners of lands in the level 
of Hatfield Chase. 

Under the powers of the above-recited acts, the two navigation 
companies together expended, in the necessary works, the sum of 
£17,250, but on finding it would be to their common advantage 
to unite into one company, an act was obtained in die 6th George 
II. for this purpose, which is entitled, * An Act to explain and 

* amend Two Acts of Parliament, one made in the Twelfth and the 
' other m the Thirteenth Yean of his late Majesty's Reign, for 



DUN BIVEB NAVIGATION. 331 

' making navigable the River Dun, *n the county of York, and for 
' the better perfecting and maintaining the said Navigation, and for 
' uniting the several Proprietors thereof into one Company.' 

It was accordingly divided into one hundred and fifty shares, 
being at the rate of ^115 per share on the amount expended. 
The proprietors of the upper part consisted of forty-nine persons, 
besides the cutlers' company ; and the ownership of the lower part 
was vested in the corporation of Doncaster, and twenty other 
persons. These several parties are therefore incorporated in one 
company, by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the 
" Navigation of the River Dun ;" and the several tonnage rates, 
and other duties, hitherto received by either party, is hereafter to 
form one fund, (except the duty of one penny a fodder for lead, 
and two-pence a ton for other goods and merchandize, except lime 
and limestone to be converted into lime,) which the mayor, 
aldermen, and burgesses of the borough of Doncaster, are empow- 
ered to take, by virtue of the act of 12th of George I. in lieu of an 
ancient tolL Of the one hundred and fifty shares of which the 
navigation consists, ten are, by this act, appropriated to the 
corporation of Doncaster, six to the cutlers' company, ten to seven 
persons as trustees to the town of Sheffield, and the remainder 
among private individuals. 

ADDITIONAL TONNAGE BATES. 

d. 
For any Goods or Merchandize which shall be landed or-> 
loaded from off or upon any Wharf or Place on the | 

Sooth Side of the Biver Dun, or Cheswould, between > 2 per Ton, of 2,300 lbs. 
Holmstile and Fryers Bridge, which shall not pass, or I 
shall not have passed, the Lock at Doncaster Mill .... J 

The navigation is directed to be made to the farthest part of 
the township of Tinsley, westward, for vessels of twenty tons 
burthen; and if not done within the space of two years from the 
passing of this act, the cutlers' company are authorized to do it at 
their own expense, and to collect, for their own use, all the duties 
which may arise upon any part of the river between Mexbrough 
and Tinsley. The navigation company have, by this act, jurisdic- 
tion only as far down the river as Wilsick House ; below that place 
to New Bridge it is subject to the commissioners of the level of 
Hatfield Chase ; and the New or Dutch River, to the mayor and 
commonalty of the city of York, as conservators of the Ouze. 



222 DUN RIVER NAVIGATION. 

In 1739 a fourth act was obtained, entitled, ' An Act for the 

* more effectual improving the Navigation, of the River Dun, from 

* a place called JPUsick House, in the parish of Barmby Dun, in 
' tie county of York, to Fishlock Ferry, ** the same county,' in 
consequence of the imperfect state of the river between the 
above-mentioned places, which, in dry seasons and neap tides, was 
impassable. The improvements, authorized by this act, have been 
carried into effect, by making a canal from Bramwith to Stainforth, 
and by deepening the channel from the west end of this cat to 
Wdsick House. 

ADDITIONAL RATES ALLOWED BY THIS ACT. 

<t 

Coal and Bark, Line, Stone, Wood and Timber of English \ 

Growth, pasting up or down the Ri»er Don, through tbe f 8 per Customary Ton 
lower Bod of tbe Cut at Barmby Dun, and by the new t of 33 Cwt 

proposed Stainforth Cut J 

An other Goods, Warts, or Merchandise 4 ditto. 

EXEMPTION. 

All Goods and Commodities whatsoever, the Produce of the Neighbourhood b e twee n 
Goole and the lower End of the Cut at Barmby, which shall be shipped lii 1 1» 
these Places, and which shall be carried above tbe lower End of the Barmby Cut 

Any Goods pasting down the Dun, and landed anywhere between the Barmby Cut 
and Goole, and not shipped again, are also exempted from the above Toll. Grain 
put on board below Doncaater Mill Dam, to go down the River, is also tree of the 
Danes chargeable udder this Act. 

d. 

All Goods belonging to the Inhabitants of Doncaster, or any Inhabitant ) 

of the Country between that Place and Goole, pasting through the > 3 per Ton. 
Stainforth Cut J 

And, under tbe Act of tbe 13th George L the further Toll only of. 3 ditto. 

For the purpose of repairing the Roads between Sheffield and Tinsley. a Toll of One 
Penny per Ton is to be levied on all Goods brought to the Wharf at Tinsley to be 
shipped on this Navigation. 

From the date of the last-recited act, a period of eighty-two 
years elapsed before any additional parliamentary enactment was 
passed relative to this navigation ; but, in consequence of the 
delays to which the increasing trade of the country were subjected 
by the shallows in the river below SandaD Lock, an act was passed 
to enable the company to avoid them, by making a new canal 
from Sandall to the west end of the Stainforth Cut ; which act is 
entitled, ' An Act for improving the River Dun, and for altering 
1 the Course thereof, by making certain new Cuts or Canals from 
1 the same, and for amending, altering, and enlarging the Power* 
' granted to the River Dun Company, by several Acts relating to 
' the said Navigation.' The proprietors are further authorised to 



DUN RIVEK NAVIGATION. 223 

make two short cuts, or a new river channel, four hundred and 
seventy-three yards in length, in Arisey Ings, for the purpose of 
cutting off two considerable bends in the river; also a new channel 
for the river at Sandall, six hundred and sixty yards in length. 
To carry these into execution, the proprietors of the navigation 
are empowered to borrow the sum of £40,000, on the credit of 
the undertaking. 

ADDITIONAL RATES ALLOWED BY THIS ACT. 

d. 

Lead, Iron, Iron-castings, and Steel, Horns, Hoofs, Bones, Box- ^ 

wood. Timber, Broken and Unbroken Deals, Boards, Cheese, /.. _ 
Salt, Cutler's Wares, Iron Wares, and all other Merchan- ( 10 P erTon - 
dtxe, conveyed along all or any of these proposed Cuts ) 

Metal Iron for Ballast ditto. 

English Pig-iron 8 ditto. 

Cora, Grain, or Malt (per Eight Bushels Winchester) I per Quarter. 

Lime or Lime-stone (except from Conisbrough, Warmsworth, ■> „ _„ 
Sprotbrough, Cadeby, and Newton) j s PerTon. 

•tg-- r 6 per Ton, of 18 

^^ I Cubic Feet 

Ditto, pot on Board between Barmby Dun and South Bramwith,) . .... 
and going down the River J s <una 

Coal is exempted from any additional Toll; but the Act determines that the cus- 
Icamary Ton thereof shall not in future exceed Forty-fire Hundred Weight, or 
Five Thousand and Forty Pounds. 

The last act relating to this navigation, received the royal 
assent on the 26th of May, 1826, and is entitled, ' An Act for 

* improving th& Navigation of the River Dun, and for altering the 

* Course thereof, by making certain new Cuts or Canals from the 
' same ; and for amending, altering, and enlarging the Powers 

* granted to the Company of Proprietors, by several Acts now in 

* force: 

The improvements here contemplated, were designed by 
Mr. G. Leather, and consist chiefly of five new cuts, which 
considerably shorten, and otherwise improve this important navi- 
gation. They are two miles and a half in length, and are parti- 
cularly described at the beginning of this article. The estimated 
cost is £64,000. 

To carry these alterations into effect, the act empowers the 
company of proprietors to borrow the amount of the estimate, on 
mortgage of the rates and duties arising on this navigation. Ten 
years are allowed for the completion of the works hereby autho- 
rized to be made. 



224 EDEN RIVER 

ADDITIONAL RATES GRANTED BY THIS ACT. 

d. 
For every Vessel, either empty or containing less than Four Tom of » 
Twenty-live Hundred Weight, and passing through the Hex. > 3 

trough New Cut J 

For every Vessel loaded solely with Coal, Stone, or Lime .atone 7) 

For all other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize (but not exceeding Two > | per Ton, of 
Shilling! per Vessel) i SiCwt- 

The same Rates for all Vessels, empty or loaded, as above, which pass the New Cut or 

Canal to be made at Eastwood. 
Note.— That tf empty Vessels, which have paid the above Rate, should return laden 

with Lime-stone from the Parishes of Doncaster, Wannsworth, Conisbrough.or 

Sprotbrough, the Rate so levied shall be returned. 

The two tolls of one penny each, which were levied for the 
purpose of keeping in repair the road from Tinsley to Sheffield, 
is, by an act of the 55th George III. entitled, * An Act for making 
' and maintaining a navigable Canal from Sheffield to Tinsley, m 
* the West Riding of the county of York,' vested in the company 
of proprietors of the Sheffield CanaL 

By an act of 33rd George III. cap. 117, for making the Stain- 
forth and Keadby Canal, it is enacted, that all vessels which turn 
out of the Dun Navigation Cut, and pass down this canal, shall 
pay to the Dun Company the same rates as though the vessel passed 
through the lock near the junction. 

The Dun Navigation is of the utmost importance for exporting 
the produce of the extensive coal and iron works which abound at 
its western extremity ; also the vast quantity of manufactured iron 
goods and cutlery which is annually produced in the populous 
town and neighbourhood of Sheffield. The trade of Rotherham, 
the limestone and plaster at Sprotbrough, and other places in the 
line, together with the agricultural produce of the neighbourhood 
of Doncaster, constitute a considerable branch of traffic on this 
navigation. The imports consist of every article requisite for the 
supply of an extensive, populous, and manufacturing district. 



EDEN RIVER. 

8 George L Cap. 14, Royal Assent 12th February, 1T31. 

This river rises near Pendragon Castle, in Westmoreland, and 
among that range of hills on which Shunnor Fell stands conspi- 
cuous, at an elevation of 4,329 feet above the level of the sea. lis 



EDINBURGH AND DALKEITH RAILWAY. 225 

coarse is northerly, by the town of Kirkby Stephen, and near to 
the town of Brough, and, thence, in a north-westwardly direction 
by Appleby to Edenhall Hall, near which it is joined by the River 
Eamont, which flows from the beautiful lake of Ulles Water, and 
by Penrith, and at the same time, forms the division between the 
counties of Westmoreland and Cumberland. From the junction 
above-mentioned, it winds through a fine country, by the town of 
Kirkoswald, Armathwaite, and Corby Castle, to Warwick Hall, 
where it receives the waters of the Little River Irthing. From 
this place it runs westward, by a winding course, to the city of 
Carlisle, at the bridge of which place the navigation commences. 
From Carlisle its. course is very circuitous, passing Grinsdale, 
Kirkandrews, Beaumont, and Rockcliff, to Burgh Marsh Point, 
where it falls into the Solway Firth. Its length is ten miles 
and a quarter ; the tide flows the whole distance, and it was made 
navigable under authority of an act of 8th George I. entitled, 
' An Act for making the River Eden navigable to Bank End, 
'm the county of Cumberland.' 

This river was chiefly used for importing supplies to the city 
of Carlisle, and to export its various manufactures; but since the 
opening of the Carlisle Canal, the transit of merchandize has been 
principally through the latter channel ; and, consequently, the 
navigation of the river has been nearly superseded. 



EDINBURGH AND DALKEITH RAILWAY. 

7 George IV. Cap. 98, Royal Assent 26th Hay, 1826. 
10 George IV. Cap. 122, Royal Aamt 4th Jane, 1828. 

This railway commences on the south side of the city of 
Edinburgh, near Salisbury Craigs, from whence it proceeds in an 
eastwardly direction, skirting the King's Park ; thence, on the 
south side of Duddingston House, and by the village of Hunters 
Hall, to Redraw, where it communicates with the Edmonstone 
Railway. It afterwards takes a southerly course by Miller Hill 
Row, to within half a mile of the west side of the town of Dal- 
keith, where H crosses the North Esk River ; thence, to the banks 

p 



226 EDINBURGH AND DALKEITH RAILWAY. 

of South Esk River, at Dalhousie Mains, near Newbattle Abbey, 
from whence, the last act enables the company to extend it to 
Newton Grange. 

There is a branch from Wanton Walls to Fisher Row Harbour, 
in the Firth of Forth ; another from Cairney to the collieries situate 
on the east side of the Esk, at Cowpits, near Musselburgh ; and 
another by a subsequent act, which extends to Leith Harbour. 

The main line of this railroad, with the extension to Newton 
Grange, to be made under powers of the act of 10th George IV. 
is ten miles and three quarters ; the first three furlongs of which, 
from the depot at Edinburgh, is level; it then descends 130 feet, 
by an inclined plane five furlongs in length, in which distance it 
passes through a tunnel of six hundred yards. From the end of 
the inclined plane, it continues level for three miles ; when there 
is a rise of 1 50 feet to its termination, which is at an elevation of 
280 feet above the level of the sea. 

The branch to Cowpits is one mile and a half in length, and 
that to Fisher Row Harbour one mile and a quarter. Other 
branches to Duddingston, Salt Pans, and Portobello, were in 
contemplation before the first application to parliament, but were 
subsequently abandoned. Mr. James Jardine, of Edinburgh, pro- 
jected this railway, and estimated the cost at ,£70,125; of which 
sum, £56,150 was subscribed at the time the act was obtained. 

The first act relating to this railway received the royal assent 
on the 26th of May, 1826 ; it is entitled, ' An Act far making and 
1 maintaining a Railway from Edinburgh to the South Side of the 
' River North Esk, near Dalkeith and Newbattle, with Branches 
' therefrom, all in the county of Edinburgh.'' The subscribers to 
this undertaking, at the time the above act was obtained, were 
eighty-seven in number, amongst whom were the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh and Queensberry, Marquis of Lothian, Earl of Wemyss 
and March, Earl of Roseberry, Viscount Melville, Sir J. H. Dal- 
rymple, Sir John Hope, Sir Hugh Innes, Sir Robert Keith Dick, 
Admiral Sir P. C. H. Durham, Baronets, the Lord Provost and 
Corporation of the city of Edinburgh, and the Magistrates of the 
town of Musselburgh. They were incorporated by the name of 
" The Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway Company," with power 
to raise among themselves the amount of the estimate, in shares of 



. 4 per Too, per Mile. 



EDINBURGH AND DALKEITH RAILWAY. S87 

JpBO each; and they may borrow the additional sun of ^20,000, 
tf necessary, on the credit of the undertaking. The concerns «£ 
thk company are to be managed by a committee of nine or more 
persons, poaieand of ten shares each at the least, and of whom 
Area is at all meetings to be a quorum. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Stone for the repairs of any Road* or Bridges, (not being in-. 

the Dalkeith District) Coal, Coke, Culm, and for all Stone, 

(except Stone for the repair of the Roads in the Dalkeith 

District,) Ooden, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, 

Peat, Lime-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, (not being 

lor the repair of Public Roads,) Iron-stone, or other Ore or 

Minerals, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, and all Gross and Unmanu- 
factured Articles, Building Materials, and for all sorts 

of Manure and Grain, Floor, Meal, Potatoes, Hay, and 

Straw 

For every Carriage convey!^ Paisengert, or Goods or Parcels j „ ,».. ,,,„_ 

not exceeding FiTe Hundred Weight i ° arao- ama 

For the Carriage of Small Parcels (not exceeding Five Hun- j j jjjj e Cwt _ 

dredWeight) ••...*•• ' 

For aUother Goods, Wares, or Commodities 1 ditto. ditto. 

ADDITIONAL RATES ON THE INCLINED PLANES. 

«. d. 

For every Article which shall pass the Inclined Planes, -i 
by means of Stationary or Locomotive Engines I 

(provided that not more than Two Inclined > 1 per Ton, for each Plane. 
PbAks be constructed between Edinburgh and I 
the village of Hunters Hall) > 

Fractions to be paid as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

PONTAGE RATES IN ADDITION. 

i. 
For every Article carried across the Railway Bridge, to be erected over > . „_ Tn _ 
the North Esk River at Eskbank i * va on * 

Which Rate is to be levied only for the Purpose of repaying the original Cost, with 

Interest-, and for the future Maintenance of the same. 
For the Bridge to be erected over the Railway Branch, which crosses the Esk near 

Cowpits, the same Rate is to be levied as on that over the North Esk as above, 

and with the same Object 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 

For an Coal carried to Fisher Row 1 perTon. 

Private wharfe may be erected by owners of lands, or by the 
company if they neglect to do so, and lor which the following 
rates are allowed. 

d. 

Coal, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Tin Plates, Iron-stone, ^ 

Lead or other Ore, Timber, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Gravel, (, _, 
Hay, Straw, Com in the Straw, or Manure, which does not re- f * " 
mala more than One Calendar Month 3 

For any other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize, if they do not re- j i „„ 
main more than Six Days J * * 

For any Articles which may remain for the Space of Six Days over » 1 ditto for such 

and above the time hereby limited for the same respectively J Six Days, 

And One Half-penny per Ton for every further Day. 

p 1 



228 EDINBURGH AND DALKEITH RAILWAY. 

Six years are allowed for the execution of this railway and 
branches, and if not then made, the power granted under this act 
will cease, except as to such part as may have been completed. 

Among the clauses relative to private property, is one which 
compels the company to execute that part of the railway which is 
intended to pass over the estate of Sir Robert Keith Dick, Bart, 
within eighteen months from the commencement of the works on 
the estate, or suffer a penalty of £20 for every succeeding month 
which it may remain unfinished. And as a way-leave, an annual 
payment is to be made, (over and above the value of the land) of 
a sum not exceeding £ 990, nor less than £490, which payments 
are to be regulated by the average daily amount of tonnage 
passing along the railway through his estate. 

If the Average be Nine Hundred Tons daily, the Annual Payment to be £990 

If less than N ine Hundred, and not less than Eight Hundred Tons 890 

If less than Eight Hundred, and not less than Seven Hundred Tons 790 

If less than Seven Hundred, and not less than Six Hundred Tons 890 

If less than Six Hundred, and not less than Five Hundred Tons ,'>90 

If less than Five Hundred, the Annual Payment to be not less than 490 

And should the Company ever abandon the Railway through Sir Robert Keith Dick's 
Estate, they shall be quit of the above Obligation, on Payment of the Sum of 
£1,830. 

For Compensation to Andrew Wauchope, of Niddrie Marischall, Esq. for passing 
through his Estate, (in addition to the Value of the Land so to be occupied,) the 
Company agree to pay One Half-penny per Ton for every Article passing over his 
Estate, except the Produce thereof; with the l»rivilege of enjoying Ihe use of the 
Railway which passes over his Estate, free of Toll, for the Produce of his Estate, 
or for any other Articles intended for his own use, or that of his Tenants. 

To John Wauchope, of Edmonstone, Esq. the Sum of £670 is directed to be paid (in 
addition to the Value of his I.and,) for the l*rivilege of carrying the Railway 
across his Estate, together with the Rate of One Half-penny per Ton. under tlie 
Provisions and wuh the same Privileges as are enjoyed by Andrew Wauchope, Esq. 

On the 4th of June, 1829, the royal assent was given to another 
act, entitled, ' Jin Act to enable the Edinburgh and Dalkeith Rail- 
' way Company, to raise a further Sum of Money to make a Branch 
' from the said Raihoay to Leith, and for other Purposes relating 
' thereto.' The extension here contemplated is from Niddrie 
North Mains, by Portobello, to Leith Harbour, the length being 
three miles, six furlongs and four chains, with a fall, to the Forth, 
of 130 feet. 

The main line is also to be extended five furlongs, from Dal- 
housie Mains to Newton Grange. 

Mr. Jardine also made the estimates for the Leith Branch and 
Extension. For the branch, if a double road, £29,628 ; but if 



EDINBURGH AND DALKEITH RAILWAY. 229 

angle, £22,260; and for the extension of the main line to New- 
ton Grange, £7,815; towards which, the Marquis of Lothian 
subscribed £1,000. 

By the second act, the branch to Fisher Row Harbour is, in 
future, to be accounted a portion of the main line ; for the purpose 
of completing which, power is given to raise, in addition to the 
several sums of £57,695 and £4,136, which had already been 
expended, any sum not exceeding £54,875, which is directed to 
be raised by creating new shares of £50 each ; and an additional 
sum of £10,000, over and above the £20,000 which they were 
empowered to borrow by the last-recited act. For the Letih 
Branch, a new list of subscriptions is to be raised by a company 
who may act independently of the shareholders on the main 
line, by appointing their own committee of management, as well 
as possessing the power to make separate dividends of the pro- 
ceeds of this branch. 

Hie subscribers are empowered to raise among themselves the 
sum of £25,700, in one thousand and twenty-eight shares of £25 
each, (of which sum, £19,600 was subscribed before this act was 
obtained) and a farther sum of £10,000, on assignment of the 
rates as a security. 

This bfanch.crosses the estate of the Marquis of Abercorn, who 
has the privilege of a way-leave for himself and tenants free of • 
charge, and is entitled to make branch railways to connect with 
this. 

William Miller, Esq. another considerable landed proprietor, 
has obtained the same power and privileges as the above-named 
nobleman, by obtaining the introduction of a similar clause. 

With respect to the extension of the main line to Newton 
Grange, it is enacted, that, should the Marquis of Lothian think 
proper to do it at his own expense, the pontage rates which the 
company are authorized to demand for all articles crosung the 
North Esk Bridge, shall not be collected. 

The principal object of this railway and branches, is to open 
more effectually, a better and cheaper communication between 
the city of Edinburgh and the port of Leith, with the valuable 
collieries and limestone quarries that abound in the rich mineral 
district to which they extend. 



230 EDINBURGH AND GLASGOW UNION CANAL. 



EDINBURGH AND GLASGOW UNION CANAL. 

57Geo.IILC. 56, R. A. 27th June, 1817. 59 Geo. III. C.29.R. A. 19th May, 1819. 
1 Ic 2 Geo. IV. C. 122, R. A. 23rd June, 1821. 4 Geo. IV. C. 18, R.A. 12th May, 1823. 
7 Geo. IV. C. 45, R. A. 5th May, 1826. 

Tub Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal commences from 
the sixteenth lock of the Forth and Clyde Navigation, about two 
miles west of Falkirk, in the county of Sterling, whence it takes 
an eastwardly course on the south side of the above-mentioned 
town, by some collieries ; thence, through Black Hill Tunnel, and 
across the Glen Water, on which stream, at a short distance to the 
southward, is constructed a considerable reservoir. Its line hence 
is by Brighton Freestone Quarries, and about a mile north from 
Park Hill Colliery, to the Avon River, over which there is an 
aqueduct conveying the canal at an elevation of 80 feet above the 
surface of the river. The canal here enters the county of Linlith- 
gow, and passes within a mile and a half on the south side of its 
capital, to Craighton House, where its course is more southerly 
and circuitous, to the River Almond, near Clifton House, where it 
crosses into Edinburghshire, by means of an aqueduct. Its course 
hence is by Ratho House, and across Leith River, to the city of 
Edinburgh, where it terminates by a basin at the Lothian Road, 
about half a mile south-west of the castle. The length of the 
canal is thirty miles, the depth of water 5 feet, and is on one level 
from Edinburgh to its western extremity, where it falls 110 feet, 
in one series of locks, into the Forth and Clyde CanaL 

This navigation is supplied by feeders from all the streams it 
crosses, and from reservoirs constructed for that purpose ; one of 
which is at Barbauchlay, in the parishes of Torphichan and Shotts, 
and in the counties of Linlithgow and Lanark ; another at Loch 
Coat, in the parish of Torphichan, and another at Cobbinshaw, in 
the parish of West Calder. There is a feeder of more than three 
miles in length, taken from below the junction of the Linhouse 
and Almond Rivers, which crosses the latter river by a suspension 
aqueduct ; and between which and the aqueduct over the Almond 
River there are three tunnels, one of which is more than half a 
mile in length ; there is also another feeder from the Avon River. 



BDINBUBGH AND GLASGOW UNION CANAL. 231 

There are two other canal aqueducts besides those above-men- 
tioned ; one over the Gogar Burn, and another over the Murray 
Bum. 

This undertaking was designed by Mr. Thomas Telford and 
Mr. Baud, who estimated the cost at £240,468, 17*. 2d. ; of which 
sum £l 98,650 was subscribed before going to parliament. The 
fiat act of parliament, relative to this canal, passed in the 57th 
George IIL and is entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining 
' a navigable Canal from the Lothian Road, near the city of 

* Edinburgh, to join the Forth and Clyde Navigation near Falkirk, 

* t» tike county of Stirling.'' The company of proprietors consisted, 
at the time the fin* act was obtained, of three hundred and eighty- 
four persons,' amongst whom were the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, 
Sir William Forbes, Sir John Hay, and Sir John Marjoribanks, 
who were incorporated by the name of "The Edinburgh and 
" Glasgow Union Canal Company," with power to raise £240,500, 
in four thousand eight hundred and ten shares, of £50 each, and a 
further sum of £50,000, either among themselves, by the admission 
of new subscribers, or oa mortgage of the undertaking. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Lime-stone,lron-stone, Stone for Building, Paving-stow, Flags, J 

Coal, Coke, Culm, Lime, Brick*, Tiles, Slates, Ores, Dung, r S per Ton, per Mile. 

Earth, Sand, Clay, Peat Moss, Marl and Manure ' 

Timber, Deals, Bark, and Wood of every Kind 3 ditto. ditto. 

Corn, and all other Goods, Wares, and Merchandise 4 ditto. ditto. 

For Empty Vessels, or in Ballast, or with leas than Fifteen i 4 ditto. ditto. 
Tons ) on 15 Tons. 

Bat if SDch Vessel return loaded within leas than Fourteen Days, deduction will be 

made from the above Charge, in Proportion to the Distance they have carried the 

new lading. 

Boats nnder Fifteen Tons not to pass Locks without consent, unless Tonnage to that 

Amount be paid. 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as (or a Quarter of a Ton. 

WHARF AND BASIN DUE& 

d. 
For every Vessel loading or unloading at any of the Wharfe or Basins > . T 
belonging to the Oocapany i * P" lon - 

If Goods remain on the Wharfs more than Twenty-four Hours, such additional Rates 
to be paid as the Committee may deem reasonable. 

The Company are directed to indemnify the Magistrates and Town Council of the 
Royal Burgh of Linlithgow for any Diminution of the Customs upon Cattle, Car- 
riages, or Goods carried over the Avon at Torphicben Mills also to secure to 
the Magistrates and Town Council of the City of Edinburgh the Rate of One 
Penny per Ton on all Goods, Wares, or other Tuings (except Manure,) shipped or 
unloaded at any of the Wharfs and Basins, in lieu of certain Bates, Dues, Cause- 
way, Mail, and Petty Customs, which they are now entitled to s as it appears 
that, by a Charter or Gift of Charles the First, dated nth May, 1636, the 



232 EDINBURGH AND GLASGOW UNION CANAL. 

Ministers of Edinburgh are entitled to a Dot; or Custom of Thirteen SMRmg* 
and Four-pence Scots, upon each Ton or Pack of Good* imported to Edinburgh, 
Leith, or Newharen. The Company are therefore directed to pay the same on all 
Goods which may be imported by this Navigation. They are also bound to 
indemnify the Edinburgh Road Trustees, the Bathgate, and another Trust, in any 
Diminution of Tolls arising from these Turnpike Boads, which may be affected by 
their Canal. 

The act of the 59th George III. entitled, ' An Act for altering 
' and amending an Act for making and maintaining a navigable 
' Canal from the Lothian Road, near the city of Edinburgh, to join 
( the Forth and Clyde Navigation near Falkirk, in the county of 

* Stirling,' was obtained chiefly for the purpose of making some 
alterations in the line in the parishes of Ratho, Kirkliston, and 
Falkirk. The company are, however, by this act enabled to 
anticipate two calls of ten per cent, each, by borrowing the sum, 
which amounts to £48,100, and which was rendered necessary by 
the works proceeding with greater rapidity than they were cal- 
culated to do at the outset 

The royal assent was given to a third act on the 23rd June, 
1821, which is entitled, * An Act for amending certain Acts for 

* making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Lothian 
' Road, near the city of Edinburgh, to join the Forth and Clyde 
' Navigation near Falkirk, in the county of Stirling, and giving 
i Power to borrow a further Sum of Money on the Credit of the 
' Tolls granted by the said Acts ;' by which power is given to raise 
the further sum of £60,000, either by the creation of new shares, 
or on the credit of the undertaking. In the preamble it is stated, 
that the whole ofi the monies they were authorized to raise under 
the preceding acts, had been expended, besides the sum ' of 
£50,000, which the Commissioners for issuing Exchequer Bilk, 
under the authority of two acts of the 57th George III. and 1st 
George IV. had advanced to this company on the 1st of June, 1820. 

In the preamble of an act of the 12th of May, 1823, entitled, 
' An Act to enable the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal Com- 
1 pony to borrow a further Sum of Money,' after reciting the 
previous acts, and stating that the whole of the sums granted had 
been expended on the works, it is stated, that a further sum was 
required in consequence of claims for extra work and awards of 
arbitrators, &c ; they are, therefore, empowered to raise a further 
sum of £60,000, either by the creation of new shares, or by 



KLLESMERE AND CHESTER CANAL. 433 

Nwiiiwiiig the sejne on security of the works. In this act power ia 
given to the Exchequer Bill Commissioners to advance the further 
am of £50,000, in part of the sum of £60,000 the company is 
authorised to borrow by this act 

The last act relating to this navigation received his Majesty's 
assent on the 6th of May, 1828; and it is entitled, l An Act to alter 
* and amend the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal Acts, and 
1 totnable the Company to borrow a further Sum tf Monty ? in the 
preamble of which it is stated, that they have opened the canal, but 
as the reservoirs, authorized by the first-recited act, are not yet 
entirely completed, and the restricted time for executing the above 
works being nearly expired, the acts are in consequence directed 
to be continued in force. 

The power which was given in the act of 67th George IIL to 
make a reservoir at Fannyside Loch, is hereby repealed, and 
authority given to make one in lieu of it, in the parishes of 
Torphichan and Skmanan ; and the proprietors are allowed to 
raise the farther sum of £60^)00, either by the creation of new 
shares, or by borrowing on the credit of the funds and property of 
the company, who have power to allocate the whole debts of the 
company, by burthening each original share with its proportion of 
the debt ; or they may divide the whole debt into new shares of 
£60 each; and it is enacted that no dividends shall be made until 
the debt be reduced to £100,000. 

The primary object of this navigation was to effect an inland 
communication between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow ; to 
the .former of which it must be essentially serviceable, in come* 
qaence of the increased facilities afforded to the transit of lime, coal, 
■tone, Ac which abound in its course. 

ELLE8MERE AND CHESTER CANAL. 

r»G«o.ni.C.75.R.A. 1st Apr. 1774. 17 Geo. HI. C. 87, R A. 2nd June, 1777. 
18 Geo. 111. C. 21, R. A. 27th Mar. 1778. S3 Geo. El. C. 91, R A. 30th Apr. 1793. 
38G«o.m.C. 71, R A. 26th Apr. 1796. 38Geo.m.U. 96, R A. 14th May, 1796. 
41Geo.m.C.70.RA.20thJane,1801. 42 Geo. IIL C. so, R A. lath Apr. 1802. 
44Oeo.m.C.54,RA.29thJune,1804. 50Geo.m.C. 24, R A. 6th Apr. 1810. 
*3Oeo.IU.C.80, RA.21»tMay, 1813. 7 & 8 Geo. IV. C. 102, R A. 21* June, 1827. 
II Geo. IV. C. 61, R A. 29th May, 1830. 

This canal commences from the tideway of the River Mersey, 
at EUesmere Port, about two miles east of Hooton Hall, the seat 



S34 ELLBSMEBK AND CHESTER CANAL. 

of Sir Thomas S. Massey Stanley, Bart, and ten mike south-east 
of the port of Liverpool. Its course is south by Stoke, Wervin, 
and between Morton and Mollington Hall, to Chester, where there 
is a short branch which locks down into die River Dee. Hence its 
course is eastwardly, skirting the north wall of the city, by the shot 
manufactories; thence more southerly, passing Christleton, Waver- 
ton, Beerton Castle, to Wardle Green, from whence a branch 
proceeds to join a branch of the Trent and Mersey or Grand Trade 
Canal at Middlewich. The main line proceeds for about one 
mile and a half from Wardle Green to near Hur l esto n , where 
another branch proceeds to near Darfbld Hall, about three quartan 
of a mile west of Nantwich, where it connects with the Birming- 
ham and Liverpool Junction Canal, now in course of execution. 
From Hurleston the main line proceeds southward by Borland to 
Woodcot, and thence westward by Wrenbury and Tnshinghaan, 
near Whitchurch, where the canal enters the county of Salop. 
Hence its coune lies on the west side of the town of Whitchurch, 
to which there is a short branch; thence it skirts the boundary of a 
detached portion of the county of Flint to The Cottage, where 
there is a branch to a wharf near Edrtaston. The main line 
proceeds in a westwardly direction, crossing a point tf Fnntshire, 
and by Welsh Hampton to the south side of EUesmere, to which 
town there is a short branch; hence its course is more southerly, by 
Tetchill to Francton Common, where the Llanymynech Branch 
proceeds from it The main line continues from the last-mentioned 
point in a westwardly direction, by Halston Hall and Belmont, 
and across the River Ceiriog, by a fine stone aqueduct; thence 
through Chirk Tunnel to the River Dee, over which it is carried 
by means of the famous cast iron aqueduct at Foni-y-Cysyue. 
From this aqueduct a navigable feeder is made along the north 
bank of the Dee to Llantysilio. There is also a railway from the 
same place to Ruabon Brook Collieries, which also belongs to the 
proprietors of this navigation. 

The Llanymynech Branch takes a south-westerly course 
from Francton Common by Wood House and Crickheath Hall, 
to near Llanymynech, where it forms a junction with the Mont- 
gomeryshire Canal, in the township of Careghofa, in the county 
of Salop. 



KLLESMERE AND CHESTES CANAL. 239 

Oat of the hut-mentioned branch, near the village of Hordley, 
a collateral cut proceeds by Bagley and Shire Oak, to Weston 
Wharf, near Weston Lullingfield, where it terminates. The total 
length of the main line from EUesmere Port to the Montgomery- 
shire Canal, is sixty-one miles ; viz. from the first-mentioned place, 
to the cut which connects with the Dee at the city of Chester, is 
eight miles and three quarters, with a rise, from low water mark 
in the Mersey at Liverpool, of 46 feet, which rise takes place at 
hs commencement, from whence it is level to Chester. From 
Chester to the Hurkston Looks, and where the Nantwich Branch 
proceeds from H, is fifteen miles and three quarters, with a rise of 
1S1 feet, by means of eleven locks, five of which are within a mile 
of Chester. The branch to meet the Birmingham and Liverpool 
Junction Canal is two miles in length, and leveL The main line 
from the Hurleston Locks to Francton Common is twenty-five 
■riles, with a rise of 115 feet The branch to Edstaston Wharf 
from The Cottage, upon this part of the main line, is nearly three 
miles in length. The branch towards the town of EUesmere is 
about a furlong in length only. From Francton Common it is 
eleven miles and a half to its termination in the Montgomeryshire 
Canal, with a fall of 52 feet The branch to the Ruabon Brook 
Railway, near the Pont-y-Cysyhe Aqueduct is little more than 
eleven miles, with a rise of IS feet. 

The railway which proceeds from the end of the canal at 
Cysyfte, through an extensive coal field to Ruabon Brook, in 
the county of Denbigh, is three miles and a quarter; and the 
navigable feeder, which comes from the Dee at Llantyailio, and 
falls into this canal at the aqueduct above-mentioned, a nearly 
six miles in length; and the branch from near Hordley to Weston 
Wharf, b five miles and a half in length. The branch from War- 
die Green to join the Grand Trunk Canal at MidcQewich, takes 
a westwardly course by Cholmondeston Hall, and across the 
River Weaver, near Wades Green; thence northwardly, and 
runs in a parallel course on the east side of that river, by Mmshull 
Vernon and Lea Hall; thence eastwardly to the south side of the 
town of Middlewich, where it forms die junction above-men- 
tioned. Its length is nearly ten miles, with a fall to the Grand 
Trunk of 44 feet 4 inches, by four locks. 



230 ELLESMEBE AND CHESTER CANAL. 

The necessary powers for making and perfecting this navi- 
gation are contained in thirteen acts of parliament, but as by the 
act of 7th and 8th George IV. all the former ones are repealed, we 
shall bnt briefly notice die chief provisions. The first act occurs in 
die 12th George III. and is entitled, 'An Act for malting a naviga- 
' ble Cut or Canal from the River Dee, within the liberties of the 
1 city of Chester, to or near Middlewich and Nantwwk, in the comity 
' of Chester J by which one hundred and nineteen subscribers, 
(amongst whom were the Honourable Wilbraham ToUemache,) 
are incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of 
"the Chester Canal Navigation," with power to raise among 
themselves the sum of £42,000, in four hundred and twenty shares 
of £100 each; and an additional sum of £20,000, if necessary. 

In the preamble of the act of 17th George III. entitled, l An 

* Act for varying and enlarging the Powers of an Act made m the 
1 Twelfth Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making a 
1 navigable Cut or Canal from the River Dee, within the liberties 

* qf the city of Chester, to or near Middlewich and Nantwick, m the 

* county of Chester,' it is stated, that considerable progress had 
been made in the works, and that the sums of £42,000, and 
£19,000 of the £20,000 authorized by the preceding act, had 
been expended ; and as more money was required, the act enabled 
the company to raise the further sum of £25,200, by a call of sixty 
per cent on the original stock of £42,000; and an additional sum 
of £30,000, on security of the rates and duties. This act enables 
the company to change the course of the Middlewich Branch ; but, 
by a clause which is here introduced for the purpose of protecting 
the interests of the Duke of Briagewater and the Grand Trunk 
Canal Company, they are restricted from approaching nearer than 
one hundred yards to the last-mentioned canaL 

The third act, which was obtained in the year following th« 
preceding act, was to enable the company to make a call of eighty 
per cent, on the original stock of £42,000, in consequence of 
having failed to raise the sums wanted, in the manner prescribed 
by the preceding act; it is entitled, * An Act for the more tffec- 
' tuaUy carrying into Execution the Powers contained in two several 
' Acts of Parliament, the one made in the Twelfth Year of htm 
' present Majesty's Reign, for making a navigable Cut or Carnal 



ELLKSMEBK AND CHESTER CANAL. 337 

l from the River Dee, within the liberties of the dty of Chester, to 
' or near Middlewich and Nantwich, in the county of Chester ; and 
1 the other made in the Seventeenth Year of his said Majesty's 

* Reign, for varying and enlarging the Powers of the said former 

'Act: 

If the sum of £33,600, hereby authorized to be raised by 
the call above-recited, be insufficient for the purposes required, 
the company may borrow, on security of the tolls, the further sum 
of £10,000. 

Under these several acts the canal from Chester to Nantwich 
was completed about 1780; but the branch to Middkwich, in 
consequence chiefly of the restrictive clause contained in the act 
of 17th George III. remained unexecuted until the present time, 
when the united companies of the Chester and Ellesmere Canals 
have, under new powers lately granted, commenced the under- 
taking under the skilful direction of Mr. Telford; and it is 
expected shortly to be opened. Mr. James Brindley was employed 
upon this canal as well as other engineers. So much was this con- 
cern depressed at the time it had no communication with other 
navigations, that it is said that shares were sold for one per cent. 
of their original value. 

About fifteen years subsequent to the passing of the last-recited 
act, an act was obtained by a company consisting of twelve hun- 
dred and thirty-eight persons, (amongst whom were Sir Foster 
Cunliffe, Sir Richard Hill, and Sir Thomas Hanmer,) entitled, 
' An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the 
1 River Severn, at Shrewsbury, in the county of Salop, to the River 
1 Mersey, at or near Netherpool, in the county of Chester; and 

* also for making and maintaining certain collateral Cuts from the 
' said intended Canal,' by which they were incorporated by the 
name of " The Company of Proprietors of the Ellesmere Canal," 
and empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £400,000, 
and an additional sum of £50,000, if necessary ; and, by mortgage 
of the tolls, the further sum of £50,000. 

The line of this proposed navigation was from the Mersey 
along its present course to Chester, where it crosses the Dee, and 
thence by Wrexham and Poolmouth to the Pont-y-Cysylte Aque- 
duct, and thence along the present executed line by FranctonCom- 



238 ELLESMERE AND CHESTER CANAL. 

uon, Hordley, and as far as Weston Wharf; thence throagh a 
tunnel to Shrewsbury, where it was intended to lock down into the 
Severn. 

The length of the main line was fifty-six miles and three 
quarters, with a rise to Poolmouth of about 380 feet, and a fall to 
the Severn of 326 feet The branches were to Llanymynech as 
at present ; one to Brumbo, in the county of Denbigh, and another 
to Holt, in the same county ; with one to Prees, in the county of 
Salop. Power is also given by this act to extend the Prees Colla- 
teral Cut from Fenshall to the Chester Canal, near Tattenhall, 
provided the land-owners' consent could be obtained ; and another 
branch from the Llanymynech Branch to Morda Bridge, under the 
same conditions. Mr. William Jessop and Mr. Dadfbrd were 
appointed the engineers to carry into execution the necessary 
operations. 

In the preamble of an act of the 36th George III. cap. 71, 
entitled, * An Act to explain and amend an Act, pasted m the 
1 Thirty-third Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, enticed, 
1 An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the 

* River Severn, at Shrewsbury, in the county of Salop, to the River 
' Mersey, at or near Netherpool, in the county of Chester; and also 
i for making and maintaining certain collateral Cuts from the said 

* intended Canal; and for varying and altering certain Parts of 

* the Whitchurch Line of the said Canal and collateral Cuts, and 
i for extending the same from Franeton Common to Sherryman , t 
1 Bridge, in the parish of Whitchurch, in the said county of Salop ; 
' and for making and maintaining several other Branches and co£- 
' lateral Cuts to communicate therewith,' it is stated, that a part of 
the canal has been already executed, but that it would be more 
beneficial to the public, if the company were authorised to abam 
don the Whitchurch line; and, instead of it, to make a branch 
from Franeton to Sherryman's Bridge, near Whitchurch ; and out 
of this last-mentioned line of canal at Whixall Moss, a collateral 
cut to Prees Higher Heath ; also a short cut to Blackwater's Bam, 
near Ellesmere ; which is accordingly granted. 

By this act the Ellesmere Company were required, within 
two years, to apply for an act to effect a junction with die Ches- 
ter Canal ; and directions were therefore given to Mr. J. Fletcher, 



ELLESMERE AND CHESTER CANAL. 339 

as engineer to die Cheater Canal Company, and Mr. J. Don* 
combe for the Ellesmere Canal Company, to examine the coun- 
try between the Whitchurch Branch of the Ellesmere Canal and 
the Cheater Canal at Stoke, and report upon the practicability 
of forming a junction ; they did so ; and their estimate for this 
purpose amounted to ^§36,478. 

Eighteen days after the passing of the last-recited act, another 
received the royal assent, on the 14th May, 1796, entitled, * An 
' Act to explain and amend an Act, entitled, An Act to explain and 
1 amend an Act, pasted in the Thirty-third Year of the Reign of his 
i present Majesty, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a 
1 navigable Canal from the River Severn, at Shrewsbury, in the 
' county of Salop, to the River Mersey, at or near Netherpool, in 

* the county of Chester; and also for making and maintaining eer- 

* tain collateral Cuts from the said intended Canal ; and for varying 

* and altering certain Parts of the Course of the said Canal and 

* collateral Cuts, between Ruabon and Chester, and for making 

* and maintaining several other Branches and collateral Cuts, to 

* communicate therewith,' by which, power is given to vary the 
original Kne, and make a new branch from near Pont^r-Cysylte, 
in the parish of Ruabon, to the parish of St Mary on the Hill, in 
the city of Chester, with a collateral cut from the same on Cefh 
Common, to near Acrefair Coal Works, in the county of Denbigh ; 
and another from the same branch, in the township of Gwersyllt, 
to Talwern Coal Works, in die parish of Mold and county of 
Flint ; and one other collateral branch from the Broad Oak in the 
township of Burton, into the township of Allington. 

It is by this act that the canal company are bound to make 
good any deficiency which may arise in the amount of tolls pay- 
able to the Dee Navigation Company, by reason of the Ellesmere 
Canal being made, in case the annual amount be less than £935, 
The discrepancy between the amount here stated and what appears 
in the account of the Dee Navigation, (page 193,) arose in conse- 
quence of the Dee Company having neglected to take into consi- 
deration the toll for and in respect of coal, which on the average 
amounted to £%!> annually. 

The act of the 41st George III. is entitled, * An Act to autho- 
1 rise the Company of Proprietors of the Ellesmere Canal, to extend 



340 ELLESMERE AND CHESTER CANAL. 

' the said Canal from the Whitchurch Branch thereof, at or near 
' certain Water Com Mills, called the New Mills, in the parish of 
1 Whitchurch, w» the county of Salop, to, and to communicate with, 
' the Chester Canal, in the township of Stoke, in the parish of 

* Acton, m the county of Chester, and for altering and amending 
1 the several Acts passed for making and maintaining the said 
1 EUesmere Canal? and under authority of which, this extension 
of the Whitchurch Branch, which is now part of the main line, 
was carried into execution. 

In the year following the passing of the last-rewted act, appli- 
cation was again made to parliament, when another was obtained, 
entitled, * An Act for repealing so much of an Act passed in ike 
1 Thirty-third Year of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for 
' making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the River 
1 Severn, at Shrewsbury, in the county of Salop, to the River Mer- 
' sey, at or near Jfetherpool, in the county of Chester ; and also for 
' making and maintaining certain collateral Cuts from the said nt- 
' tended Canal, as restrains the Company of Proprietors of the said 
' Canal from taking Tonnage on Coals, Coke, Culm, Lime, or 
1 Limestone, upon any Part of the said Canal ; and for authorizing 

* the said Company of Proprietors to raise a Sum of Money to 
' make up the Amount of their original Subscriptions, and for fur* 
1 ther amending the several Acts passed relative to the making of the 
1 said Canal;'' in the preamble of which it is stated, that as a con- 
siderable portion of the shares which had been apportioned to the 
landholders had not been taken, and that as the present stock of 
the company was only £333,000, instead of £400,000, the pro- 
prietors were desirous of raising the deficiency among themselves, 
without having recourse to the powers contained in the 33rd 
George IIL for raising two several sums of £50,000, which the 
company are permitted to do by the admission of new subscribers; 
or they may raise it on promissory notes under the common seal 

The act of the 41th George III. was obtained chiefly for the 
purpose of enabling the company to make the Ruabon Brook 
Railway, and the feeders from the Dee, at Llantysilio, and Bala 
Pool, in Merionethshire ; it is entitled, ' An Act to enable the 

* Company of Proprietors of the EUesmere Canal, to make a Rail- 

* way from Ruabon Brook, to the EUesmere Canal, at or near the 



ELLESMERE AND CHESTER CANAL 241 

' Aqueduct at Pont-y-Cysyite, m tie parish of Llangollen, in the 

* county of Denbigh ; and alto to make several Cuts or Feeders for 
' better supplying. the said Canal with Water; 1 and by which the 
company are restrained from taking more water from the Dee, by 
the feeder, than they can replace from Bala PooL On thie 6th of 
April, 1810, the royal assent was given to another act, for the pur- 
pose of making a short branch to the town of Whitchurch; it k 
entitled, * An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the 

* Ellesmere Canal, to extend the Whitchurch Line of the said Canal 
'■from Sherryman's Bridge to Castle Well, in the town of Whit* 

* church, t*» the county of Salop ; and for amending the several Acts 
l f<or making the said CanaV This branch, (which is very abort) 
and the basin and quays at its termination, were designed by Mr. 
Telford, whose estimate amounted to the sum of £2,284. 

The act of the 63rd George III. was obtained for the purpose 
of uniting and consolidating the interests of the Ellesmere with 
the Chester Canal Company ; it is therefore entitled, * An Act for 
S uniting the Interests and Concerns of the Proprietors of the Chef 

* ter Canal and Ellesmere Canal; and for amending the several 

* Acts of his present Majesty, relating to the said Canals,' in the 
preamble of which, after reciting the several acts relating to the 
two navigations, and another act of the 47th George III. cap. 3, 
entitled, * An Act for continuing the Term and altering and enlarg- 
1 ing the Powers of an Act of the Twenty-sixth Year of his present 
1 Majesty, for amending the Road from Flookersbrook Bridge to 

* the South End of Wilderspool Causeway, and J 'torn the toon of 
' Frodsham to Ashton Lane End, in the county of Chester, so far 
' as respects the Chester District of the said Roads ; and for extend- 

* ding the same from the present Termination thereof at Flookers- 
' brook Bridge aforesaid, to the North End of Cow Lane Bridge, 

* m the city of Chester, and for making a new Road from 
1 suck proposed Extension of the said Road, to the North End of 
1 Queen Street in the same city,' the two canal companies are in- 
corporated by the name of " The United Company of Proprietors 
" of the Ellesmere and Chester Canals." By this act the proprie- 
tors of each share of the Chester Canal were, after the 30th of 
June in this year, admitted to one fourth of a share in the united 
navigation, making in the whole fifty of such shares. 



242 ELLESMERE AND CHESTER CANAL. 

The act of the 7th and 8th George IV. entitled, ' An Act to 
' amend and enlarge the Provisions of the several Acts relating to 
' the Ellesmere and Chester Canal Navigations ;' after reciting the 
works executed in the several acts of parliament relating to this 
navigation, states, that the branch from Wardle Green to Middle- 
wich, which the acts of the 12th and 17th George III. empowered 
the Chester Canal Company to make, has not been done ; this act, 
therefore, enables the united company to execute this branch with 
some deviations from the original line ; and to form a junction 
with a short branch of one hundred yards in length, which the 
Trent and Mersey or Grand Trunk Canal Company are required 
to make, by virtue of an act passed this session of parliament, from 
their canal at or near the Brick Kiln Field Bridge, or Brooks 
Lane Bridge, situate on the south side of the town of Middlewich. 
The deviation on this branch occurs near the Middlewich end, and 
is fifteen hundred and sixty yards in length, which does not materi- 
ally alter the length of the line. The estimate for this deviation 
line was made by Messrs. Telford and W. A. Provis, and amounts 
to £14,009, 3*. Id. The locks upon this branch are directed to be 
77 feet in length, 8 feet 4 inches in width at the top, and 7 feet 1 inch 
at the level of the bottom sill, and the rise of each 10 feet 4 inches. 

Although this act repeals all the previous acts relating to the 
united navigation, yet the original contracts remain in force, and 
the present committee are to be continued in the same way as 
though the acts had not been repealed. 

There are clauses for the protection of Tilstone Mills, Damhall 
Mills, Tattenhall Mills, Stoke Mills, and the mills belonging to 
Earl Kilmorey, in the county of Chester. The water of the River 
Perrey above Piatt Mill, situate in the township of Ruytun of the 
Eleven Towns, and some other streams, are not to be taken. 

Upon all the canals, branches, and railroads, belonging to the 
united company of the Ellesmere and Chester Canal, the following 
tonnage rates are allowed. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

rf. 

Coke, Culm, Lime-st one, and Rock Salt 1 \ per Ton, pet Mile. 

Freestone, Timber, Slate, Pig and Bar Iron, Iron-stone, Pig ■> „ am ditto 

Lead, and Lead-ore J 

All other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize whatsoever 3 ditto. ditto. 



ELLESMERB AND CHESTER CANAL. 243 

In addition to Ute above Rata, the Cofepany are empowered to charge the Stim of 
Two Shillings per Ton upon the Cargo of any Boat which shall not hare paaed 
along toe Canal the Distance of Twelve Miles, hut which shall have paaed 
through any Lock or Locks (except on Lime, Lime-stone, or Coal) 

For the Purposes of this Act, One Hundred and Twenty Pounds Avoirdupois, of Coat 
Coke, Culm, Lime, Freestone, and Ume-stone— and One Hundred and Twelve 
Pounds of any other Commodity shall be deemed a Hundred Weight. 

If any Vessel pass through a Lock with less than Thirty Tons, to pay for that Amount 

at the highest Rates; unless such Vessel be returning after having passed with 

more than Thirty Tons, or unless the Water be running over the Waste Weirs of 

the Locksj-4f there is not sufficient Water tor Thirty Tons of Lading, then the 

' Rates are to be paid upon the Quantity carried. 

Empty Vessels, or such as have teas than Bighteen Tons lading, passing the Locks 
which are only 'adapted Tor Vessels of Seven Feet Beam, and have -not passed 
through a Fourteen Feet Lock, shall pay a Tonnage equal to the highest Rates on 
Eighteen Tons, unless such Boat be returning after having passed with more than 
Eighteen Tons, or unless the Water is running over the Waste Weirsof every Lock 
such Boat passes through. 

Fractions to be taken as for a Mile and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

EXEMPTION. 

Paving-stones, Gravel, Sand, and all other Materials lor Roads, also Dong, Soil, Mart, 
and Ashes to be used as Manure for the Improvement only of the Lands and 
Qrounds through which the Canals or Railway passes. 

Lords of manors and owners of lands may erect wharfs ; but if 
they refuse, the company may do it, and charge the following 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
Coat, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead-ore, or ) 

any other Ores, Timber, Stone, Brick, TUes, Slates, Gravel, or f 1 perTon. 

other Things * 

Fc* the Warehoustog of any Package not exceeding Fifty -six Pounds} „ 

Weight , ....J * 

Above Three Hundred Pounds Weight, and not exceeding Six Hun- 1 . 

died Pounds Weight i * 

Exceeding One Thousand Pounds Weight 6 perTon. 

The above Rates to be paid if the Articles do not remain more than Twenty-four 
Hoars on the Wharf. 

d. 
Should any of the above Articles remain Seven Days above the ? 1} per Ton, in 

Time specified (for Wharfage) J addition. 

Ditto, (for Warehousing) 3 ditto. 

And the like Sum of Three Half-pence or Two-pence, respectively, per Ton, for every 
further Seven Days which such Articles shall remain on Wharf or in Warehouse 
after the Expiration of the first Seven Days. 

For the purpose of carrying into execution the Middlewkh 
Branch of this canal, (which is estimated to cost £68^637, 18a. 3d.) 
the company are authorized to harrow the sum o££8QflQ0 of the 
Exchequer Bill Commissioners, upon mortgage, or assignment of 
the rates and duties; or they may borrow the same of other per- 
sons; or by creating new or additional shares; but not more then 
four hundred and twenty-five, so that the total number of sfaues 
in this navigation may not be more than four thousand. 

Q 2 



244 ELLESMERE AND CHESTER CANAL. 

This act also declares, that unless new shares are created, the 
consolidated stock of this navigation shall consist of the sum of 
£475,568, 15*. divided into three thousand five hundred and 
seventy-five shares, and three quarters of a share of £133 each; 
and the management is to be under the direction of a committee of 
twenty-five persons, possessing at least five shares each; and a 
sub-committee of six for the management of the Wirral Branch of 
this navigation, extending from Chester to the Mersey. 

A fund for repairs may be created to the extent of £20,000, 
after all debts are paid, by deducting not more than one tenth of 
the dividends in each year. For the purpose of preventing injury 
to the navigation of the River Dee, by abstracting water from this 
river into the collateral cut or feeder at Llantysilio, it is enacted, 
that the united company shall, from their canal, supply the River 
Dee, at Chester, with as much water as is taken from it by the 
feeder, and which shall not have been previously restored to the 
Dee. 

Of the canals and collateral branches authorized to be made, 
by powers granted under the respective acts of parliament relating 
to this navigation, the following have not been executed, and as 
the acts are repealed, they cannot now be done. That part of the 
original main line from the basin at Chester to the aqueduct at 
Pont-y-Cysylte being twenty miles in length, with 455 feet of 
lockage ; another portion between Weston Wharf and the Severn 
at Shrewsbury, which was nine miles and a half in length, with 
107 feet of lockage; together with a proposed tunnel at Weston 
Lullingfield, of four hundred and eighty-seven yards in length. 
A branch to Holt, of four miles in length ; another to the Talwern 
Collieries ; another from Gresford to Allington ; and another from 
Pont-y-Cysylte to the collieries at Acrefair ; a branch of seven 
miles to Prees Heath; and a collateral cut from that part of 
the main line formerly called the Llanymynech Branch, to the 
Montgomeryshire Canal, at Porty wain Lime Works ; and another 
to Morda Bridge, near Oswestry. 

The objects contemplated by the proprietors of these navi- 
gations, in their recent application to parliament, are chiefly to 
enable them to establish a carrying trade from the port of Elles- 
mere, on tl»e banks of the River Mersey, across that river to the 



ELLBSMBRE AND CHBSTEB CANAL. 346 

different towns and navigations with which H communicates, and 
to construct a reservoir of about twenty-four acres near the 
Hnrlestone Locks, between the canal and the turnpike-road leading 
from Chester to Nantwich, for the purpose of catching the surplus 
water of the Upper Pound Locks, and supplying the Lower Locks 
in time of scarcity. They had further intended to make a short 
extension of their canal of a mile in length, from Pont-y-Cysylte 
Basin to the road leading to Plas-Kyhaston Hall, in the county of 
Denbigh ; this, however, they ultimately abandoned, and their act 
is in consequence entitled, * An Act to enable the united Company 
*■ of Proprietors of the EUesmere and Chester Canals to make a 

* Reservoir, and to establish Vessels for the conveyance of Chads 
'from EUesmere Port across the River Mersey ; and also to amend 

* and enlarge the Powers of the said Act relating to the said CanaV 

The estimate for the several works contemplated, including 
£4,000 for tire cut subsequently abandoned, was made by Mr. 
Thomas Stanton, amounting to £55,900, of which, the reservoir 
was calculated to cost £31,900 ; and for purchase of proper vessels 
for the carrying trade, an additional sum of £30,000 would be 
required; the company are, therefore, empowered to raise for 
these purposes, and for completing their branch canal from 
Wardle Green to Middlewich, a further sum of £70,000, by all 
or any of the means by which the said company are authorized to 
collect any sum of money by virtue of the preceding acts. 

This act also enables the united proprietors to purchase Dee 
Mills, in the city of Chester, for the purpose of avoiding any 
dispute which might arise respecting the use of the water of the 
River Dee, which supplies both the canal and mills. 

For the carriage of goods and merchandize across the Mersey, 
the company are empowered to collect the following 



TONNAGE RATES. 

«. A 

For Pig-iron 3 o per Ton 

For Bar and Rod Iron 3 6 ditto. 

ForSbeet, Hoop and other Iron, Lead and outer Metals 4 ditto. 

Fc» Timber 4 o ditto. 

For Com, Grain, Halt and Flour S 6 ditto. 

For Sugar, Groceries, Drugs, Hides and Manufactured Gooda e 6 ditto. 

For Wine, Spirits, Vitriol, Glass and other Goods and Merchandize.. 8 ditto. 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton. 



246 ENGLISH AND BRISTOL CHANNELS SHIP CANAL. 

On some parts of this navigation tome astonishing works have 
been constructed, but the limits to which our work is prescribed* 
precludes the possibility of enumerating them 4 however we must 
not omit to notice the well known aqueduct over the Dee at Poab-y- 
Cysylte. This stupendous work is carried over the river* at an 
elevation of 125 feet above its bed, on nineteen pairs of stone 
pillars, 52 feet asunder. The trough through which the vessels 
pass is 320 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 6 feet deep, and it is 
entirely composed of cast iron plates. There is also another very 
large aqueduct over the River Ceiriog, which is built of stone ; it 
is two hundred yards in length, and is supported on ten arches, at 
an elevation of 65 feet above the river. 

This navigation, from the immediate connection it has with the 
Rivers Mersey and Dee, and with die Montgomeryshire Canal* 
and the communication it has, by means of collateral cute and the 
Ruabon Branch Railway, with the mineral districts to which they 
severally extend, and the fertile agricultural parts of North Salop 
and the county palatine of Chester, through which it winds its way* 
is of first rate importance ; and it will doubtless increase in value 
when the desirable junction with the Grand Trunk Canal has been 
effected. 



ENGLISH AND BRISTOL CHANNELS SHIP 
CANAL 

6 George IV. Cap. 199, Royal Auent 6th July, 1823. 

Thb parliamentary line of this intended ship canal, commences 
in the English Channel at Beer Roads, Seaton Bay, whence it 
takes a nortlt-eastwardly course, skirting the shore, to the village 
of Seaton; thence, running parallel with the Axe River, to 
Colyford, where it crosses the River Coly, a mile south of the town 
of Colyton ; thence continuing in the vale of the Axe, by Whitfbrd, 
to the River Yarty, which it crosses by an aqueduct ; thence half a 
mile west of the town of Axminster, and across the Little River 
Kilbridge to Hurtham, where it quits the valley and proceeds 
northwards a mile east of Chard, to its summit leveL Hence its 
course is over a flat and uninteresting country for the space of 



ENGLISH AND BRISTOL CHANNELS SHIP CANAL. 247 

twelve mike and a half, without a lock; thence it panes Thorpe 
Faleoo, and across the navigable River Tone by an aqueduct, 
about five mile* east of Taunton. The line from the Tone runs 
pare Mel, for some miles, with the intended Bridgewater and 
Taanton Canal, and along the line of a part of it by St Michael's 
sad Huntworth, to the town of Bridgewater, which it passes on 
its west side, and thence north-westwardly by Wembdon, to the 
River Parrett, along the shore of which it continues to Combwich, 
where it leaves the river, and running direct to Stolfbrd, locks 
down into Bridgewater Bay, in the Bristol Channel. 

The canal wiM be fbrty4bur miles and five furlongs in length; 
in the first eleven miles and three quarters, from Beaton -Bay, it 
rises 345 feet, by twenty-nine locks, from low water in the 
Englah Channel; thence for twelve miles and a half H is level; 
and for the remaining twenty miles and three furlongs there is a 
fall of 907 feet 7 inches, by twenty-nine locks, to low water in the 
Bristol Channel. By the section here described, it would seem as 
though the levels had been mis-stated by us, or that an error had 
been committed in taking them ; but the apparent discrepancy is 
to be accounted for by the different rise of the tides in the two 
channels. At Bridgewater Bay in the Bristol Channel, the 
ordinary spring tides are 30 feet 6 inches, and the high spring 
tides rise 40 feet; while in Seaton Bay, in the English Channel, 
the ordinary spring tides are but 12 feet, and the high spring tides 
seldom exceed 15 feet 6 inches, so that the latter in the Bristol 
Channel are higher by 2 feet than in the English Channel; whilst 
the low water line is 22 feet 7 inches below it 

.This canal is to be made 15 feet deep, 90 feet wide, and 
capable of being navigated by ships of two hundred tons register. 
It is to be supplied with water from reservoirs; viz. one in the Axe 
Valley, near Seaborough, covering a surface of two hundred and 
seventeen acres and three roods ; and another in the same valley, 
fat the parish of Wins hem. The third is at the upper end of the 
valley of the Yarty, near Hilhaveb Bridge, in the parishes of 
Yarcombe and Membury ; and the other at Ridge, on the 
Kfibridge River, in the parish of Chardstock, in the county of 
Dorset The HUhaven Bridge Reservoir is to be to the extent of 
one hundred and five acres, and that at Ridge sixteen and a half. 



348 ENGLISH AND BRISTOL CHANNELS SHIP CANAL. 

Between the two hut-mentioned reservoirs there is a cot of com- 
munication six miles and a half in length ; and from the Ridge 
Reservoir to the canal, the feeder is three miles and a hal£ 

The feeder from the Seaborough Reservoir fellows the north 
bank of the Axe by Ford Abbey, thence it turns northward, and 
eaters the canal near Chard, being eight miks and a half in 
length. Mr. Telford's estimate for this magnificent undertaking 
was made in 1834, and amounted to the sum of £1,712,844. 
The act for carrying this great work into execution, 
obtained in 1825. It is entitled, ' An Act for making and i 
' taming a Comal for Ships and other Vessels, to commence at or 
' near Seaton Bay, in the county of Devon, and terminating in the 
1 Bristol Channel, at or near Stolford or Bridgewater Bay, m the 
l . county of Somerset, with several collateral Branches to cos ummt - 
' cote therewith.' The subscribers, consisting of two hundred and 
seventy-one persons, (amongst whom were the Earl of Cork and 
Orrery, the Dean of York, and Major-General Sir James Kempt,) 
were incorporated by the name of " The Company of Proprietors i 
" of the English and Bristol Channels Ship Canal," with power to 
contribute among themselves the sum of £1,750,000, in seventeen 
thousand five hundred shares of £100 each, the whole of which is 
to be subscribed before the work is commenced. The company 
may also borrow the further sum of £750,000 on mortgage of the 
rates, or 'by granting annuities, or on promissory notes under the 
common seaL In obtaining supplies of lockage water for this canal, 
the company are prohibited from taking any from the Rivers Par- 
rett or Tone, or any streams which flow into them ; they are also 
restricted from taking any but the flood waters arising on the Rivers 
Axe and Yarty, and Wambrook. In this act is recited a very im- 
portant agreement, bearing date 28th March, 1825, between this 
company and the Bridgewater and Taunton Navigation Company, 
by which the former company agree to give the latter, for their 
interest in the new canal, between Bridgewater and Taunton, to- 
gether with the machines and materials used in carrying on the 
work, the sum of £90,000, together with the sum of £7,907, 
1*. lOd owing to the Bridgewater and Taunton Canal Company, 
by virtue of the purchases made from the proprietors of shares in 
the debt due on the River Tone. 



ENGLISH AND BBISTOL CHANNELS SHIP CANAL. 240 

Hie Bridgewater and Taunton Canal Company are to continue 
their works, but the expenses are to be reimbursed by the English 
and Bristol Channels Ship Canal Company. The purchase money 
to be paid by three equal instalments; the last of which is to be 
paid at the end of nine months from the passing of the above-recited 
act, or within three months afterwards ; in default of which, the 
agreement to be void. And, in case it is paid, the monies are to be 
applied to carrying into execution what remains to be executed of 
the Bridgewater and Taunton Canal ; and after the residue, if 
any, is distributed among the shareholders, they are to be dis- 
solved, and be no longer a corporate body ; and are henceforward 
released from all obligation to maintain the said canal, which is by 
this act transferred to the English and Bristol Channels Ship Canal 
Company. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

Bay, Straw, Dong, Peals, and Pest Ashes, Chalk, atari. Clay, •> 
Sand, Lime, Lime-atone to be used lor Manure, and all I 
other Article* tatended to be used as Manure, and all Ma- > l per Ton, per Mite, 
terials for the repair of Roads, Coal, Culm, Coke, Cin- 
ders, Charcoal, Iron, Stone, Bricks, and Tiles. * 

All other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize 3 ditto. ditto. 

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

For the Purposes of this Act Forty Cubic Feet of Oak, Ash, Elm, Beech. Larch, Ma- 
hogany, and other heavy Timber or Wood; and Fifty Cubic Feet of Pine, Fir, Deal, 
Poplar, and other light Wood; and Forty Cubic Feet of Goods which shall not 
weigh Twenty Hundred Weight, of One Hundred and Twelve Pounds each, shall 
be deemed a Ton. 

If any Vessel pan along this Canal for any less Distance than Ten Miles, and shall pass 
through any Look, shall pay, in Addition to the above Rates, One Penny per Ton 
upon One Hundred and Fifty Tons at the least, upon passing the first Lock upon 
the Canal, and One-half of soeh Amount at every succeeding Lock. 

For every Vessel, whether Laden, Unladen, or in Ballast, passing the Tide Locks at 
either Extremity, and which shall not nave passed the whole Length of the Canal, 
there shall be paid Two-pence per Ton upon the Registered Tonnage of such 
Ship ; and in no case shall leas be paid than for One Hundred and Fifty Tons. 

For Ves s els Unladen or in Ballast, (except such as are used for Agricultural Pur- 
poses,) which shall navigate a Distance of Ten Miles or upwards. One Penny per 
Ton per Mile, as upon One Hundred and Fifty Tons at the least; if less than Ten 
Miles, and shall pass any Lock, (except the Tide Locks,) One Penny per Ton per 
Mile ; and also a Rate of One Penny per Ton for passing such Lock, upon One 
Hundred and Fifty Tons at the least, and One-half of such Amount for every suc- 
ceeding Lock. 

Aa the canal company intend to construct harbours, or ports, 
with piers, jetties, lights, and other works at the two extremities 
of the navigation, it b enacted, that they shall be entitled to the 
following harbour dues, to be paid by all ships or other vessels 
which may use the said harbours, &c. without navigating the said 
canal 



250 ENGLISH AND BRISTOL CHANNELS SHIP CANAL. 

HARBOUR DUES. 

i. 
For every Vessel entering either of the Harbours of Beer, or Seaton, or ) 

Stolford, of Twenty Tons Burthen and upwards, according to the > 3 per Ton. 
Registered Tonnage of such Ship or Vessel ) 

Front the last-mentioned Rate all Vessels in his Majesty's Service are exempt 

TOWING PATH RATE. 

d. 
For every Horse or other Beast passing on any of the Towing Paths (except such 1 
as are used in Haling any Ship or other Vessel) J * 

Such Toll to be taken but once a Day. 
Vessels (not being a Ship or Sea Vessel,) laden with Hay, Straw, or Com in the Straw, 
or with any Material for the repair of Roads, or with any Kind of Manure, sliall 
not pass through any Lock ; but upon I*ayment of One Penny per Ton as upon 
One Hundred Tons at the first Lock they shall pass, and Half the Amount at every 
succeeding Lock. As many Barges as the Lock will receive, are to pass upon Pay- 
ment together of the Rates above-mentioned. 

Lords of manors, or land-owners, may make or erect wharfs 
or warehouses ; but if they refuse, the company may do it, and 
charge the following rates. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 

For any Goods lying on the Wharfs not more than Twenty. » , _ 

four Hours J i V" lon - 

More than Twenty-four Hours, and less than Seven Days 1 ditto. 

Except Coal, Iron, and Iron-stone, which may remain Two > , ,_ „.rv-„ 

Months, and after such Time \ * per ion, per uay. 

There are many clauses in this act relating to private property, 
but more especially with regard to estates belonging to Lord Sid- 
mouth, Sir William Oglander, Bart and William Manning, Esq. 
situate where the reservoirs are intended to be made, by which 
the company are required to purchase the whole of these several 
estates, if any portion is taken under the authority of this act. 

The chief object and advantages to be derived from the exe- 
cution of this ship canal, is the shortening and rendering more 
certain and expeditious the passage of all vessels trading from the 
Bristol Channel, the ports of Ireland, and the western ports of 
England, to the English Channel. Indeed, if we take into consi- 
deration the danger and difficulty, at all times, of the navigation 
round the Land's End, and the detention, frequently amounting to 
six weeks, arising from the prevalence of south-westerly winds, 
the importance of having a passage in the line above described, 
cannot but be seen by every one who will for a moment consult 
the accompanying map. The distance saved, by means of this 



EEEWASH CANAL. S5f 

canal, between Bridgewater Bay or the ports eastward of H^ and 
any ports eastward of Beer Harbour, is upwards of two hundred 
and twenty miles. 

In addition .to the great advantage which must necessarily 
accrue to the shipping interest, the prospects held out to the spe- 
culator in this, work, are sufficient to tempt the cupidity of the most 
sceptical, if reliance may be placed in the accuracy of the data 
from whence, the projectors have derived the probable sources of 
revenue. In a prospectus, published by the committee on this 
navigation, it is stated, that the clear annual income applicable to 
a dividend among the proprietors, o calculated, by very low esti. 
mates, to amount to twelve per cent, or £210,846, 12». 4d. But 
the reader must bear in mind that the latter end of 1814 was a 
time of high expectations. When this article was drawn up 
(1830) the work bad not commenced. 



EREWASH CANAL. 

17 George in. Cap. 69, Royal AmesA SOth April, 1T7T. 

The Erewash Canal commences in the River Trent, about a 
mile east of the village of Sawley, and nearly opposite the Soar 
River, or Loughborough Navigation ; whence it takes a northerly 
course on the east side of Long Eaton, a mile and a half beyond 
which the Derby Canal Branch locks down into it. From this 
junction it runs parallel with and on the west side of the River 
Erewash, by Sandiacre, and across Nutbrook, by an aqueduct, at 
which place it is also joined by the Nutbrook Canal, about a mile 
and a half north of the last-mentioned village ; hence it continues 
its course up the Erewash Vale, by Ilkeston and the Cotman Hay 
Collieries, to Newmanleys Mill, where it crosses the river into Not- 
tinghamshire, and at about a mile beyond, it terminates in the 
Cromfbrd Canal, near Langley Bridge. It is in length eleven 
miles and three quarters, viz. from the Trent to the Derby Canal, 
three miles and a quarter; from thence to the Nutbrook Canal, 
two miles and a half; and from thence to the Cromfbrd Canal, 
six miles, to which there is a total rise, from the Trent, of nearly 
109 feet The canal was made under the authority of an act of 



252 EREWASH CANAL. 

the 17th George HI. which is entitled, ' An Act far making and 
' maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from the River Trent, t» 
' the lordships of Sawley and Long Eaton, in the county of Derby, 
1 to or near Langley Bridge, tn the counties of Derby and ffot- 
' tingham.' The proprietors, at the time the act was obtained, 
consisted of seventy-four persons, (amongst whom was the Duke 
of Rutland,) who were incorporated by the name of " The Com- 
" pany of Proprietors of the Erewash Canal, in the counties of 
" Derby and Nottingham," with power to raise among themselves 
the sum of £15,400, in one hundred and fifty-four shares of £100 
each; and a further sum of £7,700, if necessary, either among 
themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or they may 
borrow the same on assignment of the rates as a security. 

TONNAGE KATES. 

«. i. 

Wheat, Rye, Beans, or Peas 6 per Quarter. 

Malt 4 ditto. 

Barley, or other Grain not before enumerated S ditto. 

Coal and Coke ; - 1 8 per Ton. 

Slate 6 ditto. 

All other Goods, Wans, or Merchandize (except Gravel, I » « j 1M „ 

Stone, or other Materials for the repair of Roads) * * " <ulw- 

Lime or Limestone 1 per Ton, per Mile. 

And so in Proportion for any greater or leas Weight than a Ton. 
One Hundred and Twenty Pounds Avoirdupois to be deemed a Hundred Weight. 

: d. 
Coal from the Hallam and Shipley Cauteries, coming down) . 8 Toa 

the Nutbrook Canal, and passing along this Canal....' " 

For all other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize 1 ditto. 

Lords of manors or owners of lands may make wharfs or erect 
warehouses, and may charge the following rates. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
For any Description of Goods remaining for the Space of Ten Days.... 6 per Ton. 
For every Day after the Expiration of the above Tune | ditto. 

In the Act of the 33rd George HI cap. 108, (or making the Derby Canal, a Clause is 
introduced, whereby the Erewash Canal Company nave agreed, in consideration 
of the Advantages they will derive from a Connection with the Derby Canal, to 
reduce the Rates upon all Coal or Coke navigated on the Erewash, and passing 
thence into the Derby Canal, to Five-pence per Ton. 

i. 
Mercantile Goods which shall pass on the Erewash, between the Derby) . n_.iv> 

Canal and the River Trent, shall be charged only 1 " «**""• 

And upon Lime, and all other Articles navigated on the Erewash, and afterwards 

on the Derby Canal, One-half only of the Rates they were previously entitled to. 

The original Rates are however to be collected in case any other Canal or Railway be 

made between Derby and the Erewash. 



EXE RIVER AND EXETER CANAL. 353 

By the *4th George I1L cap. B*, for improving the Trent Navigation, it is etfacted, 
that the Annual Rent of £5, paid by the Erewash Canal Company, shall cease, 
and in Lien of it, every Boat laden, and crowing the Rrr er between the Laugh, 
borough Navigation and the Erewash Canal, shall pay Sixpence. 

This canal was designed and executed chiefly by the owners 
of the extensive collieries and other mines- situate on its line and at 
its northern extremity, with a view of obtaining a. more eertahi 
mode of transporting their heavy produce to distant markets; but 
k has, subsequently, by its connection with the Derby, Cramford 
and Nottingham Canals, and by the great improvements which 
have taken place in the Trent Navigation, become a part of the 
Hne of communication for general commercial purposes ; and when 
the Cromford and Peak Forest Railway is completed, it will 
derive some additional revenue incident to. a position on the hne «f 
communication between London and the northern manufacturing 
districts. 



EXE RIVER AND EXETER CANAL. 

31 Henry VIII Cap. 4, Royal Assent 1539. 

10 Geo. IV. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 14th May, 1839. 

This river has its source on Exmoor, at the westwardly termi- 
nation of the Dunkerry Hills, in the county of Somerset, whence 
it pursues a south-eastwardly course, to within a mile of the town 
of Dulverton, and by Pixton Park, the seat of the Earl of Caer- 
narvon, near which place it enters Devonshire. Its course, hence, is 
by Stuckbridge to Tiverton, to which place a branch of the 
intended Grand Western Canal extends ; it then follows a southerly 
course, by Thorverton and Pynes, to the city of Exeter, near 
which place it is joined by the Creedy. From Exeter, the 
ancient course of the river is by Countess Wear Bridge, to the 
town of Topsham, where the river navigation commences. From 
the last-mentioned town to the sea, (into which it falls at Exmouth,) 
it is a considerable estuary, being in some places a mile and a half 
in width ; and its length, by the low water channel, is nearly eight 
miles. 

From the west side of the river, a little above the town of 
Topsham, a canal, above three miles in length, and running 



254 EXE RIVER AND EXETER CANAL. 

parallel with the river, was made by the corporation of Exeter, to 
that city, so early as the reign of Henry VIII. under powers of an 
act granted in the thirty-first year of that reign, entitled, ' An Act 
' concerning the amending of the River and Port of Exeter,' but 
as this work was but very imperfectly constructed, and subject 
to the ebb and flow of the tide, which, at its entrance, rises IS 
feet at the springs, the mayor, bailiffs and commonalty stopped 
up the entrance of this old canal, at the lower sluice, and extended 
it lower down, into a deeper part of the tideway, to a place called 
The Turf; considerable sums had been borrowed for carrying these 
works into execution and improving the old cut, and as more 
money was required for the purpose of completing the same and 
the additional works contemplated, an act was obtained during the 
Jast session, to enable the corporation to borrow a competent sum, 
on mortgage of the undertaking, or by granting annuities on lives, 
or by tontine. 

This act is entitled, ' An Act for altering, extending, and im- 
' proving the Exeter Canal ;' and when all is done which the act 
authorizes, the canal will be, by the extension from the old lower 
sluice to the estuary of the Exe, (two miles lower down,) five 
miles in length, with a basin and entrance tide lock at The Turf, 
and another commodious basin near the King's Arms Sluice, in the 
city, where there is a public wharf 500 feet in length. Another 
entrance into this canal, with a lock, will also be placed above the 
old sluice, near the town of Topsham, to facilitate the communica- 
tion between that town and Exeter. The depth of the canal will be 
1 5 feet Within a mile and a half from Exeter, there is a double 
lock, with a fall of 6 feet ; and at The Turf, a tide lock, with a fall 
of 4 feet to high water, spring tides, which here rise 14 feet 
Mr. James Green projected these improvements in 1829, and 
estimated the cost at £10,000, the whole of which sum is to be 
advanced by the corporation of Exeter. 

TONNAGE DUTIES. 

*. d. 
For every Ship or other Vessel passing alone any Part of this \ 

Canal, according to the Registered Tonnage of such Ves- r .. .„ 

sel. (if such Ship or Vessel shall be above Ten Toils, and i 8 per I on. 

under One Hundred and Ten) ) 

If more than One Hundred and Ten Tons 9 ditto. 

If less than Ten Tons 5 O for such Vessel. 



EXE RIVEB AND EXBTEB CANAL. 



ass 



In ascertaining the admeasurement of ships entering this port, 
the party whose duty it is, shall be guided by the directions con- 
tained in an act of the Oth of George IV. cap. 110, entitled, < An 
1 Act for the Registering of British Vessels.' 

This act is not to prejudice the right which Edward and 
Robert Trood, as proprietors and occupiers of Matford Limekilns, 
have heretofore exercised, of passing along the canal to and from 
the lower sluice and the above works, at all times, free of toll; nor 
is it to affect the persons who have hitherto enjoyed, (in right of 
their estates,) the privilege of landing articles for their private 
use ; nor any rights, privileges, tolls, petty customs, duties, powers, 
or authorities of the mayor, bailiff, and commonalty of the city of 
Exeter, or any of their accustomed rights and privileges. 

In addition to the duties before-mentioned, the following 
tonnage rates are payable for wares and merchandize, &c 
SCHEDULE OR TABLE OF TOLLS. 



DaKripttaa ofGooda. 



Alum 

Almond* 

Anchovies 

Anrtto 

Archel 

Argoll 

Albet 

Bacon 

Bales and Boxes by Measurement of 40 solid ■ 

Feet ; 

Bale* of Woollens returned 

Barilla 

Ditto : 

Bark 

Barley , 

Baulk Timber 

Beans 

Bells and Bell Metal 

Beer and Porter 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Bones 

Bottle* (Quarts) 

Bones and Hoof* 

Bran '. 

Bras and Iron Pot* 

Bricks (Stourbridge) 

Ditto (Scouring) 

Ditto (Building) 



Amount 
ofDntj. 



». d. 



3 
3 

3 
3 
3 

3 8 

3 6 



Ouantitj. 



3 6 
1 6 
9 



1 3 
1 



per Ton. 

Ditto, 
per Barrel, 
per Ton. 

Ditto. 

Ditto, 
per Barrel. 
pejTou. 

Ditto. 

30 Piece*. 

per Ton. 

perSeron. 

per Ton. 

per Quarter. 

per Load of SO Feet 

per Quarter. 

per Ton. 

per Butt. 

per Hogshead. 

per Barrel. 

per Kilderkin. 

per 1,000. 

perDoxen. 

per Hogshead. 

per Quarter. 

per Ton. 

per 1,000. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 



256 EXE RIVER AND EXETER CANAL. 

SCHEDULE OR TABLE OF TOLLS CONTINUED. 



Description of Goods. 



Brimstone 

Bristles. 

Brooms 

Brush or Mop Sticks . , 

Brush Heads 

Brush Covers 

Bullocks 

Burrs 

Butter 

Butts (empty) 

Casks (empty) , 

Caudles 

Candy 

Ditto 

Carboys (full) 

Ditto (empty) 

Carraway Seeds 

Cement 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Chariot or Chaise — 

Chalk 

Chairs 

Cheese 

Chimney Pots 

Ditto Caps 

Ditto Hoods 

China 

Cider 

Ditto 

Clay (Pipe) 

Clover Seed 

Ditto 

Coach (Four Wheels) 

Coals 

Ditto (Canal) 

Cochineal 

CofTee 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Coke 



Copper in Cases 

Ditto in Bolts and Plates . 

Copperas 

Cork 

Ditto 

Cordage 

Crates of Earthenware 

Ditto Vial Bottles 

Ditto Glass 

Currants 

Ditto 

Ditto in Sacks 

Deals 1 2 Feet 9 Inches 

DyeStufT 

Dye Woods in general 



Amount 
of Toll. 


Quantity. 


«. A. 


t 


2 6 


per Ton. 


2 6 


Ditto. 


1 


per Dozen. 


1 


per Bundle. 


1 


per Six Dozen. 


0$ 


per Twelve Dozen. 


1 6 


each. 


6 3 


per 100. 


2 6 


per Ton. 


2 


each- 


I 


each. 


21 


per Box, Six Dozen. 


2 6 


per Ton. 


2 


per Box. 


3 


each. 


I 


each. 


4 


per Sack. 


4 


per Barrel. 


2 


Half ditto. 


I 


Quarter ditto. 


8 3 




I 


per Ton. 


2 


each. 


2 6 


per Ton. 


I 


each. 


I 


per Dozen. 


11 


Ditto. 


1 6 


per Hogshead. 


I 6 


per Pipe. 


9 


per Hogshead. 


1 


per Ton. 


11 


per Cwt. 


4 


per Sack. 


7 6 




1 


per Quarter. 


2 n 


per Ton. 


3 1} 


Ditto. 


2 6 


Ditto. 


6 


Half Chest. 


2 


per Bag of One Cwt. 


1 3 


per Ton. 


2 fi 


per Ton of 40 Feet. 


2 8 


per Ton. 


2 6 


Ditto. 


5 


Ditto. 


3 


per Bag of One Cwt. 


2 6 


per Ton. 


1 


each. 


2 fi 


per 40 Feet. 


2 fi 


Ditto 


2 fi 


per Butt of Twenty Cwt. 


1 3 


per Pipe of Ten Cwt. 


\\ 


per Cwt. 


7 3 


per 120. 


2 C 


per Ton. 


2 6 


Ditto. 



EXE RIVER AND EXETER CANAL. 
SCHEDULE OR TABLE OF TOLLS CONTINUED. 



267 



DMrtptJon ofGoodL 



Amount 
ofDatj. 



Quantity. 



Dam Pipes 

EirtatawtK 0oo«) . 

fads of Serge. 

~ " lOfDUto 



Fellies of Wheels 
Fender Plate .... 



Ditto 

Pa* (Newfoundland) 

Pa* (fresh) subject to » Toll of Six Dozen . 

PkeWood 

Fka. 



Flock* 

Floor 

Ditto , 

Frying Pans. 



2 


e 


2 


6 





2 





4 





9 





3 


3 


8 


1 


3 





9 


2 





Free. 


1 





S 


>* 


2 








3 





»1 



Omen. 



Ditto (White) broken 

Ditto (Owen) Ditto 

Glue, in Bags 

Ditto, Piece* 

Ditto, ditto, in Bundle* 

Oriodma; Stones 

Gunpowder 

Ganstocks 

HaiMn Bales 

Usainris (foil) 

Ditto, empty Bottles, Three or Four Dozen . 

Hands pikes 

Hcnp 

Hcn*ng9(Red) 

Hides (Raw) 

Ditto (Dry) 

Ditto (Hone) 

Ditto (Kips) 

Bona and Bones (loose) 

Hon. 



Ditto 

Boos* Wood (broad) 

Ditto Wood (small) 

Ditto Iron 

Hardies, Wood sod Iron 

Jar»(Quart) 

tndsjo 

boa (Bar and Bolt) 

las Pots, Kettles, and Weights 

ben m Pigs 

teoaasoBftry, in Packages 

Iron (Scrap) 

JBBk 

Udder Poles 



Lath Wood. 



per 1,000. 
1 per Load. 
' Ten Pieces. 
' Twenty Pieces. 
, per Sack, Three Cwt 

per Dozen. 
I per Ton. 

; per Twenty Frails. 
; per Twenty Drums. 
I per Ton. 
I 

per Fathom. 

per Ton. 
I Ditto. 
1 per Sack. 

per Barrel. 

per Bundle. 
, per Forty Feet. 

per Ton. 
I per Side. 

per Ton. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 

per Hogshead. 

per Ton. 

per Chald. Thirty .six Feet 

per Barrel. 

per Dozen. 

per Forty Feet 

each. 

per Hundred, 
per Ton. 
per Barrel, 
per Fifty. 

Ditto. 

Ditto, 
per Dozen, 
per 1,000. 
per Bag. 
per Pocket, 
per Dozen. 
Fifty Bundles, 
per Ton. 
per Thirty, 
per Dozen. 
perCwt 
per Ton. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

per Forty Feet, 
per Ton. 

Ditto. 
per 120 
per 1,000. 
per Fathom. 



.258 



EXE RIVER AND EXETER CANAL. 
SCHEDULE OR TABLE OF TOLLS CONTINUED 



Description of Goods. 


Amount 
of Duty. 


Quantity. 


Lancewood Poles 


*. 

6 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 

2 
2 
2 
2 

1 

2 
2 

2 
2 

1 




2 


2 
2 


1 


2 



2 
2 


2 
3 


2 
1 

2 
1 

2 


d. 


6 
C 
6 
6 
6 
6 
3 
8 

8 
8 
8 
3 
6 
10 
6 
8 
4 
6 
8 
9 
3 
1 
1 
2 

li 

C 

2 

3 

6 

6 

3 

8 

6 

2\ 

'a 
6 

2 

8 
« 

« 
l", 

6 
4 
(1 

4 



I 

6 


per 120. 


Lead, in Sheets 


per Ton. 


Ditto in Pigs 


Ditto. 


Ditto in Pipe 


Ditto. 


Ditto in White Ground 


Ditto. 


Leather 


Ditto. 


Lignum Vite 


Ditto. 


Lime 


Ditto. 




Ditto. 


Litharge 


Ditto. 




Ditto. 


Madder 


per Ton. 




per Forty Feet 


Malt 


per Quarter. 




per Ton. 


Manure 


Ditto. 




per Ton of Twelve Feet. 




Ditto of Twenty Feet. 




per Bundle or 50. 


Ditto (Door) 


per F'orty Feet. 


Metal (Brass or Bell) 


per Ton. 




each. 










Mopsticks 


per Bundle. 




per Barrel, Seventy.two lbs 
per Cwt 




Nail Rods 


per Ton. 


Naive Stocks 


per Pair. 


Nuts 


per Bag. 


Oakum 


per Ton. 


Oak Timber 


per Forty Feet. 














Oil 


per Hall Chest. 








Oranges and Lemons 


per Chest. 


Ditto 


per Bon. 














Ditto (Writing) 




Ditto ( Whited Brown) 


Ditto. 


Patten Rings 






Ditto. 


Ditto, per Mat of Three Cwt 


Ditto. 






Pipes (Tobacco) in Boxes 


per Forty Feet, 
per Ton. 
I>er Barrel. 




Pitch 






Ditto. 


Ditto 


per Bag. 
per Ton. 


Rags 


' 



EXE RIVER AND EXETER CANAL. 
SCHEDULE OR TABLE OP TOLLS CONTINUED. 



259 



Description of Good*. 




Quantity. 



Ditto 

Ditto 

Rice 

Ditto 

Rosin 

Ditto in Cakes 

Salt 

Salt and Ashes for Manure . . . 

Saltpetre 

Salting Pang (large) 

Ditto (middle) 

Ditto (small) 

Sand 

Scythe Stones 

Seeds in general 

Sbaremoulds 

Shreds 

Ditto 

Shot 

Shumac 

Skins, Calves (wet) 

Ditto, ditto (dry) 

Ditto.Deer „ 

Ditto, ditto (in Hair) 

Ditto, Goat 

Ditto. Pelts 

Ditto, Pelts (loose) 

Ditto, Seal 

Ditto, Roan 

Ditto, Sheep (dressed) 

Ditu., Lamb (ditto) 

Ditto. Lamb Pelts 

Ditto. Lamb Split Pelts 

Ditto, Indian Deer 

Ditto, Beaver 

Ditto. Kid 

Ditto, Baxil 

Slate, Duchesses 

Ditto, ditto (small) 

Ditto, ditto, Countesses 

Ditto, ditto (small) 

Ditto, Ladies 

Ditto, ditto (small) 

Ditto, Doubles 

Ditto, Scant lie 

Ditto, common or small . . . 

Ditto, Unsized Rag 

Ditto, ditto. Half ditto 

Ditto, Queen or Sized Rag . 

Ditto, Slab 

Ditto.Block 

Ditto, Westmoreland Rag . . . 
Ditto, Imperial or Hilled ... 
Ditto, Welsh and Rag Square 



a 


r, 


o 


I 


t 


<'\ 


t 


» 


ci 


2 





4 


z 


« 


2 


1 


ii 


Hi 


« 


1 


n 


1 


ii 


1 


ii 


1 


ii 


ii 


ii 


■4 


n 


4 


2 


Ii 


1 


'. 


1 


(1 


2 


8 


.' 


a 


ii 


i 


n 


i 


'-> 


ii 


■J 


a 


(' 


o< 


1 


n 


ii 


»■. 





i 


1 


i; 





■J 


il 


'■'■ 


n 


a 





i 





|J 


1 


i| 


11 


a 





i 


3 


r, 


.! 


a 


2 


•i 


■.' 


a 


1 


8 


1 


H 


1 


ii 


1 


li 





"i 





1 





1 


■2 


II 


2 


a 


2 


a 


1 


a 


1 


M 


1 


B 


D 


'1 



per Barrel. 

per Box of Half Cwt. 

per Half Box. 

per Barrel. 

per Bag of One Cwt 

per Barrel. 

|>er Ton. 

Ditto. 

Ditto 
per Barrel, 
per Dozen. 

Ditto. 

Ditto, 
per Ton. 
per Basket, 
per Sack, 
per Ton, 

Ditto, 
per Hogshead, 
per Ton. 

Ditto, 
per Dozen. 

Ditto. 
per Hundred. 

Ditto, 
per Dozen, 
per Hogshead, 
per Dozen. 

Ditto, 
per Ton. 
per Dozen. 

Ditto, 
per Ten Dozen. 

Ditto, 
per 100. 

Ditto, 
per 12a 
per Dozen, 
per 1,200. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 
per Dozen - 

Ditto, 
per Ton. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto 

Ditto, 
per Cwt 



r 2 



260 EXE RIVER AND EXETER CANAL. 

SCHEDULE OR TABLE OF TOLLS CONTINUED. 



Deaeripljiin nf i,..i,<l« 


Amount 
of Dim. 


Quanta ty. 




i 


rf. 1 




Soap in Chests ' 


» 


8 


per Forty Feel. 




9 


B 


per Ton. 




ri 


it 


per 141 


Slaves, Pipe ,.,..., 


1 


II | 


Ditto. 


D it to, Puncheon .... 





8 


Ditto. 




A 


11 


Ditto. 


Ditto. Barrel 


'i 


5 


Ditto. 


Ditto. Quebec U>gs, 


1 


1) 


Ditto. 


Starch in Chests......... .. 


'2 


<i 


per Forty Pert. 


Steel 


'.' 


8 


per Ton. 


Stone Ware (loose) 


1) 


11 ! 


per Three Gallons. 


Stone, Portland ,,..., 


1 


<; 


per Ton <ii sixteen Feet. 


Ditto. Bath 


1 
1 
1 


a 

IE 



per Twenty Feet. 


Ditto, Paving 


per Sixty Feet. 


Ditto, Beer 


per Eighteen Feet. 




1 
1 


li 


per Twenty-seven Feet 


Ditto, Free 


per Eighteen Feet 




1 


li 


per Thirty Feet 


Ditto, Step , 


1 


II 


Ditto, 


Ditto, Rulling 


1 


e 


|>er Sisteen Feet. 


Ditto, Trough 


1 


8 


I»er siiiy Peel 


Ditto.Moor 


1 
I 


II 


per Twenty -seven Feel 


Ditto, Pebble 


per Ton of Twenty i 'n t. 


Sugar, Solid 


1 


3 


per MM. of Fifteen Cut 


Ditto, packeil.. . 


1 


3 


per Hogshead. 


Ditto, in LunypH and Loaves 


2 


6 


per Ton. 


Ditto, in Itatfs 





!| 


per CwL 


Ditto, in Mats 


It 


Dnio. 


Tallow . . 


3 


8 


per Ton. 


Taj .... .. 


li 


-> 


per Barrel. 


Tea 


1 


li 


Jier Chest. 


Ditto 


n 


i; 


per Hull ditto 


Diltt 


n 


:t 


per Quarter ditto 


Tiles 


2 


r, 


uer Limn. 


Timber in general 


1 


B 


pa 1 ■ . 1 1 of Foilv Feet 


(If ■hipped (rum the Quay, 4J. per Ton 




Qua yam- 1 








Tin 





t 


per Box. 


Tobacco , 


3 


1} 


per Ton. 






8 


per Forty Feet. 


Valonia . . . 


J 


li 


per Ton. 


Veneers , . 


- 

1 
li 


i; 


per Forty Feet 






Vitriol 


per Carboy. 




II 


4 


per Quarter. 




■J 


ii 


1*t Forty Fcv I 


Wai 


2 


B 


per Ton 


Withies 


2 


n 


per Forty Bundles 




■i 


li 


per Ton. 




It 


4 


per Quarter 




1 


:i 


per Sei. 




I 


ii 


per Ton 




O 


2 


per Bundle of One Cut 




1 


<> 


per i*ipe 


Ditto, ditto, rased 


1 


s 


Ditto 




■ 


B 


per Hothead. 





BXE RIVKK AND EXETER CANAL. 
SCHEDULE OR TABLE OP TOLLS OONTINUBD. 



281 



Diiwiillillim of Qoois. 


Amount 
of Duty. 


Quantity. 




». d. 

10 
9 8 

1 6 

o e 
a e 

8 


per Hogshead. 




par Forty Feet. . , 


Woad 


per Hogshead. 




per Pack of Three Cwt 








per Bag of Twelve Dozen. 







All Goods not herein specified to pay Two Shillings and Sixpence per Ton of Twenty 
Hundred Weight, or Measurement of Forty solid Feet All empty Packages to 
pay One Penny each. No single Package, full or empty, to pay less than Two- 
pence. 

It is to be understood, that the payment of the above tolls does 
not free the owners of vessels from the petty customs and town 
dues payable to the corporation, in respect of all goods entering 
the port of Exeter. 

Some idea may be formed of the traffic on this navigation, by 
stating, that in the year 1824, sixty-nine British and five Foreign 
vessels entered the port of Exeter. 

It may here be remarked, that several attempts have been 
made to extend the navigation from Exeter ; one in 1769, when 
Mr. John Brindley designed a canal to commence at that city, 
thence by the towns of Tiverton, Wellington, Taunton, and Glas- 
tonbury, to the Bristol Channel at Uphill Bay. It was to be called 
the Exeter and Uphill Canal ; but the act was never obtained. 

Another attempt was made by a company of twenty-two per- 
sons (amongst whom was Sir Lawrence Palk, Bart.) to form 
a navigation from the Exeter Canal to the town of Crediton, by 
widening and deepening the Rivers Exe and Creedy, and making 
cuts for the purpose of passing the mill weirs, &c. ; an act was 
obtained for this purpose on the 30th June, 1801, entitled, * An 
' Act for improving and extending the Navigation of the River 
' Exe, from the public Quay at Exeter, to the public Road ad- 
' joining Four Mills, near Crediton, in the county of Devon, by 
' making a navigable Canal or Cuts, and deepening and widening 
' tuck Parts of the Rivers Exe and Credy, as shall be necessary 
^for that Purpose.' The subscribers were incorporated by the 



262 FAL OR VALE RIVER. 

name of " The Company of Proprietors of the Exeter and Cre- 
" diton Navigation," with power to raise £21,400, in two hundred 
and fourteen shares of £100 each, and an additional sum of 
£10,700, if necessary. 

At the two extremities of this proposed navigation, basins were 
to be made, with the necessary accommodation of warehouses, 
wharfs, weighing beams, cranes, &c. Very heavy rates were al- 
lowed by this act, viz. for timber, 1*. per ton per mile, and all 
other articles, except manure and lime for manure, 6d. per ton 
per mile. An additional rate of id. per ton was also to be paid for 
entering any basin belonging to this navigation. 

Notwithstanding these demonstrations, and the encouragement 
given by the legislature to the projectors by this favourable act, 
no further steps appear to have been taken for carrying its powers 
into execution ; nor is there now much prospect of it. 



FAL OR VALE RIVER. 

30 Charles II. Cap. 11, Royal Assent 1.5th July, 1678- 

This river has its source on the high grounds three miles east 
of the town of St Columb Major, in Cornwall, whence it flows 
southwardly by the stream works on Tregoss Moor, and by other 
tin mines, to Grampound ; thence through Golden Vale, and by 
Tregony to Trewarthenick, where it becomes of considerable 
width ; and, after winding through the extensive woods, and plan- 
tations belonging to Tregothnan, the elegant seat of the Earl of 
Falmouth, it opens into a considerable estuary, sometimes called 
the Mopus, which conducts through Garreg Roads to Falmouth 
Harbour, and thence into the sea at Falmouth Bay. 

This is a tideway river ; and an act was obtained in the reign 
of Charles the Second to improve it ; but, in consequence of Tre- 
gony declining in the exact ratio with the growing importance of 
Truro, (which may be said to be the capital of Cornwall,) this 
navigation seems now to be of little consequence. The act is en- 
titled, ' An Act for making navigable the River Fale or Vale, in 
' ike county of CornwalV 



FORTH RIVER. 263 

Truro is one of the principal markets for the sale of the pro- 
duce of the Cornish Mines; and, from its being situate on a naw 
gable branch of the Fal, called the River Mopus, and about eleven 
miles north from Falmouth, it possesses all the advantages required 
for the shipment of the vast quantity of copper and other valuable 
ores, which this rich mineral district continues to produce. 

Falmouth, situate at the mouth of this river, is a sea-port, into 
which, in 1884, twenty-nine British and eight Foreign vessels 
entered. It possesses an excellent harbour, and a fine and spa' 
ckms roadstead ; but k derives its chief importance from being the 
regular station of the packet boats, which carry Foreign mails into 
all parts of the world. 



FORTH RIVER. 

This noble river has its source about two miles north of Ben 
Lomond, (that celebrated mountain in Scotland, which rears its 
giant form 3,262 feet above the level of the sea,) and proceeds 
south-easterly, passing the Clachan of Aberfoil by a very ser- 
pentine course, through a comparatively level district, (which in 
Scotland is denominated Carse Lands,) to a short distance above 
Stirling, where it is joined by the River Teth, which flows from 
the Lochs Catrine, Achray, Venacher, and others situate in the 
wild district of the Grampians. 

About midway between the above junction and Stirling, it is 
joined by the River Allan. From Stirling the windings of the 
river are singularly intricate ; and, in its meanderings to Alloa, 
(which is but six miles in a straight line,) it takes such strange 
peninsulating sweeps, that its course measures nearly twenty 
miles. However beautiful this part may appear, it is exceedingly 
troublesome to the navigator; for, though vessels of from sixty to 
seventy tons burthen have sufficient water to Stirling, yet if they 
trusted to sails alone, they would require wind from every point 
of the compass to bring them to their destination, and that more 
than once;, on which account, this part of the river is little used 
as a navigation. . 



264 FORTH RIVER. 

About three miles west of Alloa, the navigable River Devon falls 
into the Forth ; but between it and the town above-mentioned, a 
stratum of rock occupies the bed of the river, which constitutes a kind 
of bar, over which vessels of more than seventy tons seldom venture. 
This place is a little above the largest island in the river, and is 
designated the Thrask Shallows. From the Devon, the Forth 
gradually opens into an estuary, which, opposite the mouth of the 
Carron, is two miles in width ; and a few miles further down, 
between Borrowstounness and Culross, it is full three miles ; but 
again contracts to little more than one mile a short distance below 
Queen's Ferry. At Leith, which is seven miles and a half below 
the last-mentioned place, it is nearly six miles in width ; and 
between Preston Pans and Kirkaldy, it is above twelve miles. 

The length of this magnificent river and estuary, from Stirling 
to the Isle of May, where it may be said to enter the German 
Ocean, is about seventy English miles, viz. from Stirling to oppo- 
site the River Carron and Forth and Clyde Canal, twenty-four 
miles; thence to Leith twenty miles; and to the Isle of May it is 
twenty-six miles. Within the limits above described are five 
ports, viz. Leith, Alloa, Anstruther, Grangemouth and Preston 
Pans. 

The tide flows up this river to Craigforth Mill, a short distance 
beyond Stirling ; and at Cambus Quay, at the mouth of the 
Devon, (though above fifty miles from the sea,) it is frequently 
known to rise 20 feet at spring tides. Several attempts have 
been made to improve the navigation beyond Alloa ; and in parti- 
cular by Messrs. Watt and Morrison, in 1 767. These gentlemen 
proposed to extend the navigation from Stirling to the lime and 
slate quarries at Aberfoil, and, by four cuts, to shorten the course 
from Stirling to Alloa seven miles. Mr. Smeaton's opinion was 
taken on these proposed improvements, and also as to the removal 
or avoiding the Thrask Shallows ; and though all was proved 
quite practicable, they have been suffered, either from the want 
of spirit in the parties most interested, or from one cause or other, 
to remain in statu quo, with all their imperfections. 

The River Forth is a free navigation ; the only tolls paid on 
it being for the use, and towards the support of several ferries, for 
which an act was obtained in the 32nd of George III. cap. 93, 



FORTH RIVER. 965 

entitled, * An Act' for imp ro vin g the Communication between the 
1 co unty of Edinburgh and the county of Fife, by the Passages or 
* ftrrw aero** the Firth of Forth, between Leith and Newhaven, in 
1 the county of Edinburgh, and Kinghorn and Bruntisland, m the 
'county of Fife; and for rendering the Harbours and Landing 
' Places more commodious.' 

It appears, by an act made in the parliament of Scotland in 
1499, entitled, ' Act for repairing Highways and Bridges,' and 
another in 1086, entitled, * Additional Act anent Highways and 
' Bridges,' that justices of the peace, assisted by the commissioners 
of supply in the several shires, are empowered to manage and 
regulate the ferries of the Forth. 

% the act of 32nd George III. above-recited, additional 
powers are granted for maintaining the ferries between Kinghorn 
and Newhaven, and Bruntisland and Leith and Newhaven, and 
the following tolls and duties are payable. 

FERRY TOLLS. 

.. i. 

For every Person 1 

For every Hone and Cart Load of Goods 3 each. 

Carriages vrith Two Wheels (nc« subject to a higher Duty) 8 ditto. 

Ditto, ditto, (liable to pay Duty) 6 ditto. 

Ditto, Four Wheels 1 6 ditto. 

Oxcb and other Cattle 1 8 per Sooee. 

Calves, Hogs, Sheep or Lambs 10 ditto. 

Grain or Heal JperBoU. 

These Duties are over and above what is paid to the Skipper or Boat's Crew. 

Vessels entering the Harbours of Kinghorn or Bruntisland, according) „ i_«, T ,_ 
to tbdr Admeasurement I " * P" »<»• 

The trustees for the management of these ferries may borrow 
£3,000 on the credit of the duties; of which £600 was to be 
spent in improving the basin at Kinghorn, otherwise Pettycur; 
and an equal sum in improving the communication to this harbour 
from the east; £900 in building an inn at Pettycur, (of which 
£600 is to be repaid by the burgh of Kinghorn ;) £60 towards 
tapping a light at Pettycur Harbour, and the like sum for another 
at Bruntisland ; £500 in improving the communication between 
the turnpike road and the harbour of Bruntisland; and £1,000 in 
erecting a pier and landing at Newhaven. 

On the River Forth a very extensive general trade is constantly 
maintained ; for, independently of the vast quantity of merchandise 



266 FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL. 

which must necessarily pass along it, to supply the richest and most 
populous parts of Scotland, it has, by means of the Forth and 
Clyde Canal, a communication with the extensive manufacturing 
districts around Glasgow and Paisley, and with the western parts 
of England and Scotland, and with Ireland. On its banks are 
eighteen market towns ; and it washes the shores of eight of its 
counties. 

Leith being the port of Edinburgh, and the principal ren- 
dezvous for shipping, considerable cost has been incurred in 
rendering the harbour proportionably commodious. In 1777 a 
new quay was constructed on the north side of the harbour. In 
1806 a beautiful basin, 750 feet in length, and 300 in breadth, 
was opened, capable of containing forty ships of two hundred tons 
burthen. A second was finished in 1817 ; and these, together with 
three graving docks, occupy a site of eight acres, and have cost 
£250,000. Ships of very large burthen cannot enter this port; 
there being but 16 feet at spring tides, and 9 only at neaps. 

A tolerable estimate of the extent of the trade which is carried 
on at this port, may be formed from parliamentary documents, by 
which it appears that custom duties were paid, in the year 1824, 
upon two hundred and twenty-two British, and one hundred and 
forty-six Foreign ships. 



FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL. 

8 Geo. III. C. 63, R. A. 8th Mar. 176a II Geo. IU. C. 62, R. A. 8th Mar. 1771 

13 Geo. III. C. 101, R. A. 10th May, 1773. 24 Geo. 111. C. 59. R. A. 19th Aug. 1784. 

27 Geo. IU. C. 20, R. A. 21st May, 1787. 27 Geo. III. C. 45, R. A. 28th May, 1787. 
30 Geo. III. C. 73, R. A. 9th June, 1790. 39 Geo. Ill C. 71, R." A. 12th Julv, 1799. 
46 Geo. Ul. C. 120, R. A. 12th July, 1806. 54 Geo. III. C. 195, R. A. 14th July, 1814. 
1 Geo. IV. C. 48, R. A. 8th July, 1820. 

This magnificent canal commences in the River Forth, in 
Grangemouth Harbour, and near to where the Carron empties 
itself into that river. Its course is parallel with the Carron, and 
in nearly a westwardly direction, passing to the north of the town 
of Falkirk, and thence to Red Bridge, where it quite the county 
of Stirling, and enters a detached portion of the shire of Dumbar- 
ton. Hence it passes to the south of Kilsyth, and runs along the 
south bank of the River Kelvin, and over the Logic Water, by a 



FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL. 367 

fine stone aqueduct, at Kirkintilloch; it then approaches within 
Ernie more than two mile* of the north-west quarter -of the eky of 
Glasgow, to which there is a branch ooram— Vnting /with the 
lionkland Canal at Port Dundas, near that ehy. The repairing 
part of the line is in a westwardly direction, crossing rthe Kelvin 
Hirer by a noble aqueduct, and thence te the Clyde, into which, 
after running parallel with it for some distance, it locks down at 
Bowling's Bay, near Dalniar Burnfcot. • 

The canal is fhirty*five miles in length, vja, from Grangemouth 
to the east end of the summit pool, b ten mflesi and three quarters, 
with a rise, from low water in the Forth, of 15fi feet, by twenty 
lacks. The summit level is sixteen miles in length, and in- the 
remainder of its course, there is a fall to low water, in the Clyde, 
at Bowling's Bay, of 166 feet, by nineteen locks. 

The branch to the Monkknd Canal at Glasgow is two miles 
and three quarters] and there is another cut into the Carrou Hirer, 
at Carron Shore, in order, to commnnicaie with the Carres Iron 
Works. 

Though this canal was originally constructed for vassals drawing 
7 feet, yet by recent improvements, sea-borne craft of 10 feet 
draught may now pais through it, from the Irish Sea to the Ger- 
man Ocean. The locks are 74 feet long and 30 wide; and upon 
its course are thirty-three draw-bridges, ten large aqueducts and 
thirty-three smaller ones ; that over the Kelvin being 440 feet long 
and 65 feet above the surface of the stream. It is supplied with 
water from reservoirs; one of which, at Kilmananmuir, is seventy 
acres, and 33 feet deep at the sluice ; and that at Kilsyth is fifty 
acres in extent, with 34 feet water at hs head. 

The first act of parliament relating to this canal, received the 
royal assent on the 8th of March, 1768, and it is entitled, * An Act 
l for making and maintaining a navigable Canal front the Firth or 
1 River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River Carron, m 
' the county of Stirling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or mar a 

* place called Datmuir Bumfoot, m the county of Dumbarton ; and 

* also a collateral Cut from the tame to the city of Glasgow; and 
i for making a navigable Cut or Canal of Communication from the 
' Port or Harbour of Borrowttounneee, to join the laid Canal at or 
1 near the place where it toillfall into the Firth of Forth? 



268 FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL. 

The subscribers were incorporated by the name of " The 
" Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde Navigation," 
with power to raise among themselves the sum of £ 1 50,000, in 
fifteen hundred shares of £ 100 each, and an additional sum of 
£50,000, if necessary. 

Although it was not until after the passing of the above act 
that this great work was commenced, yet the project of forming 
a communication between the eastern and western seas had been 
agitated a long time previous ; and, even as early as the reign of 
Charles the Second, the design was thought to be one of so much 
utility, that that monarch took measures for cutting a canal, 
through which, not only ordinary vessels, but also small ships of 
war might pass between sea and sea, without the danger of coasting. 

The estimated cost of this early project was £500,000 ; but a 
variety of circumstances, and particularly the difficulty of raising 
such a sum, caused the prosecution of the design to be neglected, 
and no further steps were taken till 1723. In that year a survey 
and estimate were made by Mr. Gordon, an engineer of repute; 
but his calculation of the expenses deterred the projectors, and 
nothing was done. Thirty-six years after, Lord Napier employed 
Mr. Machell to lay down the plan of a canal, which should begin 
at the Clyde, about four miles below Glasgow, and end in the 
Forth, near the mouth of the River Carron. Mr. Machell's report 
in 1764 placed the utility of the undertaking in so striking a point 
of view, that " The Honourable the Board of Trustees for 
" encouraging Fisheries, Manufactures, and Improvements in 
" Scotland," immediately employed Mr. Smeaton to make the 
necessary surveys, and to estimate thereon. This eminent engineer 
produced a design, which at first deterred the parties by whom he 
was employed, as well by the apparent difficulties to be encoun- 
tered, as by the immense sum he deemed necessary for its 
completion ; but, on the projection of a smaller canal, opening a 
communication between Glasgow and the Forth, Mr. Smea ton's 
plan was reconsidered ; and, after he had convinced all parties of 
the practicability of it, and completely refuted the objections of 
Mr. Brindley and other engineers, the act above-recited was 
obtained, and the execution of the canal immediately commenced 
utider his direction. 



FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL. 860 

Estimates were made by Mr. Smeaton, of the several Enes 
and various dimenrions proposed for this canal; but the one under 
winch the work was commenced amounted to ^147^37, but 
augmented to £149,344, 8*. by the additional expense incident to 
a change in the line, which was effected under powers of an act 
of 1 lth George III. entitled, ' An Act to explain, amend, and render 
' mart effectual, an Act made in the Eighth Year of his present 
i Majesty's Reign, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a 
' navigable Cut or Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or 
* near the mouth of the River of Carron, in the. county of Stirling, 
1 to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dahnuir 
' Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton ; and also a collateral Cut 
'from the same to the city of Glasgow ; and for making a navigable 
1 Cut or Canal of Communication from the Port and Harbour of 
1 Berroeostouttness, to join the said Canal at or near the place 
' where it will fall into the River of Forth.' Several other acts 
became necessary as the works proceeded; but as they have 
relation chiefly to the supply of the requisite funds for prosecuting 
the undertaking, we shall but briefly notice them. 

The third act received the royal assent on the 10th May, 
1773, and is entitled, ' An Act to enlarge the Powers of two Acts, 
' made in the Eighth and Eleventh Years of the Reign of his pre- 
( sent Majesty, for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or 
1 Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of 
' the River of Carron, tn the county of Stirling, to the Firth or 
1 River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in 
' the county of Dumbarton ; and also a collateral Cut from the 
1 same to the city of Glasgow ; and for making a navigable Cut or 
' Canal of Communication from the Port and Harbour of Borrow~ 
' stounmess, to join the said Canal, at or near the place where it 
* will fall into the Firth of Forth ;' by which the company are 
authorized to borrow, on assignment of the tolls as a security, the 
sum of £70,000. 

The execution of this canal proceeded with such rapidity, 
under the direction of Mr. Smeaton, that in two years and three 
quarters from the date of the first act, one half of the work was 
finished ; when, in consequence of some misunderstanding between 
him and the proprietors, he declined any further connection with 



270 FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL. 

the work, which was shortly afterwards let to contractors, who 
however failed, and the canal was again placed under the direc- 
tion of its origmal projector, who brought it to within six miles of 
its proposed junction with the Clyde, when the work was stopped 
in 1775 for want of famds, and it continued at a stand for several 
years. 

For the purpose, however, of opening a communication be- 
tween the part already executed and the city of Glasgow, a sub- 
scription was entered into by the inhabitants of that place, to make 
a branch, so that by effecting a junction with the Forth, the part 
excavated might immediately be brought into useful operation. 

After the lapse of nine years from the stoppage above alluded 
to, an act was obtained, entitled, ' An Ad for extending, amending 

* and altering the Power* of an Act made in the Eighth Year of 
' hit present Majesty entitled. An Act for making and maintaining 

* a navigable Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near 

* the mouth of the River Carron, in the county of Stirling, to the 
' Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, 
1 in the county of Dumbarton; and alio a collateral Cut from the 
' tame to the city of Glasgow ; and for making a navigable Cut or 

* Canal of Communication from the Port or Harbour of Borrow* 
' stounness, to join the said Canal at or near the place where it w*3 
*fall into the Firth of Forth,' by which the Barons of the Court of 
Exchequer in Scotland, art, out of the money arising from the 
sale of forfeited estates, directed to lend the Forth and Clyde 
Navigation Company the sura of £ 50,000, by which they were 
enabled to resume their labours, under the direction of Mr. Robert 
Whitworth, an engineer possessing e. well earned reputation, and 
by whom it was finished and opened on the 98th July, 1700. 
Previous, however, to this period, three other acts of parliament 
relating to this canal received the royal sanction; of which, one 
was on the 91st of May, in the 37th of George HI. and another 
the week following, and the last on the 9th of June, in the 30th of 
that reign. 

The first which passed into a law is entitled, ' An Act for 
1 varying and extending the Powers of the Company of Proprietors 
' of the Forth and Clyde Navigation ;' and the other, < An Act for 
' altering and extending the Line of the Cut or Canal, authorixed 



FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL. 271 

' to be made and maintained by $o much of several Acts made in the 
' Eighth, Eleventh, Thirteenth and Twenty-fourth Year* of the 
' Reign of his present Majesty, as authority the making and mair* 
'tattling a navigable Cut or Canal from the Firth Or River of 
1 Fortk, at or near the mouth of the River of Catron, in the county 
' of Stirling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place 
' called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton; and also 
' a collateral Cut from the same to the city of Glasgow ; for 
' deepening the said Cut or Canal; and for explaining and amending 
' so much of the said Acts, as relates to the making and maintaining 
1 the said Cut or CanaV The 30th George III. is entitled, « An 

* Act for forming a Junction between the Forth and Clyde Naviga- 
' lion, and the Monkland Navigation ; and for altering, enlarging 

* and explaining several former Acts passed for making and main- 
1 taining the said Navigation.' 

On the 12th of July, 1790, an act was passed to enable the 
company to repay the sum of £50,000, borrowed of the Court of 
Exchequer in Scotland, and to declare the capital stock of the 
company to amount to £421,525, notwithstanding that the com- 
pany were restrained, by the act of 8th George III. from dividing 
more than ten per cent on the original stock of £150,000. This, 
however, was permitted, in consequence of the proprietors having 
never received any dividend. This act is entitled, * An Act for 
1 empowering the, Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde 
'. Navigation to repay into the Court of Exchequer in Scotland, the 
' Sum advanced to them for the Purpose of completing the said 
1 Navigation; for repealing so muck of an Act of the Twenty-fourth 
1 of his present Majesty as relates to the said Company ; and for 
' enabling the Barons of the said Court of Exchequer to advance 
c Part of the Sum so to be received, to the Company of Proprietors 
' of the Crinan Canal, on certain Conditions' 

By the act of 46th George III. a very material change is 
effected in the constitution of the company, and of the rates which 
they have hitherto received. It is entitled, ' An Act to alter and 
' amend the several Acts passed for making and maintaining the 
* Forth and Clyde Navigation ;' by whkh it u enacted that die 
management of this concern shall be in future vested in a governor 
and seven other persons, who shall be called "The Governor and 



27* FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL. 



" Council of the Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde 
" Navigation," who have power to appoint a committee of three. 
The schedule of tolls granted in the former acts are hereby 
repealed ; and the following tonnage rates are allowed in lieu 
thereof. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

i. 

All Goo* and Commodities whatsoever 4 per Ton, per Mile. 

Light Boat* or other Vessels, without lading or in Ballast \ 

only, (according to their respective Register or Admea- > 3 ditto, ditto. ' 

soreraent) J 

British or Irish Vessels lying in any of the Harbours or Basiiis SperTon. 
Foreign ditto, ditto,.... 4 ditto. 

Timber lying in any of the Basins 4 per Ton, per Month. 

And so in Proportion for any greater or less Time than a Month. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

i. 
Goods and Commodities, remainingabovt Twenty-four Hours j 

upon any of the Quays, Wharfe, or Landing Places, or at V 3 per Ton, per Day. 
any Place on the Line of Navigation J 

And so in Proportion. 

Goods landed or put into Lighters from, and on all Goods) 3 per Ton. 

loaded into. Vessels lying in the said Canal or Basins....) "^ 

Every Vessel lying in any of the Basins for a longer Time ■> i d— Ton per Day 

than Twenty-four Days i "^ ' 

■Every Vessel coming into any of the said Harbours or Basins, a Duty of Sixpence 
sterltng.on every Fifty Tons of the Burthen thereof, for Lighting the said Harbours 
and Basins. 

The act of 54th George III. b entitled, ( An Act to enlarge, 
' alter, and amend the Powers of the several Acts for making and 
* maintaining the Forth and Clyde Navigation ;' and by which the 
company of proprietors are empowered to purchase ground for 
extending the basin, and to make new wharfs at Port Dundas, near 
Glasgow, and to make the canal 10 feet deep. This act farther 
directs that Lord Dundas shall be entitled to receive, for all vessels 
lying on the south side of the outer basin at Grangemouth, the 
same rates of wharfage which the company are empowered to 
collect under power of the 46th George III. In the act which 
authorizes the company to carry the above works into execution, 
a power is given to borrow the sum of £40,000, on security of the 
rates and duties. 

In consideration of the expense the company wiD incur by 
maintaining a bank and towing paths from the harbour of Grange- 
mouth to the mouth of the Carron River, they are empowered to 
demand, from all ships and other vessels coming from Grange- 



FOSS NAVIGATION. 273 

month Harbour, or using the towing path in navigating the river 
of Carron, the sum of 4d. per ton, according to the registered 
admeasurement of such vessel. 

The last act relating to this navigation received the royal assent 
on the 8th of July, 1820. It is entitled, ' An Act for altering and 
' amending several Ads for making and maintaining the Forth and 
' Clyde Navigation;' wherein it appears, that since the passing of the 
act of 39th George III. the company have, by enlarging the canal, 
and increasing its depth to 9 feet, and by other works, expended 
the further sum of £98,315, including the £40,000, borrowed 
under authority of the last-recited act; by which their stock has 
accumulated to, and is hereafter to be considered as £519,840. 

Power is given to borrow £80,000, on assignment of the rates, 
for the purpose of making the canal 1 foot deeper, so that the na- 
vigation may be 10 feet deep throughout. 

The original object proposed by this canal was to open a com- 
munication between those important rivers, the Forth and Clyde, 
and between the northern metropolis and the manufacturing towns 
of Glasgow and Paisley ; and whether as respects the utility of 
the work, the magnitude of the undertaking, or the skill and inge- 
nuity with which it was designed and executed, the Forth and 
Clyde Canal will ever hold a distinguished place amongst the most 
important branches of our inland navigation. 

Besides the fine rivers above-mentioned, it is joined by the 
Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal, near Falkirk; with the 
Monkhnd and Kirkintilloch Railway at its summit, near the last- 
mentioned village ; and with the Monkland Canal and the Gam- 
kirk and Glasgow Railway, at Port Dundas, near the city of 
Glasgow. 

FOSS NAVIGATION. 

33 George m. Cap. SB, Royal Aswnt 30th April, KB. 
41 George III. Cap. 114, Royal Aaent 23rd June, 1801. 

Th« river which gives a name to this navigation, has its source 
near Newburgh Hall, about four miles north of Easingwold, 
whence it crosses Oulstone Moor, where a reservoir is constructed, 
for the purpose of supplying the navigation in dry seasons. Its 



274 FOSS NAVIGATION. 

course hence is through a detached part of the Bishopric of Dur- 
ham by Stillington Mill, and to Sheriff Hutton Bridge, where the 
navigation commences. From the New Inn, near the bridge last- 
mentioned, a canal, two miles in length, is made, which cuts off a 
considerable bend, and enters the river near Duncombe House ; 
thence the old course of the river is the line of navigation by 
Strensall, Towthorpe, Earswick, and Huntington, to the city of 
York, through the east quarter of which it flows, and falls into the 
Ouze on the south side of the castle. The length of the naviga- 
tion is twelve miles and a half, with a total rise of 47 feet 8 inches 
from the surface of the Ouze in its ordinary summer state. 

Mr. William Jeasop designed this navigation in 1791, and es- 
timated the cost at £16,274; but the first act was not obtained 
-until the 30th April, 1793. It is entitled, ' An Act for making 
' and maintaining a navigable Communication from the Junction 
1 of the River Foss with the River Ouze, at or near the city of 
' York, to Stillington Mill, in the parish of Stillington, in the 
' North Riding of the county of York ; and for draining and wn- 
' proving certain Low Lands lying on each side of the said River 
1 Foss' The subscribers, at the time the act was obtained, were 
one hundred and six in number ; amongst whom were Viscountess 
Irwin, Sir William M. Milner, and the Lord Mayor and Com- 
monalty of the city of York, who were incorporated by the name 
of " The Foss Navigation Company," with power to raise among 
themselves the sum of £25,400, in two hundred and fifty-four 
shares of £100 each ; and, if necessary, they may borrow the fur- 
ther sum of £10,000 on the credit of the undertaking. 

TONNAGE RATES ALLOWED BY THIS ACT. 

d. 
Lime, Coal, Slack, Cinders or Culm, per Chaldron of Thirty- > „.. 

two Winchester Bushels J .J per Mile. 

Dung, Soot, Rape-Dust, or other Manure, Wheat. Rye, Oats. 

Barley, Beans, Malt, Hay Seeds. Rapeseed, Mustard-seed, 

Linseed, and other Grain and Seeds of all Sorts, Oatmeal, 

Flour, Oat Shelling, Stock and Common Bricks, Square 

Paving Bricks or Tiles, Oak. Ash, Kim, Beech, Fir, or other >. 2 per Ton, per Mile. 

Timber, or Logs of Mahogany, Oak Bark, Deals of all j 

Kinds, Wainscot Boards, Pipe Staves, or other Articles of I 

Wood, Stone, Flags, Slate, Bar Iron, or Manufactured Iron, [ 

Butter, Bacon. Cheese, Salt, Hay, Straw, and Wool 

For every other Sort of Goods, Wares or Merchandize 3 ditto. ditto. 

For the Purposes of this Act, Forty Feet of Oak, Ash, Elm, or Beech Timbrr; and 
Fifty Feet of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, or other Wood, shall be deemed a Ton 



FOSS NAVIGATION. 475 

For all Articles conveyed between the River Ouze and Monkbridge only, doable 

Rates may be demanded. 
If Goods remain on tbe Wharfs belonging to the Company a longer Time than 

Twenty-four Hours, an Allowance to be made for the same. 
Vessels under Twenty-live Tons not to pan Locks without leave, or without paying 

for that Amount 
LnxLownen may make Wharfs and charge Two-pence per Ton for all Goods re- 
maining on them for any Period under Six Days. 

The ad of the 4lst George III. is entitled, <■ An Act to explain 

* and amend an Act pasted in the Thirty-third Year of the Reign 

* of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for making and maintain- 
( inga navigable Communication from the Junction- of the Fiver 
' Post with the River Ouze, at or near the city of York, to Stilling* 
' ton Mill, in the parish of StUlmgtcm, in the North Riding of the 
' ctmnty of York; and for draining and improving certain Lorn 
' Lands lying on each side of the said River Boss, so far as the said 
1 Act relates to the said Navigation ; and for enabling the Company 
1 of Proprietors of the said Navigation to complete the same.' It 
was obtained chiefly for the purpose of raising money to complete 
tbe navigation, the company having faired in their endeavour to 
borrow the sum of £10,000, which tbe former act authorized 
diem to do. This act therefore directs that die above-mentioned 
sum shall be raised by the admission of new subscribers, or by 
calls on the proprietors in proportion to their respective shares ; 
and if £10,000 is not sufficient, they may borrow, on mortgage 
of the rates, the further sum of £10,000; and if the funds are 
insufficient to complete die navigation to Stillington Mill, the 
company are authorised to terminate this navigation at Sheriff 
Button Bridge. 

This act further empowers the company to demand an addi- 
tional tonnage rate, equal to half the former rate, whenever the 
nett profits of the navigation are below four per cent upon the 
outlay. 

The object of this navigation is the conveyance of coal and 
general merchandize into the interior of the county north of 
York ; and to export the surplus agricultural produce. It serves, 
also, to drain the low grounds in the immediate vicinity of York, 
for which a drainage tax is annually levied upon the adjoining 
kndL 



s 2 



276 F0SSD1KK NAVIGATION. 



FOSSDIKE NAVIGATION. 

This very ancient canal commences in -the River Trent, at 
Torksey, about ten miles south of Gainsborough ; from whence its 
course lies south-eastwardly, through a very flat and monotonous 
district to Brayford Mere, about a quarter of a mile west of Lin- 
coln High Bridge. It is there joined by the Witham River, and 
at about five miles west of Lincoln the River Till falls into it, and 
these, together, supply the necessary lockage water. 

This navigation is eleven miles in length, and level throughout 
At Torksey there is a double lock, with gates pointed both ways, 
so that it equally prevents the entrance of the flood waters of the 
Trent, and pens up the water in the canal for navigation purposes; 
and, at its other extremity, is another lock into the Witham, for 
keeping up the water in the canal at a greater height than hereto- 
fore, and for preventing the flood waters of the Witham from 
entering it, which formerly did great damage to the banks. 

As we are much in the dark respecting the time at which, or 
by whom this canal was excavated, it has afforded considerable 
scope for ingenuity and research. The celebrated antiquary and 
ingenious author of ' Itinerarium Curiosum,' Dr. Stukeley, in a 
letter addressed to Mr. Gale, August 2nd, 1735, states his belief 
that it was executed by the Romans as a continuation of Caerdike, 
a deep excavation, apparently made for the purposes of naviga- 
tion, extending from the navigable River Nene, near Peterbo- 
rough, in Northamptonshire, to the Witham, into which it enters 
at Washenburgh, a short distance below the city of Lincoln. He 
further states that the village of ' Torksey was a Roman town, 
' built at the entrance of the Foss into the Trent, to secure the 
' navigation of those parts, and as a storehouse for corn, and was 
' walled about.' 

The Doctor is borne out in this opinion from the account given 
in Domesday Book, wherein it appears, that before the coming of 
the Normans, Torksey was a place of considerable consequence, 
with two hundred burgesses, who possessed many privileges on 
condition that they should carry the King's Ambassadors, as often 



FOSSDIKE NAVIGATION. 277 

as they came that way, down the Trent in their own barges, and 
conduct them to York ; and their original charter is still preserved, 
and occasionally acted upon. 

Leland observes, < The Fosse- Diche begynnith a quarter of a 
* mfle above Lincoln, and so goeth to Torksey a 7 mile strait in 
' length. Bishop Atwater began to cleanse Fosse-Diche and did 
'so half its length from Torksey in hope to bring vessels to 
< Lincoln— but on his death it was neglected.' But this by no 
means leads to the conclusion that it had been previously navi- 
gated; nor does it disprove the contrary opinion; as, by its con- 
nection with the.Tfll and Witham, H was liable to be silted up by 
the mud and sand introduced by flood waters. 

Camden will have it that the Foasdike was cut by Henry I.; 
but as he quotes Hovedon, and the latter historian has almost 
literally copied Simeon Dunehnensis, it seems more than doubtful 
that he has truly interpreted his author. Simeon's passage is 
this, — ' Eodem anno (1121,) Henricns rex facto longa terra in- 
' tercessione fbesato a Torkseie usque Lincolniam per derivationem 
' Trentte flumims fecit iter navium.' Now, as the surface of the 
water in the Fossdike is 4 or 5 feet above the level of the Trent, 
it is matter of impossibility that the water* of the Trent should 
have been diverted through this channel, unless the surface of the 
Fossdike has been raised to the difference which now exists in the 
level between the Trent and this navigation. But, as neither 
Hovedon or Simeon Dunelmensis ever saw the Fossdike, we 
ought not to be surprized that they have' been led into this 
opinion. 

It seems very probable, and it is the opinion of Dr. Stukeley, 
that King Henry only scoured out the canal, and rendered it a 
better navigation ; and, as a proof, if proof it may be called, that 
he did not execute the canal, we have h on record that, in the 
time of Domesday Book, it was said that the King's Monnetari at 
Nottingham, had, in the days of Edward the Confessor, the care 
of the River Trent, and of the Foasdike, and of the navigation 
therein. Now, as this King died in 1066, before the Norman 
Conquest, it is clear that the supposition of Camden is not sup- 
ported. 

The proprietors ^employed Messrs. Smeaton and Grundy, in 



278 (iARNKIKK AND GLASGOW IJAILWAV. 

1762, to suggest a mode of improving this navigation, which they 
did by recommending a lock at Brayford Head, and to raise the 
water 10 inches higher, so as to make the canal 3 feet 6 inches in 
depth. Their estimate for this and other necessary works amount- 
ed to j?3,816, 18*. Sd. Twenty years afterwards, Mr. Smeaton 
again reported on this navigation, by which it appears that the 
previous designs of this eminent engineer and his colleague had 
not been carried into execution. But, as these reports relate more 
particularly to the drainage of the adjacent lands, we shall not 
further advert to them. 

The original object of this canal, adopting the opinion that it 
is a monument of Roman ingenuity and greatness, was to convey 
the corn produced in the rich provinces of Lincolnshire, Northamp- 
tonshire, &c. direct to their favourite station of Eboracum (York,) 
by means of a canal, rather than trust to the uncertain circuitous 
navigation seaward. It is still used for the export of the surplus 
agricultural produce, but more particularly to import coal to Lin- 
coln and its vicinity. 

Those who desire further information respecting these Roman 
works, we refer to a letter addressed by the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, in 
1735, to Francis Drake, F.R.S. at the lime the latter gentleman 
was engaged in writing his Eboracum, and which will be found at 
full length, at page 38 of that excellent History of the Antiquities 
of the City of York. 



GARNKIRK AND GLASGOW RAILWAY. 

7 George IV. Cap. 103, Royal Assent 26th May, I8EJ6. 

7 & 8 Georce IV. Cap. 8H, Royal Assent I4th June, IS27. 

11 George IV. Cap. 125, Royal Assent 17th June, IsJO. 

Tins railway commences from the Monkland and Kirkintilloch 
Railway at Cargill Colliery, near Gartsherrie Bridge, in the 
county of Lanark, whence it proceeds in a westwardly direction 
by Gartcloss, Gartcosh, Gamkirk, Robroyston, Milton, Broomfield, 
Gernuston, Rosebank, and Pinkston, to the north end of the bridge 
across the cut of junction between the Forth and Clyde and 
Monkland Canals, on the road between Glasgow Field and 
Keppoch. It is in length eight miles, one furlong and four chains ; 



GAKNKIRK AND GLASGOW RAILWAY. 279 

m die first five thousand one hundred and forty-eight yards from 
ha western termination near Glasgow, it is on one inclined plane, 
rfemg 116 feet 9 inches; the remaining five miles and a quarter 
it a dead level The railway was designed by Mr. Thomas 
Grainger, who estimated the cost, according to the first design, at 
£28*407, 17*. 4d. ; but subsequently, when it was determined to 
alter it to the line above-described, at £37,847, 17*. 4<£ The 
subscribers to this undertaking, at the time the first act was 
obtained, were twelve persons only, who were incorporated by the 
name of u The Gamkirk and Glasgow Railway Company," and 
empowered to raise the amount of the original estimate of 
£28,497, 17*. 4d\ in fifty shares; and if this sum is insufficient, 
they may borrow the additional sum of £10,000, on the credit of 
the undertaking. The act is entitled, ' An Act for making a 
' RaUway from the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, by 
* Gamkirk to Glasgow? and by it the following tonnage rates are 
allowed. 

TONNAGB RATES. 

». d. 
Lime-stone, Dung, Compost, and all Sorts of Manure, and > „ „ „,„_ „_ „„„ 

Materials for the repair of Roads i ° 2 I» Ton. per Mile. 

Coal, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, Stone, Sand, Bricks, ) 

Slates, Lime, Earth, Iron, Lead or other Metal* or Mi- { 3 ditto. ditto.. 

nereis Unmanufactured * 

Timber, Corn, Flour, Goods, Lead in Sheets, Iron in Bars > „ . /H<I . ,i,„„ ' 

and all other Wares and Mercbandiie J 06 <m,a tUUa 

For the use of any Waggon, Machinery, Engine, or Power belonging to the. Company, 
One-half of the above Rates m Addition. 

For every Description of Goods which shall pas the In. j . „ __t»_, 
dinedPlane i ' gpeM00 ' 

Fractions to be charged according to the Number of Hundred Weights, and Fractions 
of a Mile not less than a Quarter. 

Passm g erscarriedinany Carriage belonging to the Company 3 per Mile. 

Owners of lands may erect wharfs ; but if they neglect, the 
company may make them, and demand the following rates. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
CoaL Culm, Lime, Limestone, Clay, Iron-stone, Stone, Bricks, Gravel, l i __ T „ 

Hay, Straw, Com in the Straw or Manure 5 * va "* 

iron, Lead-ore, or any other Ore, Tin, Timber, Tiles and Slate I ditto. 

Any otber Goods or Merchandize 2 ditto. 

Goods may remain Six Months, on Payment of the above Rates, but if they continue 

Six Days beyond that Period, One-half of the above Rates in Addition may be 

demanded, for every Month such Period is exceeded ; and so in Proportion for any 

k«s Ton than a Month. 



280 GAHTUKK UAILWAY-U1PPEN OK UIPPING RIVER. 

The Company are restricted from receiving more than Ten Pounds per Cent, on theit 
Capital Stock, until they have reduced their Tonnage, on Distances not exceeding 
Tli^ee Miles, to Three, fourths, and on Distances exceeding Three Miles, toOne-balf 
the Rate they are empowered to collect ; provided that, for Distances exceeding 
Three Miles, the Rates shall not be less than Four-pence Halfpenny. 

The act of 7th and 8th George IV. entitled, ' An Act for 
' altering and amending the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway Act, 
was obtained for the purpose of altering the line to the course 
described at the commencement of this article ; which alteration 
was estimated by Mr. Grainger to cost the additional gum of 
£9,350. The company are therefore authorized to raise this sum 
in £50 shares; and, should they determine to make a double 
railway, they may raise an additional sum of £11,000 for that 
purpose, in £50 shares ; all which sums shall be deemed the 
capital stock of the company. Five years, from the passing of 
this act, is allowed for the execution of the necessary works. 

The act of 11th George IV. entitled, ' An Act for amending 
' certain Acts for making the Glasgow and Garnkirk Railway, and 
' for raising a further Sum of Money,' is simply to enable the 
company of proprietors to raise a sufficient fund for completing 
the works ; the act, therefore, empowers them to raise the further 
sum of £21,150, either by creating new shares to that amount, or 
by borrowing upon credit of the undertaking the sum of £10,000, 
and creating new shares to the extent of £11,150. 

The object of this railway is to convey to Glasgow, and for 
exportation, the valuable minerals at its eastern termination, and 
such as is brought down the Ballochney and the Wishaw and 
Coltness Railways, which extend further into the Lanarkshire 
Coal Field. 

GARTURK. 

(SEE WISHAW AND COLTNESS RAILWAY.) 

G1PPEN OR GIPPING RIVER. 

30 George HI. Cap. 67, Royal Assent 1st April, 179a 
33 George 111. Cap. 20, Royal Assent 28th March, 1793. 

This river rises near Gipping Hall, situate two miles south- 
west of the town of Mendlesham, in Suffolk, whence it flows by 
Stow Market to Stowupland Bridge, near the said town, where 



G1PPEN OR G1PP1NG RIVER. 381 

the n a v i g ati on commences. Its coarse from hence is sooth-easterly, 
by the town of Needham, and Shrubknd Hall, the seat of Sir W. 
F. Midcfleton, Bart to the south side of the town of Ipswich, 
where it falls into the tideway of the Orwell, near Stoke Bridge. 

Its length is about sixteen miles; and the necessary works for 
making it navigable, were commenced under the authority of an 
act of the 30th George III. entitled, * An Act for making and 
' maintaining a navigable Communication between Stowmarket and 
* Ipswich, in the county of Suffolk.* 

Six gentlemen, resident in the vicinity, were appointed trustees 
for carrying the act into execution, with power to borrow the sum 
of £14,300 on the credit of the undertaking, and a further sum of 
£6,000, if necessary, either on mortgage or by granting annuities. 

Power is also given to extend the navigation three quarters of 
a mile from Stowupland Bridge towards the Bury St. Edmund's 
Road, if it shall be deemed desirable. 



TONNAGE RATES. 

a*. 
Cora and other Grain, Hops, Stone, Timber, Goods, Ware*, » . __ T _ __ «.„- 

Merchandize, and other Thing*, (except Coed) $ « P» lon » P» «"«• 

Coal ,, | ditto. ditto. 

And so in Proportion for any Weight or Quantity teas than a Ton, or for any Distance 
leas than a Mile. 

If these Rates are insufficient for the Purposes of this Act, power is given to double 
them for such Time only as may be required; but not until Three Months' No- 
tice baa been given. Vessels of less than Thirty-live Tons lading, to be charged 
fcr Thirty-live Tons. 

The Trustees can also, lor all Goods deposited in their Wharfs, and which shall con- 
ttnnefora longer Period than Six Months, charge such additional Sums as they 
may think St; provided Notice to such Purpose be deposited with the Clerk of 
the Peace. 

■snore is exempt from Rates, unless the Commissioners shall determine to the con- 
trary; in that case the same Rate is to be paid as for Coal. 



Hie act of the 33rd George III. entitled, « An Act for effect*- 
1 ally carrying into Execution an Act of Parliament of the Thir- 
' tieth Year of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining 
( a navigable Communication between Stowmarket and Ipswich, in 
( tke county of Suffolk,' is obtained solely for the purpose of 
enahKng the trustees to borrow the sum of £15,000 over and above 
the Sams authorized by the last-recited act, which had already 
been expended. 

This navigation is chiefly used for exporting the surplus farming 



282 GLAMORGANSHIRE CANAL. 

produce of the country, and for importing coal, lime, timber, 
deals, groceries, and other commodities generally required in an 
agricultural district. 



GLAMORGANSHIRE CANAL. 

30 George III. Cap. 82, Royal Assent 9th June, 1790. 
36 George 111. Cap. 69, Royal Assent -26th April, 179a 

Tins navigation, which is sometimes called the Cardiff Canal, 
commences at a place called The Lower Layer, a mile and a half 
below the town of Cardiff, on the east side of the River TafT, and 
near its entrance into Penarth Harbour. Its course is directly 
north, passing on the east side of the town of Cardiff, and thence 
in a north-westwardly direction, parallel with the Taff, and by 
the city of Llandaff, to near the junction of the Taff and Cynon. 
It crosses the Taff by an aqueduct, and within a short distance is 
joined by the Aberdare Canal. From hence its course is round 
the base of the Twyn Maur Hills, still keeping in the vale, but on 
the western side of the Taff, to its termination at the town of 
Merthyr Tidvile. The length is about twenty-five miles, with a 
total rise of about 61 1 feet. At its termination in the tideway of 
the River Taff, at Lower Layer, there is a sea-lock, with a 
floating-dock 16 feet deep, and capable of admitting ships of three 
hundred tons burthen. The line from Merthyr to Cardiff was 
opened in February, 1794. 

Many railways extend from the several iron-works, mines and 
collieries which abound in this rich mineral district. The Cardiff 
and Merthyr Tidvile Railway takes a parallel course with the 
canal from Merthyr to the aqueduct, but on the opposite side of 
the river. There is also a railway from the mines near Glancayach, 
to this canal, a little below the above-mentioned aqueduct ; and 
there is another railway of considerable extent, which commences 
at the collieries at Dinas Ucha, on the west bank of the River 
Rhondda Vawr, along which it continues to below its junction with 
the River Taff, near Forest Bridge. 

The act of the 30th George III. is entitled, ' An Act for 
' making and maintaining a navigable Canal from Merthtfr Tidvile, 



GLAMORGANSHIRE CANAL. t83 

( to and through a place called The Bank, near the town of Cardiff, 
< in the county of Glamorgan? The subscribers to this canal, at 
the time the above act was obtained, were seventy <«even in number, 
(amongst whom were Lord Cardiff and Count de Redin,) who 
were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors 
" of the Glamorganshire Canal Navigation," with power to raise 
among themselves the sum of £(SOfiOO, in six hundred shares of 
£100 each, and a further sum of ^gSO^OOO^shoukl it be deemed 
necessary, by mortgage of the undertaking. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Iron-atone, Iron-ore, Coal, Lime-stone, Lime, and all Kinds ori , too. tier Mile. 

Stone, Iron, Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, or other Things S ditto. ditto. 
Fractions as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

(Blips cm otber Vessels, whether laden or unladen, pasting thraagh the Lock at the 
Bank into or out of the Dock or Basin, shall be subject to the Payment of On*, 
Penny per Ton, according to the registered Admeasurement of such Ship or Vessel. 

The company are restricted to divide no more man eight per 
cent. Proprietors of any mines lying within four miles of any 
part of this canal, may make collateral cuts or railways across the 
grounds of other persons, on payment of damages. Owners of 
lands may make wharfs and charge the following rates. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
Coal, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Timber, Stone, Brick, 1 . _ 

Tile, Slate, or Gravel S """*• 

Any other Goods , 3 ditto. 

The above Rates are payable if they remain upon the Wharfs for the Space of Six 
Days, except for Coal, Iron and Lime-stone, which may continue at the above 
Rate Six Calendar Months ; and Timber, Clay, Lime, Iron-stone, Stone, Brick, 
Tne, Slate, or Gravel, may remain Thirty Days. If any Goods lie on the Wharfs 
or Quays for the Space of Ten Days beyond the respective Periods above 
prescribed. One Penny per Ton shall be paid for such Ten Days; and One Penny 
per Tob per Day (or every Day beyond such Period. It is farther enacted, that 
all Ships or other Vessels, passing from the Sea or the River into any Dock or 
Basin belonging to tins Company, shall pay the same Duties, in Addition to the 
Rates which the Bailifls, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Town of Cardiff, ham 
hitherto received as Port Dues. 

The act of 36th George III. which received the royal assent 
on the 86th April, 1706, and is entitled, * An Act to amend an 
' Act of the Thirtieth Year of his present Majesty, for making and 
' maintaining a navigable Canal from Merthyr Tidvilt, to and 
' through a place called The Bank, near the town of Cardiff, in the 
' county of Glamorgan, and for extending the said Canal to a place 



284 GLASGOW, PAISLEY, AND ARDROSSAN CANAL, to. 

1 called The Lower Layer, below the taxd (own,' wag obtained chfefry 
for the purpose expressed in the title, vis. the extension to a point 
nearer the sea, and to obtain power to raise the additional sum 
of £10,000 among themselves, in proportion to their respective 
shares, for the completion of the line of extension, and for no other 
purpose whatsoever. Bat if this lasUmentioned sum is insufficient, 
£10,000 more may be contributed; but upon this no more profit 
than five per cent, per annum shall be received. Two years only, 
from the date of the last act, are allowed for the completion of the 
whole of the works. 

On consideration of the Marquis and Marchioness of Bute 
giving consent to the making of the extension, they and then- 
tenants of the ground on the west side of the extension, have the 
privilege of using the canal and towing path below the sooth gate 
of the town of Cardiff, without payment of rates. 

The chief object of this navigation and the railways with 
which it is connected, is to facilitate the export of the vast quan- 
tity of coal, iron-stone, and other ores and minerals which are 
worked in great abundance on its line, and in particular at Mer- 
thyr Tidvile and its immediate vicinity. 

GLASGOW, PAISLEY, AND ARDROSSAN CANAL 
AND RAILWAY. 

48 George m. Cap. 75, Royal Aaeot 90th Jane, 180*. 
7*8 George IV. Cap. 87, Royal Aawnt 14th June, law. 

Thk canal commences from Tradestown, or Port Eglinton, on 
the west side of the city of Glasgow, whence it takes a western 
course, approaching the northern bank of the White Cart River, 
along which it continues to near the town of Paisley ^ where it 
crosses the above-mentioned river, and passes on the south of that 
town, to Johnstone, where it terminates. 

The railway commences at the canal wharf at Johnstone, and 
takes a south-westerly course, running parallel with, and on the 
east side of the Black Cart, and by Lochs Swinnock and Tanker, 
and along the eastern bank of the River Rye, which it crosses 
near Blair House, and continues along the course of that river to 
near the village of Kilwinning, whence it takes a westward 



GLASGOW, PA1SLKY, AND ARDROSSAN CANAL, *c. 285 

! through the collieries, by Kerrylaw, and thence northward 
of the town of Saltcoats, to the harbour of Ardrossan, where, at an 
elevation of 9 feet 6 inches above high water mark, it terminates. 
The railway is twenty-two miles and three furlongs in length, and 
the canal eleven miles. 

From the harbour above-mentioned, there is an inclined plane 
one mile and five chains in length, rising 11 feet 8 inches, and 
another one mile and a chain in length, which descends 8 feet 
It is then level for the space of one mile, seven furlongs and four 
chains. Then another plane one mile, three furlongs and seven 
chains in length, rising 46 feet ; then a further rise, to the summit 
level, of 45 feet, in one mile, five furlongs and nine chains. The 
next twelve miles, three furlongs and two chains are level ; from 
the end of which it descends SO feet in the next two miles, one 
furlong and two chains ; and, in the remaining distance of five 
furlongs, there is a further fall of 44 feet to the level of the quay 
of the canal at Johnstone, which is 40 feet above the level of high 
water at Ardrossan. A branch of half a mile in length extends 
from the main line to Saltcoats Harbour, which descends 3 feet in 
mat distance to a point 10 feet above high water mark. 

It was originally intended by the proprietors of these works to 
bare constructed an entire canal from near Glasgow to Ardrossan, 
and for which purpose their first act was obtained ; but circum- 
stances, which are explained below, prevented this. The estimate 
for making the whole canal was £140,000 ; but when it was 
found desirable to make the railway above described, instead of 
containing the canal, a separate estimate for it was made by Mr. 
James Jardine, which, for the Main Line, amounted to £93,568 

And for the Saltcoats Branch 1,525 

Making a total of. £94,093 

The first act relating to this undertaking, is entitled, ' An Act 
l for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Harbour 

* ofArdroetan, in the county of Ayr, to Tradettown, near Glasgow, 

* in the county of Lanark ; and a collateral Cut from the taid 
« Canal to the Coal Work* at Hurlet, in the county of Renfrew? 
by which the subscribers, two hundred and twenty-six in number, 
(amongst whom were the Earl of Eglinton, Lord Montgomerie, 



886 GLASGOW, PAISLEY, AND ARDROSSAN CANAL; *c 

and Lady Jane Montgomerie,) were incorporated by the name of 
"The Company of Proprietors of the Glasgow, Pauley, and 
u Ardrossan Canal," with power to raise among themselves the 
sum of £140,000, in two thousand eight hundred shares of £50 
each ; and an additional sum of £30,000 if necessary, either 
among themselves, or they may borrow the same on assignment 
of the rates, as a security. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

limt-stooe, IroiMtOBe.StoM for Building, Dung, Earth, Sand > .„ ta nwMne. 

and Clay > " ion,per«iuc. 

Coal, Coke, Culm and Lime S ditto. ' ditto. 

Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Ore*. Iron and Metals 4 ditto. ditto. 

Timber, Bark, Com and Grain 5 ditto. ditto. 

Ail other Goods, Wars or Merchandize 6 ditto. ditto. 

Fractions to be paid as for a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton. 

BASIN DUES. 

i. 
For every Vessel loading or unloading to any Basin belonging to this > 4 -. 
Company, hi addition to the before-mentioned Rates I ^ 

Vessels under Twenty Tons Burtben not to pass Locks without leave, or without 
paying Tonnage to that Amount 

Owners of lands may erect wharfs; but if they do not within 
cdx months after notice has been given them for that purpose, the 
company may do it, and charge a rate to be agreed on between 
the company and the owners of any goods which may remain 
more than twenty-four hoars upon such wharfs. 

In carrying into execution that part of the original line of 
canal from near Glasgow to Johnstone, the proprietors expended 
of the original stock, authorised to be raised by power of the act 
of 46th George III. the sum of £44,342, besides contracting a 
debt of £57,860, 10*. ; also old subscription loans from various 
proprietors of canal stock, amounting to £3,398, S». ; and new 
subscription bans, amounting to £10,950, 4*. 6d. making a total 
of £11 5,550, 17*. 6i 

After tite lapse of twenty years from the date of the act above* 
recited, it was found impossible to raise the necessary rands for 
completing the remaining portion of the hoe from Johnstone to 
Ardroaan, without complying with this condition, that the debts 
incurred in executing the canal from Johnstone to Glasgow, 
amounting (as above-recited) to £71,808, 17*. 6d. should be 



GLASTONBURY NAVIGATION. 987 

alone entailed upon that pari of the canal. With this understand- 
ing, an act received the royal sanction on the 14th June, 1827j 
entitled, * An Act to amend an Act of the Forty*sixth Year of the 
' Reign of his late Majesty, incorporating the Qiaegam, Paisley, 
' and Ardrossan Canal Company ; and to empower the said Com- 
' pony to form a Railway from Johnstone, in the county of Ren- 
*frew, to Ardrostan, m the county of Ayrj and certain Branch 
' Railways conmanieatine therewith? by. which the company are 
authorized to employ the remainder of die original capita} stock 
(of £140,000,) amounting to £95^58, in the formation of a rail, 
way to Ardrossan ; and that this railway stock should not he liable 
to the above-recited debts, but that separate accounts shall be kept 
of the expenditure and proceeds of the canal and of the railway. ' 
By means of this canal and railway, great facilities will be 
given for exporting coal, from the extensive mines in the Kne, 
for the supply of the north and eastern coasts of Ireland, and to 
receive, in return, supplies of corn for the censuibption of the 
populous places of Glasgow, Paisley, Ac Moreover^ it will have 
the effect of shortening considerably the distance, and rendering 
more safe the transit of exported manufactured goods from the 
above-mentioned towns, by avoiding the circuitous route by the 
River and Birth of Clyde. 



GLASTONBURY NAVIGATION. 

7*8 George IV. Cap. 41, Royal Assent 38th Hay, 1827. 

This navigation commences from the confluence of the Rivers 
Brue and Parrett, in Bridgewater Bay, Bristol Channel, whence 
it takes a south-eastwardly direction along the course of the River 
Brue, to Highbridge Lower Floodgates. From this point a canal 
is to be made in the bed of the river, by Newbridge, to about ten 
miles beyond Basin Bridge, where it then follows the course of the 
south drain, over Westhay and Meare Heaths, and through a very 
flat country to the west side of the town of Glastonbury, where it 
terminates. The total length of the navigation is fourteen miles, 
one furlong and seven chains, viz. from low water mark on the 
shore of the Bristol Channel, to the proposed tide lock near High 



288 GLASTONBURY NAVIGATION. 

Bridge, is seven furlongs and six chains. This tide lock will be so 
constructed, that the top of the gates will be on a level with the 
highest known smooth tide, which rose 40 feet. The surface of 
the canal will be 10 feet below the top of the gates, and the canal 
will be 10 feet deep from the lock to the junction with the South 
Brue Drain, a length of ten miles, three furlongs and three chains. 
At the end of this fine pool there is another lock, with a rise of 3 
feet 2 inches, and thence, the remainder of the canal to Glastonbury 
will be only 6 feet deep. The estimate for this navigation was 
made by Mr. John Beauchamp, and amounts (exclusive of appli- 
cation to parliament, plans, &c.) to the sum of £15,234. 

The act for making this navigation is entitled, ' An Act for 
1 improving and supporting the Navigation of the River Brue from 
* the mouth thereof, at its Junction with the River Parrett, to 
' Cripp's House, and for making and constructing a Canal from 
1 thence to the town of Glastonbury, in the county of Somerset? 

The party who undertook to execute this navigation consisted 
of thirty-six persons, (amongst whom was Sir Alexander Hood, 
Bart.) and was incorporated by the name of " The Glastonbury 
" Navigation and Canal Company," and who are empowered to 
raise among themselves the sum of £18,000, in three hundred and 
sixty shares of £50 each, and a further sum of £5,000 on mort- 
gage of the undertaking ; and they may borrow any part of the 
original sum of £18,000 on promissory notes under the common 
seal, or of the Exchequer Bill Commissioners. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

». d. 

Coal, Culm, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal. Timber, Iron, Bricks, Tiles, j . B T 

Stone, Slate, Turf and Manure i "^ 

Cheese, Timber, and other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 3 ditto. 

And so in Proportion for any greater or less Weight than a Ton. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

For any Goods remaining on any of the Wharfs or Quays beyond the Period of 
Twenty-four Hours, such additional Rates as may be fixed by the Company ; but 
that not more than Three-pence per Ton shall be paid for any Goods which do 
not remain on the Wharfs, or Warehoused, more than Six Days. 

As the drainage of the low lands on the banks of the Brue is 
under the management of the Commissioners of Sewers, the 
company are bound to invest £1,000 in the Three per Cent. 
Consolidated Bank Annuities, to be at the disposal of the commis- 



GLENKKNNS CANAL. 289 

sinners, to be applied in repairing or making any alteration in the 
bbc parity drainage works, which may be required in consequence 
of the making and completing this navigation. 

The object of this navigation is to open a short and more ready 
communication between Glastonbury and the sea, and to facili- 
tate the exportation of the agricultural produce of that part of 
Somerset, and to import fuel and other general . merchandize. 



GLENKENNS CANAL. 

43 George III Cap. 114, Royal Assent 26th June, 1802. 

This navigation commences in the tideway of the River Dee, 
close to the north side of the town of Kirkcudbright, whence it 
takes a northerly course, running parallel with and on the east 
bank of the Dee, by Kehon House, to Loch Ken, into which it 
enters a short distance south of Glenlochar Bridge. This part of 
the navigation is ten miles and a quarter, and has fourteen locks 
upon it, besides a stop lock and weir at its entrance into Loch Ken. 
This navigation is continued for the space of twelve miles and a 
half through Loch Ken, by Kenmore Castle and the town of New 
Galloway, a little beyond which place a canal of three miles in 
length extends to the Boat Pool at Dairy, where the navigation 
terminates. The total length is twenty-five miles and three 
quarters. Mr. John Rennie projected the navigation, and made 
the estimate, which amounted to the sum of £33,382. 

The act for making it received the royal assent on the 26th 
June, 1802, and is entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining 
' a navigable Canal from the Boat Pool of Dairy, tn the Glenkenns, 
' to the port and town of Kirkcudbright, in the ttewartry of Kirk- 
1 endbright.' The subscribers for carrying the work into execu- 
tion, consisted of twenty-eight persons, (afnongst whom were the 
Hon. John Gordon, the Hon. Montgomerie Granville Stewart, 
Sir William Douglas, and Sir Alexander Gordon,) who were 
incorporated by the name of w The Company of Proprietors of the 
M Glenkenns Canal Navigation," and empowered to raise among 
themselves the sum of £30,000, in three hundred shares of £100 
each ; and a further sum of £15,000, if necessary, by equal calls 



290 GLENKF.NNS CANAL. 

upon the holders of the three hundred shares ; or they may obtain 
the last-mentioned gum by mortgage of the undertaking ; but if 
£20,000 be found sufficient to make that part of the navigation 
extending from Loch Ken to the tideway of the Dee, the company 
may, in preference, complete that part, and suspend, until funds 
can be raised, the further prosecution of the remainder of the 
original design. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Coal, Lime, Sand, Stone, Lime-stone, and all Kinds of Manure, > _ _ .... 

(uponVhe Canal) ..) 3 perTon.perMile. 

Grain, Potatoes, Slate, Iron-stone, Iron, Timber, and other J . ,.,, ,.,, 

Goods, Wares and Merchandize, (upon the Canal) > 8 mwa <uwo - 

For all Goods carried upon the navigable part of the River Dee, or Loch of Ken, half 
only of the above Rates. 
Fractions to be taken for Half a Mile and Quarter of a Ton. 
For every Ship, whether laden or unladen, passing through the Tide Lock into the 
Dee, and into or out of the Basin at Kirkcudbright, an additional Charge of Six- 
pence per Ton for every Ton upon the Burthen of such Ship. 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

If any Goods remain on the Wharfs for above the Space of Two Calendar Months, an 
Allowance to be made to the Proprietors, to be adjusted by Commissioners 
appointed by the Act 

For the purposes of this Act, One Hundred and Twenty Pounds Avoirdupois to be 
deemed a Hundred Weight. 

Owners of land may also erect warehouses and construct 
wharfs, and charge the following rates. 

RATES FOR PRIVATE WHARFS. 

d. 
Coal, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Timber, Stone, Brick, > , __ rj. 

Tile, Slate or Gravel J *** 

For any other Goods 3 ditto . 

Provided the same does not continue more than Twenty Days, except the enumerated 
Articles as above, which may remain Two Calendar Months, on payment of Four- 
pence per Ton. But should any of the above-mentioned Articles remain on the 
Wharf or Quays for the Space of Twenty Days over and above the Time specified, 
then Three-pence per Ton shall be paid for such Twenty Days, and One Penny 
per Ton per Week afterwards. 

The object of this navigation is to give facilities for the con- 
veyance of coal, lime, manure and general merchandize, into the 
interior of the stewartry or county of Kirkcudbright, and for the 
improvement of the estates which border upon it. 



GLOUCESTER AND BERKELEY CANAL. 2Q1 



GLOUCESTER AND BERKELEY CANAL. 

S3 Geo. HI. C. 87, R.A. 28th Man*. 1783. 37 Geo. IU. C. M, R. A. 9th Hay, 1797. 
40 Geo. IRC. KM, R. A. 37th Jane, ISO*. flSGeaULC. 17, R. A. 17th March, 1818. 
3 Geo. IV. C. 33, R. A. 24th May, 1823. 8 Geo. IV. C. 113, R. A. 10th June, 1825. 

This admirable ship canal commences from the River Severn, 
at Sharpness Point, about three miles north of the town of Berkeley, 
whence it runs along the shore for the space of two miles ; thence 
by Slimbridge, Frampton-on-the-Severn, Saul and Wheatenhurst, 
between which last-mentioned places it crosses the Stroud Canal; 
thence, west of Hardwick Court, Quedgeley House and Hemp- 
stead House, to near the county gaol on the south side of the city 
of Gloucester, where it terminates in a spacious basin, out of 
which there is a lock into the River Severn. Its length is sixteen 
miles and a half; it is 70 feet wide, and in depth 18 feet, and 
level throughout; and therefore capable of receiving Indiamen of 
four hundred tons burthen. It was originally intended to have 
made the canal from Berkeley Pill, and only 15 feet deep; the 
length of which would have been eighteen miles and a quarter. 
A branch is also to be made from near Saul to the River Severn at 
Hock Cribb, in the parish of Arlington, of nearly one mile and a 
quarter in length. 

The first act relating to this navigation received his late 
Majesty's assent on the 28th of March, 1793, and is entitled, ' An 
* Act for making apd maintaining a navigable Canal from the 
' Rwer Severn, at or near the city of Gloucester, into a place called 
< Berkeley Pill, in the parish of Berkeley ; and also a Cut to or near 
' the town of Berkeley, in the county of Gloucester;' and by which 
the original subscribers were incorporated by the name of " The 
" Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Company," with power to raise 
among themselves for the purposes of this act, the sum of j?140,000, 
in fourteen hundred shares of £100 each, and a further sum of 
£180,000, if necessary. 

The tolls which die company were permitted to take, under the 
authority of this act, are expressed at great length; but, as they 
are repealed by the act of 6th George IV. and new rates allowed, 
it is unnecessary to introduce diem here. 

t 2 



292 GLOUCESTER AND BERKELEY CANAL. 

lite act of the 37th George III. was obtained chiefly for the 
purpose of enabling the company to make some deviations from 
the original line, through the parishes of Slimbridge, Frampton- 
upoD-Sevem, Fretheme, Saul, Wheatenhurst, Moreton, Valence, 
and Standish. It is entitled, l An Act for authorizing the Company 
' of Proprietors of. the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Navigation 

* to vary the Line of a certain part of the said Canal, so as to render 
' the Execution thereof more easy, expeditious and less expensive ; 
1 and for altering and amending the Act passed in the TTiirty-third 
1 Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making the said 

* Canal' Power, however, is given in this act to raise £40,000, 
part of the £140,000, besides the £60,000 authorised by the 
last act, either by the admission of new subscribers for shares, 
half shares, or quarters; or by way of mortgage, or on bond. 
The company are required by the act to pay the Stroudwater 
Navigation Company, for every day which the making of this 
canal shall obstruct the passage on their canal, the sum of five 
guineas. 

Eight years after the date of the last-recited act, the proprietors 
being desirous of making a branch from the main line, near Saul, 
to the Severn, at Hock Cribb, application was made to parliament 
for the necessary powers; and an act was accordingly obtained on 
the 10th July, 1805, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of 
' Proprietors of the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal, to vary and 
1 alter the Line of a certain part of the said Canal, and to enable the 
' said Company to raise a further Sum of Money for carrying into 

* Execution the several Acts for making the said CanaV This 
branch is one mile, one furlong and five chains in length ; and the 
estimate for making it was made by Mr. John Wheeler, which 
amounted to the sum of £28,765, \1i. Ad. ; and, for this purpose, 
and for completing the main line of the canal, they are empo w ered 
to raise the additional sum of £80,000, by creating new shares of 
not less than £60 each. 

Twenty-five years after the passing of the first act, the com- 
pany of proprietors again applied to parliament for an act to 
enable them to alter the line, and make the canal terminate at 
Sharpness Point, as described in the early part of this article, 
instead of at Berkeley Pill 



GLOUCESTER AND BERKELEY CANAL. 293 

The act was pawed on the 17th March, 1818, in the 58th 
George III. and is entitled, * An Act to enable the Gloucester and 

* Berkeley Canal Company to vary and alter the Line of their Canal ; 

* and for altering and enlarging the Power* of several Acts passed 
i for making and maintaining the said Canal.' This variation of 
the main line had the effect of shortening h one mile and three 
quarters. The estimate for this deviation, commencing in Sir 
Samuel Wathen's land, near Branwood, which was one mile, six- 
furlongs and eight chains in length, was made by Mr. John Upton, 
and amounted to the sum of £49,230. 

Although the preceding acts authorized the company to raise 
£280,000 for making the canal, yet, at the passing of this act, 
they had only raised and expended £112,000; and, from the 
great difficulty they had already experienced in obtaining the 
above sum, the company was apprehensive that, without additional 
powers, they could not raise the remaining £168,000; this act 
enables them to raise that sum by the creation of new shares, 
which shall not be granted at less than £60 per share. But they 
are also further empowered to raise any part of the above sum of 
£168,000 on mortgage, bond, or by granting annuities. By this 
act the company are authorized to charge for all goods, which 
shall remain upon any of the wharfs belonging to this company 
above forty-eight hours, the sum of sixpence per ton per diem. 

In the prosecution of the work it was found desirable to con- 
struct the canal so as to admit vessels drawing 18 feet water, 
instead of the original proposition of limiting it to 15 feet; it was 
also round expedient to erect a breakwater in the Severn, near the 
outer harbour of the canal, in order to facilitate the entrance of 
vessels. These alterations made a considerable addition to the 
expenditure, an act was therefore obtained in the 3rd George IV. 
to enable them to borrow the additional sum of £150,000, either 
by the admission of new subscribers, or in any way authorized by 
the preceding acts. This act is entitled, * An Act for enabling the 
' Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Company to raise a further Sum 
1 of Money to discharge their Debts, and to complete the said Canal; 
1 and for amending the several Acts passed for making the said 
' CanaV Here it may be remarked, that the Exchequer Bill 
Commissioners advanced to this company, on security of the rates, 



294 GLOUCESTER AND BERKELEY CANAL. 

the sum of £65,000, by four instalments of £16,250 each, viz. on 
the 24th July, 1818, the 2nd August and 7th December, 1819, and 
11th of August, 1820; and the last-recited act gives authority to 
the commissioners above-mentioned, to advance the further sum of 
£60,000, in part of the £150,000 which the act empowered them 
to raise. It is further enacted by the 3rd George IV. that the 
management shall be vested in a committee of fifteen proprietors 
instead of nine. 

The last act relating to this canal received the royal assent on 
the 10th June, 1825, and is entitled, ' An Act far enabling the 
' Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Company to raise a further Sum 
' of Money ; and for altering, amending, and enlarging the Powers 
1 and Provisions contained in the several Acts for making the said 
' Canal;' in the preamble of which it is stated, that the sum of 
£430,000, which the several preceding acts enabled them to raise, 
had been expended on the work relating to this canal, but that 
the further sum of £50,000 would be required ; this act, therefore, 
enables the company to borrow this sum upon the same securities 
as is prescribed by the preceding acts. For the purpose, however, 
of paying off simple contract debts, the company may issue 
£15,000 of the £50,000, in transferable promissory notes of £100 
each, payable in ten years. Of the £150,000 which the company 
were empowered to raise under the act of 3rd George IV. the 
Commissioners for the issuing of Exchequer Bills, advanced the 
further sum of £60,000, by two instalments of £30,000 each ; and 
the last-recited act authorizes the commissioners above-named to 
advance the further sum of £35,000, as part of the sum of 
£50,000, which the last act authorized the company to borrow. 

As the tonnage rates granted by the act of 33rd George III. 
are repealed by the last-recited act, the following are the rates 
now allowed to be collected. 



TONNAGE RATES. 

i. d. 

Coal conveyed upon all or any part of the Canal 1 per Ton. 

All other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 5 ditto. 

Ditto, not passing through either of the Locks upon this Canal 3 per Tou, per Mile. 

Veesels entering or going out of either End of this Canal, empty or in ballast, One 

Penny per Ton for Lockage 

Fractions to be charged as for a Quarter of a Ton. 



GLOUCESTER AND CHELTENHAM RAILWAY. 894 

EXEMPTION& 

ffene, Gravel at Sand to be aatd la th* repair of any Road in any Township Umngb. 
which tbte Canal shall pan, and which shall pass from one part of the Canal to 
■■other; also all Dang, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal and TurfandLbae tor Mansce, 
for the Improvement of Land* only within Three Mies of the Canal ; but should 
any of the above Articles nasttvotarh either of the Locks at the two Extremities 
of tbjaCanal, Rates shall be paid as above. • 

Among tjie many advantages derived from the execution of 
this magnificent canal, the avoiding of the dangerous and very 
difficult navigation of a circuitous part of the Severn, is not the 
feast. The distance, by the river, from Sharpness Point to Glou- 
cester, is twenty-eight miles, while by the canal it is only sixteen 
miles and a half, consequently there is a saving of more than 
eleven miles. 

The difference in time cannot exactly be calculated ; one is 
subject to all the inconveniences pf the worst part of the Severn, 
the other is easy, smooth and certain. The completion of this 
canal is likely to make Gloucester a powerful rival of the port of 
Bristol ; and its further important uses will be much better deve- 
loped by an inspection of the accompanying map, than by any 
observations we can add. 



GLOUCESTER AND CHELTENHAM RAILWAY. 

* George nX Cap. 33. Royal Assent 28th April, 1809. 
45 George m. Cap. 41, Royal Assent 13th Hay, 1815. 

This railway commences at the basin of the Gloucester and 
Berkeley Canal, within the city of Gloucester; from whence, 
skirting the south side of the town, it passes the village of Wotton, 
and thence, in a northeasterly direction, by the side of the Mail- 
Road between Gloucester and Cheltenham, and terminates at the 
Knapp Toll Gate, at the latter place. A branch is proposed to 
be extended to the Limestone Quarries at Leckhampton Hill} but 
this is not yet executed. The length of the main line from the 
basin is rather more than eight miles and three quarters ; but, 
including the length of the quay, It it nine miles. 

The proposed branch is two miles and three quarters. 
The estimates for this railway and branch were made by Mr. 
John Hodgkinson, which amounted to £25,261, 14*. vijB. for the 



296 GLOUCESTER AND CHELTENHAM RAILWAY. 

main line, ,£19,005, 14s. and for the branch, £6,256. The calcu- 
lation was made upon a single road, with passing places at every 
quarter of a mile. 

The subscribers to this undertaking, at the time the act was 
obtained, were twenty-six in number, amongst whom were the 
Earl of Suffolk, Lord Sherborne, and Sir William Hicks, Bart, 
who were incorporated by the name of " The Gloucester and 
" Cheltenham Railway Company," and authorized to raise 
among themselves the sum of £25,000, in two hundred and fifty 
shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £10,000, if necessary, 
on mortgage. The act is entitled, ' Jin Act for making and 
' maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the River Severn, at 
' the Quay, in the city of Gloucester, to or near to a certain Gate in 
' or near the town of Cheltenham, in the county of Gloucester, 
' called the Knapp Toll Gate, with a collateral Branch to the top 
1 of Leckhampton Hill, in the parish of Leckhampton, in the said 
' county.'' 

TONNAGE RATES. 

«". 

Stone for the repair of Roads, (except the present Turnpike. > 

Road from Gloucester to Cheltenham) } ' Per r°n, per Mile. 

Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime,-, 
Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone and other Mine- 
rals, Building-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, Bricks, 
Tiles, Slates, Timber, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Bar-iron, 
Waggon-tire, and all Gross and Unmanufactured Articles 
and Building Materials 

AH other Goods, Commodities, Wares or Merchandize 6 ditto. ditto. 

EXEMPTION. 

All Stone for the repairs of the Turnpike-Road between the City of Gloucester and 

Cheltenham. 
Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton and Half a Mile ; but Tonnage a not 

to be taken for more than Eight Miles and a Half on the Main Line, and upon 

Ten Miles and Three Quarters, including the Branch. 

Owners of land may erect wharfs ; but if they refuse, the 
company may do it, and charge the following 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
Coal, Culm, Lime-stone, Clay, iron. Iron-stone, Lead Ore or any other , . _ 

Ores, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles. Slates or Gravel J i per i on. 

All other Goods, Wares and Commodities 2 ditto. 

Provided they do not remain more than Twenty-one Days ; but should they continue 
for the Space of Ten Days over and above that Period, an additional One Penny 
per Ton shall be paid for such Ten Days, and One Penny per Ton for every fur- 
ther Day. 



3 ditto. ditto. 



GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 297 

WHARFAGE AND WAREHOUSING RATES AT CHKLTKNHAM. 

d. 

Per every Package not acceding Fifty -aix Pound* 1 

Ditto, above Fifty-«ix Pound* and under Fire Hundred * 

Ditto, exceeding Five Hundred Pound* 8 per Ton. 

The act of the 55th George III. was obtained for the purpose 
of enabling the proprietors to borrow the further sum of £ 15,000, 
to enable them to complete the railway, and to pay off the debt 
which had been incurred. It is entitled, * An Act for enabling 
' tie Gloucester and Cheltenham Railway Company to raise a fur- 
1 thtr Sum of Money for the completion of their Works? The 
aam above-mentioned may be obtained by the creation of new 
•hares, or in the mode prescribed by the preceding act 

This railway was originally projected with the two-fold pur- 
pose of relieving the roads between Gloucester and Cheltenham 
from the carriage of heavy articles, and for bringing coal to the 
highly celebrated and improving town of Cheltenham ; the im- 
portance of which to the inhabitants of that place has been abun- 
dantly felt by the great reduction in the price of coal that 
immediately took place on completing the railway. 



GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 

S3 Geo. in. C. 80. R. A. 3MB Apr. I7S8. 34Geo.nL C.a*,RA.38th Mar. 17M. 

35 Geo. III. C. 8, R. A. Sth Mar. 1784. 34 Geo. III. C. 43, R. A. 28th Apr. 1705. 

35 Geo. m.C. 85, R.A. tod June, 17SS. 38 Geo. III. C. 35, R. A. Mth Dec. mw. 

38 Geo. III. C. 33. R. A. 38th May, 1796. 41 Geo. 111. C. 71, R. A. 30th June, 1801. 

43 Geo. III. C. 8, R. A 34th Mar. 1808. 45 Geo. III. C. 88, R. A. 27th June, 1805. 

BGeaUXC. 140, R- A. MhJune, 1813. 58 Geo. III. C. IS, R. A. 17th Mar. 1818. 
50 Geo. III. C. 1 1 1, R A. Mnd June, 1819. 

This stupendous and most useful line of navigation begins at 
Braunston, in the county of Northampton, where it unites with 
the Oxford Canal, bordering upon the county of Warwick. Its 
course from Braunston is between Welton and Daventry, with 
a cut one mile and a half to the latter place ; leaving Long 
Breckby to the left, it proceeds to Gayton, where a cut goes off 
five miles to Northampton. From Gayton it paaws Blisworth, 
and through a tunnel to Stoke, Grafton and Cosgrove, near which 
last place there is a branch to Stoney-Stratford ; below this, the 
canal joins the River Ouse, which it crosses; thence, passing 



298 GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 

Great Dinford, Little and Great Wolston, Woughton, &c to 
King's Langley, and from that place through a short tunnel, by 
Grove Park to Rickmansworth, at a little distance from which 
town a branch of two miles extends to Watford ; from Rickmans- 
worth, as far as Uxbridge, in a parallel line with the River Colne, 
which it crosses several times ; from Uxbridge it proceeds to 
Norwood and Osterley Park, where, intersecting the River Brent, 
it falls into the Thames, between Brentford and Sion House, com* 
pleting a course of above ninety miles. 

It was in the year 1792 that this undertaking first had its 
origin. In the beginning of that year the Marquis of Buckingham 
instructed Mr. Barnes, the eminent engineer, to make a survey of 
the country between Braunston, in Northamptonshire, the place 
where the Oxford Canal has its junction with the present canal, 
and the Thames near London, in order to mark out a line of 
canal, whereby the circuitous course by the Thames Navigation 
from Oxford might be avoided, and the transit of goods to the 
metropolis accelerated. Mr. Barnes's survey was laid before a 
public meeting at Stoney-Stratford, in June of the above year, 
when his plan was approved, and a committee formed for carrying 
on the scheme. The first act was consequently obtained, and 
received the royal assent on the 30th April, 1793. It is entitled, 
' An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the 
' Oxford Canal Navigation at Braunston, in the county of JVbrtA- 
' ampton, to join the River Thames at or near Brentford, in the 
' county of Middlesex ; and also certain collateral Cuts from the 
' said intended Canal.' By this act the shareholders, who were 
incorporated under the title of " The Company of Proprietors of 
" the Grand Junction Canal," are empowered to raise ,£500,000, 
in shares of £\QO each, to be deemed personal estate ; and should 
that sum be insufficient to carry the powers of the act into effect, 
they may raise £100,000 more, either amongst themselves, or by 
the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage of the tolls of 
the canal. By this act it is provided that tlie canal shall unite 
with the Thames, at the place where that river receives the 
eastern branch of the River Brent, near Sion House ; and it is 
also enacted that a collateral cut for the navigation of boats, 
barges, and other vessels, shall branch from it at the nortlt-cast 



GHAND JUNCTION CANAL. S99 

end of the town of Daventry, and another, for the Mime purposes, 
to branch therefrom in the pariah of Gayton, in the county of 
' Northampton, to join the navigation of the River Nen, at North- 
ampton ; a third cot from the pariah of Cosgrove, to join the 
turnpike road leading to London, at Old Stratford, in the nme 
•ounty ; and a fourth branch, extending from Rickmantworth to 
Watford, both in Hertfordshire. It is provided, by one of the 
classes of this act, that, b passing through Osterley Park, the 
estates of J. Robinson, Esq. the Duke of Northumberland, and 
James Chtheroe, Esq. the towing-paths shall be on the north, 
north co at, and east side of the canal, and that no water shall be 
taken from those domains to the use of the canal. Reservoirs are 
slso to be provided for supplying the Rivers Grade, Come, and 
Belbourne, with as much water as may be taken from them for its 
Me, and the same provision is made for the River Brent From the 
Thames to Bax's Mill, the owners of wharfs, warehouses, &c are 
not to pay any rates or tolls of this canal, not even the duty of one 
half-penny per ton, which, it will be seen below, is granted to the 
city of London ; and it is farther enacted, that waste water from 
tiiis canal shall be so carried from the summit at Marsworth, as 
neither to impede the navigation of the Brent, nor inconvenience 
the owners of wharfs, &c on it By this act the following are 
■Bowed as 

TONNAGE RATES. 

i. 

Uaw arid Limestone { per Tom, per Mile. 

Cattle, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts. Flint and other Stone, ) 

Bricks. Tiles, Slate, Sand, Follera-earth, Iron-stone, Pig- > \ ditto. ditto, 
iron. Pig-lead, and all Kinds of Manure, (exoept Lime).. ) 

CokeandCoal } ditto. ditto. 

All other Goods, Wares and Mm- handlw whatsoever l ditto. ditto. 

For all Goods, Wares and Merchandize, passing from the Canal > lperTon. 

into the Thames, or vice verta > * "^ 

Ail Barges and other Veaacis whatsoever, navigated on the-v 
Thames, or any part thereof Westward of London Bridge I 
to SenndVon-the-Green, or Brentford, by an Act of the > J ditto, 
nth George HI pay to the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and I 

Commons of the City of London ' 

Fractions to be considered as One Mile, and all Fractions of a Ton to be taken 
according to the Quarters of a Ton contained therein. 
Forty Cubic Feet of Oak, Ash, or Kim, and Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir, Deal, Plank, 
Poplar, Beech or Birch, to be rated as One Ton; One Hundred and Twenty 
Pounds, Avoirdupois, of Coal or Coke, as One Hundred Weight j and One Hun- 
dred and Twelve Pounds of any other Article. 
Proprietors saay fix the Price of Carriage for any Parcel not exceeding Five Hundred 
Weight, affiuog the awoe on every Wharf of the said Canal. 



300 GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 

EXEMPTIONS. 

Officers and Soldiers on march, their Haw, Arm and Baggage, Timber far h»Ma-- 
jesty'sServiee.aiid the Persons liaving Care thereof; Stores for ditto, on Prodnc 
tion of Certificate from the Navy Board or Ordnance. Also Gravel, Sand, and 
other Materials for makipg or repairing any Public Roads, and Manure for Land. 
if the same do not pan any Lock. 

Lords of manors and land-owners may erect warehouses and 
wharfs in their own lands adjoining the canal ; bat if not done after 
due notice from the company, the said company may themselves 
build the same. 



No Rates to be taken by the Owners ofWharfs for Wharfage ofSDneratt, Timber or other 
Goods, unless the same shall lie on the Wharfs orQuays more than Six Hoars, and 
no more than One Penny perTon shall be taken for Wharfage of Coal. Lime -stone. 
I ro n -ston e , Brick, Tile, Slate, Flint, or other Stone or Sand ; nor more than Two- 
pence per Ton for any other Goods, where the same shall remain more than Sis 
Hours, but shall not continue longer than Stx Days, except Coal, Iron and Lime- 
stone, which may remain for Six Months, on Payment of One Penny per To>« 
and after that Time One Half-penny per Ton per Day shall be paid for Wharfage » 
no Money being taken for the Conveyance of Materials for repairing or making of 
Roads. 

The navigation of this canal is open, on payment of the rates, 
as above, for vessels, between the hours of seven and five in 
November, December, January, and February ; between the hours 
of five and seven in March, April, September, and October, and 
'between the hours of four and nine in May, June, July, and 
August; but no boat of less than 60 feet in length, and IS in 
breadth, or of less than thirty tons burthen, can pass any lock 
without special consent, or paying tonnage for thirty tons, unless 
the water runs over at the weir ; but when there is a want of water 
in the locks, vessels only pay for such tonnage as the water allows 
them to carry. But to parties who constantly travel by night, the 
company grant licenses at certain rates per annum for that per- 
mission. 

When this canal was projected, it was thought that it might 
injure the Oxford Canal Company, it was therefore provided by 
the present act, that the following rates should be paid to that 
company. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

». i. 
For all Coals passing from the said Oxford Canal Into or upon the ) 

Intended Grand Junction, without any regard to the Distance V t S par Ton. 
the same shall pass on the said Oxford Canal J 



GRAND JUNCTION CANAL 301 

TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED. 

«. d. 
tottH other Wares, Merchandize and Goods, passing from any navi-' 
- gaWe Canal into the Oxford, and tbence into the intended Canal, 
and viet vena, except Lime, Limestone, and such other Articles 1 
a* sue exempt from Payment of Rates or Duties by the Oxford f * 4 per ton. 
Canal Act, without any regard to the Distance passed on the said I 
Oxford Canal J 

Proportionate Charges to be made for less than a Ton. 

If, after the completion of the canal, from its junction with the 
Oxford Canal to Old Stratford, the tolls to the Oxford do not 
amount to £5,000 a year, the deficiency shall be made good by 
the Grand Junction Company ; and if, after the communication is 
opened between the Oxford Canal and the Thames, or after the 
1st January, 1804, the rates shall not secure to the Oxford Canal 
Company the sum of £10,000 a year, the deficiency shall be made 
good by this company within three months ; it being understood 
that the Oxford Canal is kept in good condition. 

We have mentioned above, the toll of one half-penny per ton, 
to be paid for goods going in or out of this canal from the Thames, 
and the toll of equal amount due to the municipal authorities of 
London; if these rates do not amount annually to £300 from 30th 
April to Midsummer, 1795, and to £500 for the year ending 
Midsummer, 1796 ; £600 for the year 1797, and so on, increasing 
by £100 each year, till 1801, when the sum of £l,000 is to be 
paid to the said Mayor, Aldermen and Commons, or those whom 
they shall appoint, the deficiency shall be made up by the com- 
pany; and if the said tolls exceed the said sums, then the said 
Mayor, Aldermen and Commons shall pay to the said company the 
surplus for the purposes of the act; but after 1801, the excess 
above £l,000 per annum shall belong to the said Mayor, Alder- 
men and Commons of London. A penalty of £50 is to be levied, 
if coals, culm, or cinders are brought by this canal, nearer to 
London than the mouth of the tunnel at Langley Bar. 

In 1794, about a year after the granting of the first act, a 
second was obtained, entitled, * An Act for making certain navi* 
. 'gable Cuts from the town* of Buckingham, Aylesbury, and 
' Wendover, in the county of Buckingham, to communicate with the 
1 Grand Junction Navigation authorized to be made by an Act of 
' the last Session of Parliament, and for amending the said Act.* 



302 GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 

The cuts made under the powers of this act are, one from the town 
of Buckingham, to join the branch canal at Old Stratford; a 
second from Aylesbury, to unite with the canal at Marsworth, two 
miles above Tring; and a third from Wendover, meeting the 
canal at Bulboume, at the summit level. This last is a feeder 
rendered navigable. 

The original line of canal authorized by the first act obtained 
by the company, having been found capable of improvement in the 
parishes of Abbot's Langley, &c. in Hertfordshire, another act 
received the royal assent in March, 1795, entitled, ' An Act far 
' authorizing the Company of the Grand Junction Canal to vary 
' the Course of a certain Part of the said Canal, in the county of 
( Hertford, so as to render the Navigation thereof more safe and 
' convenient, and for making some other Amendments and Altera- 
' tions in an Act made in the Thirty-third Year of the Reign of his 
' present Majesty, for making the said Canal.' The rates of 
tonnage payable on the old line are hereby made payable on the 
new; but it is enacted that no articles, the respective rates of 
tonnage and wharfage whereof were, by the first act, fixed at a 
less sum than one penny per ton per mile, should be permitted 
to pass any lock when the water does not flow over the waste 
weir above such lock, without consent, unless the person conducting 
such articles shall pay the company an additional rate; which 
rate, together with the rates made payable on the said articles by 
the first act, shall not amount to more than one penny per ton per 
mile ; and, in consequence of the safer and speedier conveyance by 
the projected deviation, the company are empowered to receive, 
over and above the former rates of tonnage and wharfage, the 
following 

RATE. 

A 

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Tilings wliatsoever, carried and » „ —„ 
conveyed onanyPart of the Line of said Deviation ofthe Canal.... j ™ 

By this act, the clause of 33rd George III. restraining persons 
from conveying coal, culm, or cinders nearer to the city of London 
than Langley Bar, is repealed, and these articles are now to be 
conveyed not nearer to London than the north-west end of Grove 
Park, under forfeiture of vessel and cargo. 



GBAND JUNCTION CANAL. SOS 

By another act passed in April, 1705, and entitled, ( An Act 
'for making a navigable Cut from the Ortmd Junction Canal, m 
1 tie precinct of Norwood, in the county of Middlesex, to Padding- 
' ton, in the said county,' the company are empowered to make 
and maintain a navigable cut from the canal in Norwood aforesaid, 
through several parishes, &c therein enumerated, to Paddington, 
with a towing-path on each side of the same; and it is also pro- 
Tided that the following should be allowed as 

TONNAGE BATES. 

i. 
For all Lime and Ashes, passing Westward on the said Cot, to j 

be need for Manure, and for all other Manure whatsoever v I per Ton, per Mile, 

pasting Westward on the said. Cut J 

Per all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever .. 1} ditto, ditto. 
For an separate Packages, Parcels and other Articles, not ex- ) 

ceeding Two Hundred Weight each, and belonging and V 1} per Mile. 
consigned to different Persons \. J 

And the Company an empowered to receive, ore? and above the Bates now quoted, 
such Bates or Allowances as may be fixed by them, for all Minerals, Wares, Tim- 
ber or Goods carried on the said Cut, which shall remain on any Wharf or Quay 
belonging to the Company, above Three Hours. 

No Vessel of leas Burthen than Twenty Tons, nor any Boat or Vessel used for carrying 
Ps ss tugm or any Persons not employed in navigating such Boats or Vessels, 
shall be used on the said Cut without the Company's Consent, under a Fine to 
ofTen Pounds for every Offence. 



A further act passed in the same year (1795,) entitled, ' An 
' Act for making and extending a navigable Cut from the town of 
' Watford, in the county of Hertford, to the town of St. Alban, m 
1 the lame county,' authorises the company to receive, over and 
above the rates already secured to them by the former acta, for 
good% &c conveyed on the canal or cuts therefrom, the further 
rata of two-pence per ton for all goods, &c conveyed by them the 
whole length of the intended cut, and ao'in proportion for any leaa 
distance. 

A fourth act was obtained in December, 1795, bearing for its 
title, * An Actio enable the Company of Proprietors of the Grand 
1 Junction Canal to finish and complete the same, and the several 
' Cut* and other Works authorized to be made and done by them, by 
1 virtu* of several Act* of Parliament.' By this act the company 
bad authority to raise, in addition to their former capital, a sum not 
exceeding £885,000, for carrying on the works; and they are also 
empowered to take, on all parts of the said canal, or its various 
cuts, except that from Norwood to Paddington, the following rates. 



304 GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 

ADDITIONAL RATES. 

d. 
For all Lime, Mme-tone , Iron-stone, PliBt, and other Stoat; } . _ „»,,/ 

&U Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Coal and Manure J i P» Ton, per Mile. 

All other Goods, Wares, Merehandte and Thing* whatsoever J ditto. . daxu- 

The proprietors of the Warwick and Braunston Canal having 
obtained legal sanction for varying the course of a certain part qf 
that canal, to unite with the Oxford Canal at Napton instead of 
Braunston, which might injure the Oxford Canal Company, it was 
inserted in a clause of their act that the Oxford Company should 
claim the following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

*. t. 

For all Coal navigated oat of the said intended Canal into the said j 

Oxford Canal, and along the same into the Grand Junction |i t per Ton. 
Canal J 

For all Goods, Wares and Merchandize, except Coals, Lime, Lime. ) 
stone and Manure, which shall be bona fide navigated out of said y 
Intended Canal into said Oxford Canal, and along the same into \ 4 * <ano 
the said Grand Junction Canal, or vice rer«o 

And in proportion for a less Quantity than One Ton. 

Inasmuch as, by the first act for making the Grand Junction 
Canal, certain rates were secured and granted to the Oxford Canal, 
of which, if the annual receipts did not amount respectively to 
£5,000 and £10,000, the Grand Junction were to make good the 
deficiency, it is by this act provided, that the rates or daes then 
granted to the Oxford Canal Company, shall now be deemed pert 
of the aforesaid sums, and the Company of the Oxford Canal may 
lessen their rates, but not so as to lessen the said sums, without 
consent of the Grand Junction Company; and in case the redaction 
should lessen the said sums, then the said Oxford Canal Company 
shall again advance the same, if requested by the Grand Junction 
Canal Company. 

And the Grand Junction Canal Company, to obviate any injury 
from the intended deviation, are empowered to collect, on coal 
and all other goods and things except lime and limestone, passing 
from or out of said Warwick and Napton Canal, as it is now caHed, 
into the Oxford Canal, and navigated on the same, and vice vena, 
an additional rate of sixpence per ton, and so on, in proportion, for 
less quantities. And for collecting the same, and pre v en t in g 
evasion, the Grand Junction are authorised to cause a bar or 
stop-gate, with a toll-house, to be placed upon or across the said 



GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 306 

Warwick and Napton Canal at any place they chose, within one 
honored yards of the junction of the said Warwick and Napton 
with the Oxford CanaL 

Hie next act obtained by the Grand Junction Canal Company 
was passed in 1798 ; and is entitled, ' An Act for confirming and 
1 carrying into Execution certain Articles of Agreement made and 
4 entered into between Beilby, Lord Bishop of London, "noma* 
' Wood, Esq. Sir John Frederick, Bart, and Arthur Stanhope, E$q, 

* Sir John Morshead, Bart, and Dame Elizabeth his wife, and 
1 Robert Thistlethwaite, Esq. and Selina his wife, and the Company 

* of Proprietors of the Grand Junction Canal; and for other 

* Purposes therein*mentioned.' 

This act may be considered as the foundation of the Grand 
Junction Water Works, of which it is not necessary in this work to 
speak particularly. 

The immense undertaking, in which the proprietors of the 
Grand Junction Canal had now, for some years, been engaged, 
demanded a greater supply of funds than they were able to 
provide; they therefore were obliged to go to parliament for its 
authority, to enable them to raise the sums required for the com- 
pletion of their plans; and obtained another act in 1801, entitled, 

* An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Grand 

* Junction Canal more effectually to provide for the Discharge of 

* (heir Debts, and to complete the whole of the Works to be executed 

* by them, in pursuance of the several Acts of the Thirty-third, 
1 Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, and Thirty-eighth Years 
*qf the Reign of his present Majesty; and for altering and en- 

* htrging the Powers and Provisions of the said Acts' They were 
hereby empowered to raise an additional sum of £150,000; and, 
to this end, it was thought advisable, that the parts of £100 shares, 
already or hereafter to be created, instead of being called half, 
quarter, and eighth parts, should in future be reduced into shares 
of £l% 10». each ; and that every possessor of one £100 share 
should, henceforth, be considered as the holder of eight shares at 
£l% 10s. ; and that each holder of one or more such shares of 
£l% 10s. should have a proportionate part of the profits of the 
said undertaking, according to his number of shares; but no pro- 
prietor can vote who has less than eight such shares, nor give mpre 

u 



306 GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 

than one vote for every eight shares he possesses, as far as ten votes ; 
and no proprietor can be elected on the committee who has not at 
least forty such shares. 

At the time of passing this act, it appears that an adjustment 
of accounts took place between the company and the corporation 
of London, and a balance of £\ ,562 being due from the former 
to the lattery an arrangement was made for liquidating this claim ; 
and, in future, the company agreed to pay the corporation £600 
per annum, in lieu of anv deficiencies in the tolls due to the cor- 
poration, as recited in the first act ; the said sum of £600 per 
annum to be paid clear of all parochial rates, or other deductions 
whatsoever. 

Though so considerable a sum of money had been already 
raised, it was still found insufficient, and accordingly another 
act was obtained in 1803, designated, ' An Act for empowering 

* the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Junction Canal, to 
' raise a further Sum of Money to enable them to complete the 
' Works authorized to be executed, in pursuance of the several Acts 
1 passed in the Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty- 
' sixth, Thirty-eighth, and Forty-first Years of the Reign of hit 
1 present Majesty ; and for amending, altering, and enlarging the 

* Powers and Provisions of the said Acts.' By this the proprietors 
are enabled to raise a further sum of £400,000, or such parts 
thereof as they should deem necessary for completing the works ; 
and to provide for the extra cost of making a tunnel at Blisworth, 
and an aqueduct over the Ouse at Wolverton, and for completing 
other works yet unfinished, they have power given them to collect 
the following additional rates. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

«. d. 

For all Coal, Coke, Lime, Lime-stone, Flint and other Stones, Bricks, -. 
Tiles, Slate, Sand. Fuller's-earth, Ironstone, Pig-iron, Pig-lead, 1 
and all Kinds of Manure, carried and conveyed on the said Canal, s. 8 per Ton. 
or through the said Tunnel, or the Deep Cutting at the two | 
Mouths or Entrances of the same J 

For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Things whatsoever . . 14 ditto. 

For all Coal, Coke, Lime, Lime-stone, Flint and other Stone, Bricks, j 

Tiles, Slate, Sand, Fullers-earth, Iron-stone, Pig-iron, Pig-lead, f « . Hitto. 
and alt Kinds of Manure, carried and conveyed on or over any i 
Part of the said Aqueduct J 

For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Things whatsoever . . 8 ditto. 

As the Rules established by the first Act for ascertaining the Weight of Timber and 
other Articles conveyed on the said Canal, had been found very uncertain, it is 
provided by this Act that the Tonnage for Timber and all other Goods whatever. 



GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 307 

sfcoatd be charged aecordisg to their real Weight One Hundred end Twelve 
Pounds Avoirdupois, being deemed and taken for One Hundred Weight with 
respect to all Timber and other Good* whatever 



By litis act it is provided, that a certain part of the money to 
be raised by its authority shall be appropriated solely to the making 
and completing of a collateral branch from the canal at Gayton, to 
join the Nen Navigation at Northampton, and that such collateral 
branch should be completed on or before the 25th March, 1805, 
for all purposes stated in the act. 

Parliamentary assistance was again sought in the year 1805, 
when another act was obtained, entitled, * An Act for altering^ 
1 amending, and enlarging the Power* of certain Acts for making 
* and maintaining the Grand Junction Canal' By this act the 
company, in addition to their other charges, are enabled to demand 
the following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Pot all Goods, Want, Merchandize, and Things navigated and " 
conveyed on or through the said Canal and collateral Cuts, 
or any Part of them, excepting Timber, Coal, Coke, Lime, 
Lime-stone, Flints, Ashes, Breeze, Manure, Clay, Bricks, 
Tiles, Slate, Stone, Fuller's^arth, Iron-stone, Pig-iron, Bar, 
Roiled and Rod Iron, Nails, all Articles of Cast Iron, Pig- 
lead, and every Article of Wrought Iron, not before speci- 
fed, provided such Wrought Iron Article* shall exceed the 
Weight of Fifty-six Pounds 



J per Too, per Mile. 



No Tonnage, however, is to be charged in Addition for any Goods, Merchandise, or 
Things conveyed along or over the Railroad or collateral Communication, or any 
Part thereof, leading from the said Canal to join the River Nine or Afen, at or 
near the Town of Northampton, so long as the said Railroad or any Part of the 
same, should be made use of as a collateral Communication lor the Conveyance 
of Goods, until the said Company shall have completed the Water Communica- 
tion for the whole Length. 

This Act further allows an additional Rate of Sixpence per Ton on all Goods, Ac. 
conveyed through any Lock on the Canal and its collateral Cuts, or any of them, 
except any Lock between Brentford Bridge and the Thames, a less Distance than 
Eight Miles, or paying for a Distance of Eight Miles; and it is further provided, 
that the additional Rate of Sixpence per Ton shall not be paid by Owners and Oc- 
cupiers of certain Brick Fields in the Parish of lslewortb, on the side of the Canal 
and Towing-path there, for Bricks or Tiles manufactured there, or for the Coals,' 
Ashes, and Breeze, Sand, Ac used in making them. 

The Clause of the first Act, regarding the Conveyance of Timber and Stores for his 
Majesty's Service is repealed ; and the Company are empowered to demand Rates 
for tbcae as for all other Goods, subject, however, to a drawback of the whole 
Amount of each Year, provided the Tonnage does not exceed One Thousand 
Tons ; but if more, the drawback shall only be demanded for such Articles, 
amounting to One Thousand Tons, as shall have been first navigated on the Canal 
to the preceding Year. By another Act of the same Year, 1803, Fifty Thousand ' 
Tons of Coal are allowed to be conveyed for One Year, from 1st August, 1805, on 
the add Canal to London, paying a Rait of 10*. »J* per Ton. 

ti 2 



308 GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 

In 1812 another act was passed, entitled, ' An Act to explain, 
' amend, and enlarge the Powers of certain Acts passed for making 
* and maintaining the Grand Junction Canal,'' by which the pro- 
prietors were enabled to complete their truly arduous undertaking, 
and, agreeably to the provisions of the said act, to make a sufficient 
reservoir for supplying the mills situated on the River Colne j they 
were also pledged by this act to make similar reservoirs for the 
mills upon the Berkhampstead or Bulbourne River, and on die 
united Rivers Bulbourne and Gade ; which however they did not 
do ; but, in lieu thereof,' erected a steam engine near Nash Mill, 
on the Bulbourne and Gade, and also made and worked side- 
ponds at four locks, situate near Nash Mill aforesaid, in order to 
diminish the consumption of water. Disputes having arisen be- 
tween the company and the owners of the various mills, through 
the ponds of which, by some great error, the line of canal passes, 
and great delays having occurred in passing the above-noticed 
locks, the company applied for and obtained another act, bearing 
date 17th March, 1818, entitled, < An Act to enable the Grand 
' Junction Canal Company to vary the Line of Part of their Canal 
' in the county of Hertford, and for altering and enlarging the 
' Powers of several Acts relating to the said Canal? 

By this act that part of the canal between Frogmoor Swing 
Bridge, in the parish of Hemel-Hempstead, and its junction with 
the Tail Water of Nash Mill, was abandoned, and the line of 
canal carried into the united Rivers Bulbourne and Gade, as far as 
Nash Mill aforesaid, thereby preventing waste of water and loss 
of time in navigating. The company are also enabled to borrow 
a further sum of ,£30,000 for the purposes of the act ; for com- 
pleting the said deviation ; and for making any other improvements 
on the same. 

The next act was obtained in June, 1819, and entitled, < An 
' Act to vary and alter certain Acts of his present Majesty, relating 
' to the Grand Junction Canal, the Grand Junction Water Works, 
i and the Regent's Canal, in order to effect an Exchange of Water, 
'for the better Supply of the Regent's Canal Navigation and 
' Grand Junction Water Works.' 1 

It will be now necessary to state the different levels on which 
the canal is constructed, from its junction with the Oxford Canal 



GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 309 

at Braunston to its termination at Brentford. There are two sum- 
mit levels; one at Braunston, the other, and most considerable, at 
Tring. From the junction of the two canals, by Braunston 
Tunnel, which is two thousand and forty-five yards long, there is 
a rise of 40 feet, in a distance of five miles and a quarter, to 
Norton ; from Norton to Blisworth Tunnel, (which is three thousand 
and eighty yards in length,) the distance is fourteen miles and a 
quarter, with a fall of 60 feet; from Blisworth Tunnel to the 
Stratford Branch, six miles, with a fall of 80 feet ; from Stratford 
Branch to Fenny Stratford, ten miles and a half, with a fall of 10 
feet ; from Fenny Stratford to the Wendover Branch, in a distance 
of thirteen miles and a half, there is a rise towards the summit 
level in Tring parish, of 100 feet; from Wendover Branch to the 
principal summit at Tring aforesaid, a rise of 50 feet ; the summit 
level here is nearly three miles and a half in length ; the descent is 
then continued with little intermission by Hemel-Hempstead, Rick- 
mansworth, and other places, to Harefield Park, a distance of 
twenty-one miles, with 300 feet fall; thence to Uxbridge, four 
miles, with 16 feet fall; from Uxbridge to its termination at 
Brentford, there is a level of seven miles, the elevation of the 
summit level at Tring being 380 feet above low-water-mark in 
the Thames at Limehouse. The Paddington Branch of fourteen 
miles, is 90 feet above low water. 

The main line of the canal, as before stated, is upwards of 
ninety miles in length ; its depth averages 5 feet, and its width 43 ; 
the Paddington Branch, which may in fact be considered a con- 
tinuation of the main line, is of the same dimensions, and it is 
remarkable that for nearly twenty miles, reckoning from the wharf 
at Paddington io Uxbridge, the direction of the canal is so level, 
•as to require only one lock. The branch to Old Stratford is also 
of the same depth as above, and has no lock in a distance of one 
mile and a half. The continuation of this branch to Buckingham 
has two locks in a distance of nine miles and a half, with a depth 
of 4 feet, and width of 28. The Bulbourne Branch is nearly 
seven miles long, without lock, 4£ feet deep, and 32 feet wide. 
The whole number of locks from the junction with the Oxford 
Canal at Braunston, to the termination of the Paddington Branch, 
is ninety-eight; their dimensions on the main line are, width 14$ 



310 GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 

feet; length, from upper to lower gates, 82 feet On the Buck- 
ingham Branch, at the junction with the Old Stratford Branch, the 
locks are 7 feet wide, with a rise of 13 feet; the rise of the other 
locks averages about 7 feet each, and require nearly two hundred 
and fifty tons of water to fill them. The communication with 
Northampton and the River Nen is by a double railway, allowing 
carriages, going different ways, to pass without interruption. The 
two tunnels average a width of 15 feet, and a height of 19 feet; 
that at Blisworth is 60 feet below the summit of the hill, through 
which it is excavated. There is a line of deep cutting through the 
great chalk-hills between Cow-Roost and Bulbourne, which is 
three miles long, and, in some parts, 30 feet deep ; near Blisworth 
Tunnel, and at Dawley, there are also great lengths of cutting of 
considerable depth ; and, between Wolverton and Cosgrove, there 
is a very lofty embankment, with three aqueduct arches, at the 
crossing of the Ouse River : by means of this embankment nine 
locks are avoided, and a length of twelve miles of level pound on 
the north side of the embankment is held up by a single lock of 18 
inches rise. The embankment is half a mile long, and, at the 
crossing of the Ouse, 30 feet high. An unfortunate mistake 
occurred in taking the levels near Fenny Stratford, for rectifying 
which it was necessary to place another lock of 18 inches rise, in 
order to hold up a pound of some miles, which otherwise would 
have been united to a level pound of ten miles near the same town. 
There are various embankments at Weedon Beck, Bugbrook and 
other places, which it would be superfluous to notice particularly, 
though several of them are of considerable size. Some extensive 
pieces of water are on the canal in different places ; the largest 
being at Haretield Moor, Great Berkhampstead, Helton Park, and 
Wendover. In a line which. passes through the ponds of so many 
mills as this does, it is necessary to have a more than ordinary 
• number of reservoirs to supply the consumption of water in these, 
as well as in the canal itself; the Grand Junction has five; one at 
Daventry, another at Weston Turville", and a third at Braunston; 
these are all of large size. There is also one at Wilston, covering 
forty acres of ground ; but the largest is at Aldenham, covering 
above sixty acres. 

Several feeders are connected with this navigation on different 



GRAND JUNCTION CANAL. 311 

parte of the tine ; that for the southern summit i* near Wendover ; 
and there are three othew near Tring and Miswell, the last of 
which v arched over to the length of a quarter of a mile. The 
northern gammift feeder is from Watford, near' Daventry; and 
&b level has also its banks considerably raised for the purpose of 
accumulating extra water during wet weather. The water Jet 
•own from this summit by lockage is again pumped up out of the 
level of the Oxford Canal by a powerful steam engine. The 
water out of the Wilston Reservoir is also pumped into the Wen- 
dover Branch of the southern level by an engine erected in 1803 ; 
and a little below Two-Waters, in the Colne Valley, the lockage- 
water of four locks there is returned by another engine. A great 
saving of water is also effected on the north and south sides of the 
Tring Summit Level, by the addition of side-ponds to the locks, and 
there are many considerable tumbling bays or weirs throughout 
the line, tlie most remarkable of which are near Great Berkhamp- 
•tead, Uxbridge, and the passage of the Tove or Towcester Hiver ; 
the necessity for which has been occasioned by the peculiar direc- 
tion of the line, which, as we have before stated, passes through 
an immense^number of mill-ponds : besides these, there are over- 
falls, stop-gates and trunks, culverts and bridges, in great numbers. 
The navigation of this canal is used by barges, square at bead 
and stern, and having flat bottoms, of sixty tons burthen, and 
smaller vessels of twenty-five tons burthen, with sharp heads and 
stems. The canal was opened from its junction with the Oxford 
Canal to the embankment at Weedon Beck, in 1790, and, before 
the end of 1797, extended to the tunnel at Blisworth; a communi- 
cation between Two-Waters and the Thames was effected in 
1798; in the ensuing year the canal was completed as far as 
Bulboume, together with the Wendover Branch; in 1800 the 
canal, commencing at the Thames, had reached the south end of 
the projected tunnel at Blisworth; and, till this was completed, a 
communication between this part and the one from the Oxford 
Canal, which, as is seen above, was opened as far as the north end 
of the same tunnel, was made by a temporary railroad three miles 
and upwards in length, over Blisworth HilL In 1801 the Buck- 
ingham Branch was completed, and the whole of this magnificent 
fine opened in 1*», when the Bnaworth Tannel was finished. 



312 GRAND SURREY CANAL. 

It will be seen, from the title of one of the acts quoted above, 
that the company had powers granted for supplying part of Pad- 
dington with water; they have also immense warehouses and 
covered docks at White Friars, which afford stowage to the boats 
and barges of Mr. Pickford's establishment At Paddington there 
is a basin four hundred yards long, and thirty broad, with ranges 
of wharfs, warehouses, and immense sheds for stowing goods in 
all directions around it ; in addition to which, there are all neces- 
sary accommodations for persons attending the Paddington Mar- 
ket (established in 1802,) with cattle, hay, corn, vegetables, &c 

Packet-boats regularly ply on the canal between London and 
Uxbridge, for the conveyance of passengers and parcels; and 
Mr. Pickford has a succession of barges day and night, conveying 
goods on this canal and those connected with it Mr. Barnes, 
Mr. Telford, Mr. Holland, Mr. Jessop, and Mr.Bevan, all of them 
engineers of first rate abilities, have been consulted and employed 
on this canal, and the expectation of the original projectors, as 
far as regards public utility, have been folly realized. The design 
of making a communication between the Grand Junction and the 
various docks at London, has been effected by the Regent's Canal, 
out of which this company have now the privilege of taking the 
water, which they before were authorized to take from the Thames. 

The advantages which the metropolis, and indeed all places on 
the main line and branches, derive from this grand undertaking, 
are incalculable. The staple goods of Manchester, Stourbridge, 
Birmingham, and Wolverhampton ; cheese, salt, lime, stone, tim- 
ber, corn, paper, bricks, &c. &c. are conveyed by it to London, 
whilst in return, groceries, tallow, cotton, tin, manure, and raw 
materials for the manufacturing districts, are constantly passing 
upon it The immense trade on this concern is briefly stated, by 
observing that the tonnage amounts to near £160,000 per annum. 

GRAND SURREY CANAL. 

41 Geo. HI. C. 31, R. A. 21st May, IHOl. 47 Geo. III. C. 80, R. A. 8th Aug. 1807. 
48 Geo. III. C. 89, R. A. 3rd June, IS0& 41 Geo. III. C. 170, R. A. 15th June, 1811. 

The first act obtained for the execution of the Grand Surrey 
Canal is entitled, ' Jin Act for making and maintaining a navigable 



GRAND SURREY CANAL. 313 

* Carnal from the Riser Thames, at or near a plaoe called WUkin- 
'«•?< Qun Wharf, in the parish of St Mary, at Rotherhithe, in 

* tke county of Surrey, to the town of Miteham, in the parish of 
1 Mtioham , in the said county ; and also divers collateral Cuts or 

* Branches communicating from the same to certain parishes and 
' places within the counties of Surrey and Kent.' By this act the 
proprietors are made a corporate body, under the title of " The 
"-Company of Proprietors of the Grand Surrey Canal," and are 
empowered to raise the sum of £60,000 in shares of £100 each, 
or by loan on bond, or mortgage, with a further sum of £30,000, 
if n ece s sa ry. 

The canal commences at Wilkinson's Gun Wharf, on the south 
banks of the River Thames, in Rotherhithe, a quarter of a mile 
below the Thames Tunnel, and directly opposite Shadwell Dock. 
It almost immediately enters the docks belonging to the navigation, 
along which it continues upwards of twelve hundred yards, running 
parallel with the Commercial Docks. Hence its course is south- 
ward, entering Kent and approaching, at Bridge Place, within 
two hundred and fifty yards of the King's Dock Yard at Deptfbrd. 
It» course from this point is directly west by Peckham New Town, 
crossing the Kent Road, and thence in a straight course to the 
north side of Adlington Square, Camberwell Road, where it termi- 
nates. Its total length, including the docks, is four miles and six 
chains. Within seven furlongs ot its western termination, there is 
a branch of half a mile in length proceeding southwardly to Peck- 
ham j and near its junction with the Thames, there is a capacious 
outer dock on the west side of the main dock, five hundred and 
seventy yards in length. 

By the act it is provided that the intended canal and cuts shall 
be supplied with water from the Thames, and all other rivers, 
streams, or brooks found in tugging the said canal, except the 
River Wandle and streams, within two thousand yards thereof, 
running into the same. The company may also cut collateral 
branches to any place within fifteen hundred yards thereof, with 
consent of the owners, on purchasing the ground. Aqueducts are 
-to be made, if necessary, over the Wandle, at least 15 feet from 
mark-stake high in that river, to the surface of the water in the 
; canal, and proper aqueducts over an intended railway from 



314 GRAND SURREY CANAL. 

Wandsworth to Croydon, so that loaded waggons may pass under 
the same ; the span of the arch under such aqueducts to be full 16 
feet wide. The company may make rollers, inclined planes, rail- 
ways, waggon-ways, and cranes, if the conveyance of goods over 
any part of the projected line should require it ; such rollers, &c. 
to be considered as part or parts of the said canal or branches. If 
the cut into Greenland Dock should be made, the proprietors are 
to pay certain sums to be agreed upon by them and the proprietors 
of the dock, for the use thereof for vessels on this canaL This act 
also provides that the company shall receive the following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
For Free-stone, Lime-stone, Chalk, Bricks, Slates, Tiles. Cora ) 

in the Straw, Hay, Straw, Faggots, Dung, Manure, Stones V 2 per Ton, per Mile. 

and Clay J 

For all Cattle, Calves, Sheep, Swine, and other Beasts ; Lime, ) 

Rough Timber, Hemp, Tin, Bark, Iron-stone, Pig-iron and v 3 ditto. ditto. 

Pig-lead J 

For all Coal, Charcoal, Coke, Culm, Flour. Wheat, Barley, > . .... ..„ 

Oats, Beans, Peas, Malt, and Potatoes J * ,uo - al " a 

For all Hops, Fruit, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and other . 6 j itto ^ lt0 

Things whatsoever j 

And in Proportion for more or less than a Ton, and more or less than a Mile. 
Vessels passing in or out of any Outlet or Lock communicating with the Thames, to 
pay according to their Tonnage as for One Mile ; which Charge shall never be 
calculated for less than Five Tons. The same Quantum of Rate to be paid for 
every Vessel passing op or down any Inclined Plane. 

Vessels entering any other company's basins, and landing or 
taking in goods, shall pay the following rates. 

RATES. 

A 

For all Goods, Wares. Merchandize, and other Things whatsoever S per Ton. 

For every Barge or Vessel which has not passed One Mile along the j , -i;it« 
Canal or Cuts J 3 <u " a 

This last Rate is to be deducted from the (rross Amount of Toll, provided the Vessel 

so charged shall afterwards proceed along the whole Line or collateral Cut- 
Fractions of a Quarter of a Ton or a Quarter of a Mile to be reckoned as a Quarter of 
a Ton and a Quarter of a Mile. Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir, Balk, Poplar, Deal or 
Birch; Fifty Cubic Feet of Round, and Forty Cubic Feet of Squ.'ire Oak, Ash, 
Elm, Beech, or other Timber not cut into Scantlings, to be estimated as One Ton; 
One Hundred and Twelve Pounds Avoirdupois of all other Goods, Wares, Mer- 
chandize, or Things whatsoever, to be considered One Hundred Weight ; ami Two 
Thousand Two Hundred and Forty Pounds Weight of the same, One Ton. Rates 
for conveying small Parcels to be fWed by the Proprietors ; and Goods remaining 
on the Wharfs above Twenty-four Hours to be paid for according to Bargain 
between said Company and the Owners. 

The act further provides that £*Z y 2,?. shall be paid as a fine or 
acknowledgment to the mayor and commonalty of London, for the 
liberty of opening a communication between the canal and the 



QBAND SUSSST CANAL. 815 

Thames, together with an annual rent of £00, as a compensation 
for the di minution of tolls, secured to the said major and com* 
monahy under an act of 17th George III. 

The second act obtained by the company in 1807, and entitled, 
* An Att to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Sw 
1 rey Canal to complete the same,' after reciting the previous act, 
and showing that the money thereby authorised to be raised, had 
already been expended in cutting part of the said canal, and ex- 
cavating a basin at Rotberhithe, enables the proprietors to raise* 
further sum of £80,000, for completing the same, by creating new 
shares, or by promissory notes, or by mortgage, or annuities, as 
shall seem most advisable. 

In June, 1808, a third act was obtained by the proprietors, 
entitled, * An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the 
* Grand Surrey Canal to supply with Water the several Towns, 
' Districts, and Places therein mentioned, and to amend the several 
' Acts relative to the said Canal.' The parishes and hamlets which 
the company is by this act authorised to supply with water, are 
St. Mary Rotberhithe, New Cross, St. John and St Mary Mag- 
dalen Bennondsey, St Giles Camberwell, Walworth, Peckham, 
and places adjacent in Surrey and Kent, for the accomplishment 
of which, £14,000 is to be raised by creating additional shares of 
£100 each, or by mortgage ; and the proprietors are authorized 
to pay from the 29th September, 1807, interest at five per cent 
per annum on all monies already advanced, and hereafter to be 
advanced, for snares in this undertaking. 

Though considerable sums, as appears from the acts already 
recited, had been raised for the carrying on of this work, so many 
alterations had been made, and such a variety of additional ex- 
penses had been incurred, that the proprietors were obliged again 
to go to parliament ; and, accordingly, a further act was obtained 
in the year 1811, entitled, '■An Act to enable the Company of 
1 Proprietors of the Grand Surrey Canal to make a collateral Cut 
i communicating therewith, in the parish of St. Mary RotherhUhe, 
1 in the county of Surrey, and to enable the said Company to com- 
' plete the said Canal, and for amending the several Acts relating 
1 thereto' After stating that the company had already completed 
a basin and entrance into die Thames at Rotberhithe, with a Una 



316 



URAND SURREY CANAL. 



of four miles of canal from the said basin to the Camberwell Road, 
and that they had paid off part of the mortgage debt due from 
them, the act empowers them to make a collateral cut, from the 
canal opposite the Commercial Docks in Rotherhithe, along the 
east side of the canal, and parallel thereto, to communicate with 
the basin aforesaid, at the lower end thereof, near the Thames ; 
whereby vessels, using the canal or its cuts, might go into the 
Thames without passing through the basin ; for this purpose, and 
that of liquidating their debts, they are empowered to raise no less 
a sum than £150,000, in addition to the money already subscribed, 
in shares of £100 each, or by promissory notes, or by mortgage, 
or by annuities. By this act also, certain privileges are secured to 
the Croydon Canal Company, the Commercial Dock Company, the 
Kent Water Works' Company, and the city of London. Some 
of the former tolls are repealed, and the following is declared to 
be the scale of the future tonnage and dockage rates. 

TONNAGE AND DOCKAGE RATES. 



Description of Goods, &c 



Rent 

I J" 
| Quarter. 



Dockage on all light Vessels on entering the Basin, per Register j 

Ton J 

Ditto, for the Privilege of receiving or discharging a Cargo addi- } 

tional, per Register Ton J 

For which Charges, Vessels may continue in the Basin as 
follows, viz. 
Vessels of from Thirty Tons to One Hundred Tons, Ten Days. 
Ditto, from One Hundred Tons to One Hundred and Fifty Tons, 

Fourteen Days. 
Ditto, from One Hundred and Fifty Tons to Two Hundred Tons, 

Eighteen Days. 
Ditto, from Two Hundred Tons to Two Hundred and Fifty Tons, 

Twenty-one Days. 
Ditto, from Two Hundred and Fifty Tons to Three Hundred Tons, 

Twenty-four Days. 
Ditto, from Three Hundred Tons to Three Hundred and Fifty Tons. 

Twenty-seven Days. 
Ditto, from Three Hundred and Fifty Tons to Four Hundred Tons, 
Thirty Days. 
After which Time all Vessels may be charged a Weekly Rate 
as follows, viz. 

From Thirty Tons to One Hundred Tons 

From One Hundred ditto to One Hundred and Fifty ditto 

From One Hundred and Fifty ditto to Two Hundred ditto 

From Two Hundred ditto to Two Hundred and Fifty ditto 

From Two Hundred and Fifty ditto to Three Hundred ditto 

From Three Hundred ditto to Three Hundred and Fifty ditto 



£. ». d. 
6 



6 



8 
10 
\% 
14 

16 
18 



£. «. i. 



GRAND SURRKT CANAL. 



317 



TONWAGB AND DOOKAGB BARS OOM1W0BD. 



Daeripnon of Goods, ate. 




Prom Three Hundred «nd Fifty Tom to Four Hundred Toju 

From Foot Hundred ditto to Five Hundred ditto 

Docking each Vessel 

Unlocking ditto , 

Wharfage on Oak and other heavy Timber, per Load 

Ditto bn ditto, and other heavy Planks ditto 

Ditto on large Timber and Masts ditto 

DUtoon small Timber ditto 

Ditto on Deals from the Baltic, per reduced Standard of One , 

Hundred and Twenty ditto $ 

Ditto on ditto from America, ditto 

Ditto on Quebec Pipe Logs of Three and Four Inches, per Thousand 

Ditto on Staves of Two and Two and a Half ditto 

Ditto on ditto of One and One and a Half ditto ditto 

Ditto on Hogshead Logs of Three and Four ditto ditto 

Ditto on ditto Staves of Two and Two and a Half ditto ditto 

Dittoes ditto of One and One and a Half ditto ditto 

Ditto on Barrel Logs of Three and Four ditto ditto 

Ditto on Barrel Stars* of Two and Two and a Half Inches, per > 

Thousand J 

Dtttoon ditto ofOne and One and a Half ditto ditto .... 

Ditto on Heading Logs of Three and Four ditto ditto 

Ditto on ditto Staves of Two and Two and a Half ditto ditto 

Ditto on ditto of One and One and a Half ditto ditto 

Ditto on Flax and Hemp per Ton 

Ditto on Iron ditto 



Ditto on Hats per Bundle of One Hundred 

Ditto on Russia Aabes per Ton 

Ditto on Tallow ditto 

Ditto on Oil per Ton of Two Hundred and Fifty-two Gallons . 

Ditto on Bristles per Cask 

Ditto on Brimstone per Ton 

Ditto on Pitch, Tar, and Turpentine per Barrel 



*. ». t. 

1 

1 3 

10 6 

10 8 

6 

6 



3 
5 



2 6 
16 



£.«. d. 



3 

3 

2 

3 



3 

3 

ou 

13 
13 
13 
13 
15 
10 

10 



10 

10 

10 

10 

I 

Rentser 
Week. 

6 
S 
6 
1-0 

3 

1 
S 



The last Column is the Rent to be paid while stored on the Company's Premises. 



Mr. Ralph Dodd was the engineer for this undertaking, and 
his estimate amounted to ^§80,920, 3*. Id. The sum originally 
subscribed by the shareholders was ^45,300; bat by the different 
acts the company have had authority to raise above £300,000. 
The work has not yet remunerated the proprietors for their outlay, 
not more than two and a half per cent annual interest having yet 
been received on each j£l00 share. The loan of course has had 
regular interest paid upon it, according to the provisions of the act 
But as the profits of this concern, as originally intended, would 
partly depend upon dockage, this source of expected revenue will 



3t8 GRAND UNION CANAL. 

be greatly diminished by the extensive accommodation provided 
by St. Catherine's Docks, and the further extension of the London 
Docks. 



GRAND UNION CANAL. 

» George in. Cap. 122, Royal Assent 24th May, 1810. 

This canal was commenced under the authority of an act of 
parliament, bearing date as above, and entitled, ' An Act for 
' making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Union Canal, 
1 in the parish of Gumley, in the county of Leicester, to join the 
' Grand Junction Canal near Long Buckby, in the county ofNorth- 
1 ampton ; and for making a collateral Cut from the said intended 
' Canal.' 

This canal unites with the Leicester Union Canal near Gumley 
Hall and Foxton, about four miles from Market Harborough ; to 
which latter place there is a collateral cut ; from the junction it 
proceeds in a southern direction to the turnpike-road between 
Lutterworth and Northampton, which it crosses, and near to which 
there are reservoirs for supplying it with water, at the eastern 
extremity of a branch forming the communication with Welford; 
leaving the Welford Branch on the east, it proceeds in the same 
direction as before, by Elkington and Guilsbrough to Crick, 
where there is a considerable reservoir ; leaving Watford on the 
east, it continues its course to its termination in the Grand Junction 
Canal at Long Buckby, in the parish of Norton, having traversed 
a distance of nearly forty-five miles. On this line there are two 
tunnels; one near the crossing of the turnpike-road to Northamp- 
ton, the other at Crick. 

By the act the proprietors are incorporated under the name of 
" The Company of Proprietors of the Grand Union Canal," and 
are empowered to raise a sum not exceeding £200,000, for the 
purposes of the said act, in shares of £100, or half shares of ^50 
each, as shall seem best to the subscribers at their first general 
meeting : and, in case such sum shall not be found sufficient for 
completing the work, the proprietors may raise a further stun not 
exceeding jg50,000, either amongst themselves, or by the creation 



GRAND UNION CANAL. 319 

oi fresh shares, or by mortgage, or by p i um iss uiy notes. And, 
for reimbmaing themselves, they are empowered to ekim the 
following 

TONNAGE BATES. 

«. t. 
For all Coal and Coke passing bom the Grand Junction Canal into) 

the Grand Union, but not carried thereon more than Twelve \ 3 8 per Ton. 

Mile* ) 

For Coal and Coke conveyed on the said Canal to a greater Distance ) 

than Twelve Mile*, and not afterwards conveyed on the Leices- f «t M tta 

terahire and Northamptonshire Canal, for every Mile beyond ( J 

the saidTwelve Miles, in addition :....) 

For all Coal and Coke passing from the Leicestershire and North- ) 

amptonahire Canal into the QrandJL'nion, and not carried there- [S I ditto. 

on more than Eighteen Miles ) 

For all Coal and Coke conveyed above Eighteen Miles, a further ) 

Rate, so that the whole Tonnage does not exceed Two Shillings { s£ ditto. 

and Eleven-pence per Ton ) 

For all Coal and Coke passing from the Leicestershire and North- -j 

amptonahire Canal, along said Grand Union into the Oxford / « « Autn 

Canal, in addition to the saidRate of Two Shillings and Eleven- f * * ^^ 

pence. ) 

For all Lime, Dung, Manure and Limestone, passing through a Lock , . . Mttn 

or Locks at either End of said Canal J ' " oluo- 

For all Cattle, Sheep, Calves, Swine and other Beasts; and for all ) 

Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates and Sand, Iron-stone, Pig-iron and VI I ditto. 

Pig-lead, passing a Lock or Locks J 

AH other G<x>ds,MCTehaiidi7e, Wares and Things whatsoever, passing, , n Aitfn 

through a Lock or Locks , J s " <uno - 

Fractions to be taken as a Quarter of a Mile and a Quarter of a Ton i and Vessels 
passing Locks with less than Twenty Tons of heavy Goods, to pay for Twenty 
Tons. 

The Proprietors have the Power of reducing the Rates, and of again advancing them 
to the Saaas specified above, as Circumstance* may allow i but they are not to 
reduce the Sums of Two Shillings and Sixpence and Two Shillings and Nine. 
pence per Ton, on Coal and Coke conveyed on the Lei c es t ers hi re and Northamp- 
tonshire, and Oxford Canals, respectively, without Consent from those Companies! 
and no other Reductions are to be made without Consent of the Companies 
interested therein. 

The Grand Union Canal Company may erect wharfs and 
warehouses for receiving goads, and make charge* for wharfage, 
a%e»in addition to their tonnage rates; and owners of lands, lords of 
manors, and others, having property on the line at navigation, may 
erect wharfs on the canal or collateral cuts; they may also erect 
bridges, stiles, Ac. at their own cost, die consent of the company 
bring first obtained. 

The plans and estimate of the Grand Union Canal were made 
by Mr. B. Sevan, in the year 1S10. The east of making the said 
eanal, with the branch or collateral cot to Welford, was estimated 
at jgUOyOOQ, including the expenses of tunnels and twenty-one 
look*. The subscripuon list confcuned names for two thousand two 
hundred and fifty-six shares and a half, or g§335,060, and, conse- 
quently, the work was immediately undertaken. 



320 GRAND WESTERN CANAL. 

Though not so extensive as many other parts of our inland 
navigation, the utility of the Grand Union Canal is commensurate 
with most By means of its communication with the Grand 
Junction, the Oxford, and the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire 
Canals, it affords the means of conveying goods to and from many 
populous manufacturing districts and commercial towns, and 
secures a ready transit for their various productions along the 
above-named canals, the Grand Trunk, the Trent and Thames 
Rivers, and most of the navigations of Derbyshire, Yorkshire, and 
Lancashire. 

GRAND WESTERN CANAL. 

3fl George III. Cap. 46, Royal Assent 24th March, 1786. 
SI George III. Cap. 16«, Royal Assent 15th June, 1811. 
M George III. Cap. 16, Royal Assent 20th March, 1812. 

This canal, which is designed to open a communication be- 
tween the Severn and the Bristol Channel, thereby facilitating the 
supply of the country on its line with coals, timber, &c. as well as 
the export of farming produce, was sanctioned by the legislature 
in 1796, under an act, entitled, ' An Act for making a navigable 
c Canal from the River Exe, near the town of Topsham, in the 
1 county of Devon, to the River Tone, near the town of Taunton, 
' in the county of Somerset ; and for cleansing and making naviga- 
' ble a certain Part of the said River Tone ; and for making certain 
c Cuts from the said Canal.' 

By this act the company were incorporated under the title of 
" Proprietors of the Grand Western Canal," and were authorized 
to make a line of navigation from the tideway in the River Exe, 
near Topsham, into the Tone River, in the parish of Bishop's Hull, 
in Somersetshire. They had also the power of making three 
collateral cuts or branches, viz. one in the parish of Cullompton ; 
a second from the parish of Burlescombe to the parish of Tiverton; 
and a third in the parish of Wellington. They also were em- 
powered to make two reservoirs in the valley of the River Culme, 
and two others in the valley of the Tone ; from both which rivers 
they may take supplies of water. That part of the Tone which lies 
between Bishop's Hull and Taunton Bridge is, by this act, con- 
sidered part of the canal, and vested in the proprietors thereof. 



GRAND WSSTKSN CANAL. Ml 

.i»--i8y this act tie proprietors were authorized to collect certain 
4*te% which it is,noi n o oass sr y te mention here, a» they were re- 
ifswled by a subsequent act, and another table substituted in place 
thsfrref The stun of ^80>Q0O is directed to be raised in shares 
of ^100 each, and they might raise i?110y000 in addition, if 
necessary, either amongst themselves, or by new subscribers, or on 
interest The provisions of the act above-recited, were put into invi 
med iat e execution, and the proprietors proceeded to complete their 
undertaking without delay ; but it having been found necessary, to 
vary the line prescribed by the above act, a second was obtained 
for that purpose in 1811, entitled, * An Act to vary and alter the 
( Line of a Cut authorized to be made by an Act of the Thirty-sixth 
1 Year of hit present Majesty ', for making a Canal from the River 

* Exe, near Topsham, in the county of Devon, to the River Tone, 

* near Taunton, in the county of Somerset, and to amend the said 
' AcV In consequence of this second act, the line .was varied, but 

i d iffi c ulti es still remained; to remedy which, parliament was 
i applied to, and in the following year a third was granted, 
sswillnHj ' An Act to alter, and increase the Rates of Tonnage die 
' tkarized to be taken by the Company of Propr i etor s of the Grand 

* Western Canal; and to amend the several Acts passed for making 

* ike said Canal? whereby the former rates, as we before stated, 
were repealed; and, for securing to them a fair remuneration for 
the money expended an the works, and to be hereafter laid out in 
completing them, the proprietors were esnpowered to demand the 
following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

i. 
For all Co*]*, Culm, Cinder*, Coke, Lime, Limestone, Iron- \ 

stone. Iron-ore, Lead-ore, and all other Ores, Stones, Tile*, f » n ^.fr> nn «rtfn» 
Slates, Bricks, Flagstones, Clay and Sand, and all Arti- f 3 P" lon ' P" ""*■ 

cle* used far Manure, and for repairing Roads ' 

For all Koagh Timber, Pig-iron, Bar-iron, Pig-lead, Sheet- ) 

lead. Tin in Lumps and Bars, Charcoal, Salt, Corn, Hay, V 4 ditto, ditto. 

•ad Straw > 

For an Wrought Metals, Oils, Wines, Liquors, Groceries, -\ 

Cheese, Earthenware, and all other Goods, Wares and f t ^ n(k ,i|tto. 
Merchandize, not spectSed before, carried on toe Canal I 

' and Cuts, or any Fart thereof. ' 

Fractions in Distance to be taken a* a whole Mae, sad in Weight as a Quarts of 

a Ton. 
The Company may charge Rates, to be determined by themselves, for the Carriage of 
small Parcel*, and for the Wharfage of such Goods as shall remain mora than 
Twenty-four Hour* on their Wharfs. Tables of such Rates to be put up in some 
catssscuoss Part oTShe Wtosra* 

X 



322 GRANTHAM CANAL. 

The direction of the canal Is nearly north-east ; the length 
about thirty-five miles, crossing the south-west branch of the 
Grand Ridge. 

When it is considered, that by its means, particularly if con- 
nected with the projected Bristol Ship Canal, those populous places, 
Exeter, Wellington, Tiverton, Taunton, &c. will be enabled to 
import and export articles-of commerce and produce, it will be -evi- 
dent that the completion of this undertaking must be of general 
utility. 

GRANTHAM CANAL. 

33 GeorpfC III. Cap. 94, Royal Assent 3()th April, 1793. 
37 George III. Cap. 30, Royal Assent 3rd March, 1787. 

This canal was executed in consequence of an act of parlia- 
ment, bearing date 30th April, 1793, and entitled, ' An Act for 
' making and maintaining a navigable Canal from or nearly from 
' the town of Grantham, in the county of Lincoln, to the River 
' Trent, near Nottingham Trent Bridge ; and also a collateral Cut 
l from the said intended Canal, at or near Cropwell Butler, to the 
' town of Bingham, both in the county of Nottingham.' 

According to the tenor of the above-recited act, the canal com- 
mences on the east side of the town of Grantham, in Lincolnshire, 
from which place it pursues its course nearly due east, though in 
a very circuitous direction, to its termination at the Trent Bridge 
at Nottingham, having completed a distance of above thirty miles. 
After leaving Grantham, it passes by Harloxton to Woolsthorp 
Point, a distance of five miles on the summit level, 197^ feet above 
low water ; from Woolsthorp Point to Stainwith Close, a distance 
of less than two miles, there is a fall of 59 feet nearly ; from 
Stainwith to Cropwell Butler, the distance is twenty miles, and 
level ; from this place to the termination at Trent Bridge, in 
Holme Pierpoint, a distance of four miles, there is a fall to the 
Trent of 88j feet. The canal is cut through a clay soil, and has 
its water entirely supplied by reservoirs, of which there are 
two ; one at the summit level near Denton, of twenty acres, 9 
feet deep ; the other at Knipton, made for the purpose of receiv- 
ing the flood waters of the River Devon, and covering sixty 



GRANTHAM CANAL. 333 

first made, thk reservoir was 9 feet deep, but the 
head has since been raised 4 feet higher. The act authorized 
the proprietors to raise amongst themselves the sum of £75,000, 
and an additional sum of £30,000, whereof £30,000 should be 
raised by shares of £100 each, amongst the said proprietors, and 
£10,000 by mortgage of the tolls and rates. 

The money originally directed to be raised having been ex- 
pended on the works, and some misunderstanding having arisen 
amongst the shareholders as to their liability to raise the additional 
£40,000 mentioned above, application was made to parliament for 
a second act, to set the matter at rest, which was obtained in 1707, 
and bears for title, * An Act for enabling the Company of Proprie- 
' tors of the Grantham Canal Navigation, to finish and complete 
' the same, and the collateral Cuts to communicate therewith ; and 
t for amending the Act of Parliament, passed in the Thirty-third 

* Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making and main- 

* taming the said Canal and collateral Cut' 

By this act, such proprietors as had not paid the two calls 
of £10 each, over and above the original £75,000, already made 
voder the first act, were required to pay the same forthwith, 
and the said calk were consolidated, with their original subscrip- 
tions, into shares of £120 each ; and the company were empow- 
ered to raise £24,000 more, by creating additional shares of £190 
each. 

By the first act it was determined, that the proprietors should 
not divide a profit of more than eight per cent per annum ; and 
that after a fund of £3,000 had been collected, the tolls were to be 
reduced ; but, by the subsequent act, these clauses were repealed ; 
and they are now at liberty to divide the nett receipts, and to raise 
or lower their tolls, as may seem expedient to the committee. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
ForaUQooda, Want, Merchandize and Things, pasting on this, oi__.ru,, 

Canal to or from the Trent River J *J P" ,0 »- 

For the same navigating on thi» Canal U ditto, per Mil- 
Limestone J ditto, ditto. 

Manure, Materials for Roads, and Goods for the sole Ose of Charles Pterpoint and 

John Musters, Esquires, and of the other Proprietors and Tenants of Estates 

through which the Canal passes, are exempt from the Toll of Two-pence Half. 

penny per Ton, on passing in or out of the Trent. 

X i 



324 GHESLEY CANAL. 

The proprietors of the Trent Navigation are compelled to 
make the bed of that river 30 inches deep of water at Trent Bridge 
in the driest seasons. 

The navigation is now complete, with the exception of the 
collateral cut to Bingham, and the advantages to the town of 
Grantham are very great; com, timber, coals, lime, and many 
other articles both of import and export, by the communication 
opened through this canal, with those of Nottingham and Crom- 
ford, are now transferred at a comparatively easy cost, giving) 
amongst other tilings, to the inhabitants of this district, the comforts 
of fuel at a much less expense than heretofore. 



GRESLEY CANAL. 

U George III. Cap. 16, Royal Aaatnt 13th April, 1775. 

This canal, which pursues a north-west direction, and is level 
throughout, was made at the expense of Sir Nigel Gresley, Bart 
and Nigel Bowyer Gresley, Esq. his son and heir-apparent, for the 
purpose of conveying the produce of their extensive coal mines io 
Apedale, in Staffordshire, to the town of Newcastle-under-Lyne, 
in the same county, and of facilitating their transit to other parts 
of the country by means of the Newcastle-under-Lyne Junction, 
and other navigations. 

The act obtained as above, is entitled, * An Jet to enable Sir 

* Nigel Greeley, Bart and Nigel Bowyer Gresley, Esq. hi* Son, to 
1 make and maintain a navigable Cut or Canal from certain Coal 
' Mine* in dpedale, to Newcastle-under-Lyne, m the county of 

* Stafford.' This act, after making the usual provisions, binds the 
proprietors for twenty-one years from and after the date thereof, 
to furnish the inhabitants of Newcastle with coals at St. per ton of 
twenty hundred weight, weighing one hundred and twenty pounds 
each hundred weight, and in like proportion for a single hundred 
weight At the expiration of the first twenty-one years the 
proprietors, or their heirs, are to furnish coals at St. 6d. per ton for 
an additional term of twenty-one years; which last quoted price 
may, under certain conditions, be raised to 6*. per ton; the pro* 



-QRIMSBY PORT OR HAVEN. 325 

prietors, in either case, binding themselves, under the penalty of 
£40 for each offence, to keep a supply of coals sufficient for the 
consumption of the town, at a wharf in or near the same. 

There are few private works of more real utility to the public 
than Sir Nigel Gresley's Canal, which has added considerably to 
die interests of the inhabitants of Newcastle, by the regularity 
wherewith they are supplied with coal at a moderate charge. 



GRIMSBY PORT OR HAVEN. 

38 George EEL Cap. 88, Royal Assent 14th May. 1786. 

39 George lit Cap. 70, Royal Asent 13th July, 1799. 

The wet docks in Grimsby Harbour or Haven are connected 
with the mouth of the Humber, in the tideway of that river, by 
one of the largest cuts in the kingdom, being calculated to admit 
•hips of as much as one thousand tons burthen. The length of the 
canal is inconsiderable, being only one mile and a half, with one 
lock 136 feet long, 36 feet wide, and 27 feet high within the walls ; 
which lock, independent of the charge for piling and foundations, 
cost upwards of £14,000. Mr. Rennie was the engineer em- 
ployed upon this useful undertaking ; the first act for which was 
put in execution soon after the royal assent thereto had been 
obtained. The wet docks at Grimsby having proved insufficient, 
an addition thereto of three acres was made and completed in 
1804, under the powers of the second act obtained in 1799. The 
direction of the canal is south-west, and the depth of water in it 
20 feet. 

When Grimsby obtained the privilege of becoming ( independent 
of Hull) 8 port for the purpose of Foreign imports and exports, the 
extent of the port was precisely defined by his Majesty's commis- 
sioners; and, by the act of parliament, and -the powers and privi* 
leges granted to the port, certain dues can' be charged upon' all 
shipping which enter the same. But the enumeration of such 
charges could answer no purpose, except to lengthen this article; 
we therefore think it better to refer parties immediately interested 
in the port dues, to the act of parliament under which they are 
imposed. 



326 GROSMONT RAILWAY OR TRAMROAD. 



GROSMONT RAILWAY OR TRAMROAD. 

33 George HI. Cap. 107, Royal Assent 20th May, 1813. 
This railway was laid down by Mr. John Hodgkinson, who 
estimated the cost of completing the same at £12,000. The sum 
of £10,900 being subscribed in £100 shares, the work commenced 
under the sanction of the legislature in an act, entitled, ' An Act 
i for making and maintaining a Railway from the End of the 
' Llawihangel Railway in the parish of Llawihangel Crucorney, 
' in the county of Monmouth, to or near to the Twelfth Mile-stone, 
' in the Road leading from the town of Abergavenny, in the county 
' of Monmouth, to the city of Hereford.' The clause for remune- 
rating the proprietors enacts the following as 

TONNAGE RATES. 



Dung, Compost, Limestone, Manure and Materials for Roads. . 2 per Ton, per Mile. 

Lime, Chalk, Marl, Ashes, Peat, Clay, Bricks and Sand 3 ditto, ditto. 

Coal, Cinders, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Tin, Copper, Lead-ore, l 

Pig or Sheet-lead, Iron-stone or Ore, Pig and Bar-iron, Tim- f 4 ditto, ditto. 

ber. Tiles, Slates, Flag-stones and other Stones ) 

Allother Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Thingswhatsoever.. 6 ditto, ditto. 

A Fraction of a Ton to be considered as the Quarters contained in such Fraction ; 
and a Fraction of a Quarter as One Quarter. A Fraction of a Mile to be consi- 
dered as the Quarters contained in it, and of a Quarter as One Quarter. 

TOLLS TO BE TAKEN ON THE RAILWAY. 

». d. 
For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Colt, Mule, Ass, or other Beast -\ 

carrying or drawing Goods, Wares or Merchandize liable to f „ , . 

pay Tonnage Rates, and passing through any Stop-gate or f eacn. 

other Gate on the Railway J 

For alt Cows and Horned or Neat Cattle, except Sheep or Swine, « _ ji to 

driven loose on the said Railway j 

For all Sheep and Swine 1 3 per Score. 

All Waggons and Carriages carrying Persons for Hire on the said > „ „ .j,^ 

Railway, for each Passenger i ^perjm ■ 

This tramroad, which may be considered a continuation of the 
Llawihangel Railway, was designed to facilitate the communica- 
tion with Herefordshire, and thereby contribute to the easier transit 
of the various products and commodities, both of import and export, 
and is nearly seven miles in length, from its commencement at the 
Llawihangel Railway to its termination at Llangua Bridge. 

The fund to be raised for the purposes of the act is £l 3,000, 
in £100 shares, with the power of raising a farther sum of £7,000, 
either amongst themselves, or by creating new shares, or by 
mortgage. 



HAMOAZE R1VER-HARTLEPOOL CANAL. 397 

When it is stated, that by this railway a difference in the level 
of from 100 to 168 feet is made in the distance above specified, it 
is hardly necessary to add, that were it even for nothing bat the 
saving of time and labour in the conveyance of goods, the work 
could not fail to be of very great utility. 



HAMOAZE RIVER OR ESTUARY. 

This river is navigable for ships of war of the greatest size, 
and, in consequence of its connection with Plymouth Sound, is of 
great service as a harbour. It extends in a direction almost due 
north from Cawsand Bay to the Tamar River near St Mellion, 
a distance of about nine miles, leaving as its branches Cat Water, 
Sutton Pool, and Stone-House Creek; communicating also with 
the River Tavey, near Wartey, and passing, in its course, by 
Plympton Earle, and Sahash, both considerable towns. Several 
i m provements have been contemplated and undertaken on this 
river and its branehes, amongst which may be mentioned the 
bridge and causeway over Stone-House Creek, projected by Mr. 
Snteeton in 1767; a pier from Penke Point to protect the ships 
mCawsaad Bay from the east and south-east winds; the deepen- 
ing' and cleansing of Cat Water and Sutton Pool, for which 
J§H,000 was granted in the 45th George IIL; and the construction 
of a floating dock in Sutton Pool, capable of holding one hundred 
merchantmen afloat 



HARTLEPOOL CANAL. 

Tais eanal, three hundred yards long and 19 feet deep, the 
whole of which is cot through the solid rock, was executed in the 
year 1794) at the expense of Sir J. H. Duval, for the purpose of 
connecting Hartlepool Harbour, on the coast of Durham, with the 
sea. As a private work, it is not necessary for us to enter into 
details of its construction, or the cost of its execution. It has been 
the means of saving many valuable lives; for in stormy weather, 
vessels now can enter the harbour, where they lie in security. 



328 HAY RAILWAY 



HAY RAILWAY. 

51 George III. Cap. 122, Royal Assent 25th May, 1811. 

52 George 11L Cap. 106, Royal Assent 20th May, 1812. 

This railway commences at the wharf of the Brecknock and 
Abergavenny Canal, not far from the town of Brecon, and pur- 
suing a circuitous course through a mountainous district, in some 
parts 670 feet or more above the level of the sea, it ends at the 
village of Eardisley, in the county of Hereford, where a junction 
of the Kington Railroad has since been made with it. 

This undertaking was commenced in the latter end of the 
year 1811, under the authority of an act of the legislature, en- 
titled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a Railway from or 
' near the public Wharf of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, 
' in the parish of St. John the Evangelist, in the county of Brecon, 
1 to or near to a certain Place called Parton Cross, in the parish of 
' Eardisley, in the county of Hereford.' But before the proprie- 
tors had advanced far in their work, they perceived the necessity 
of varying the line of their original design, and, consequently, 
went again to parliament for the purpose of obtaining a second 
act, which received the royal assent in 1812, and is styled, ' An 
1 Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Hay RaiU 
' way to amend, vary, and extend the Line of the said Railway, and 
'for altering and enlarging the Powers of an Act passed in the 
' Fifty-first Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making 
' and maintaining the said Railway.' 

By the first act the proprietors have power to raise £ 50,000 
in shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £15,000, if neces- 
sary, amongst themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, 
or by mortgage, or by promissory notes. The work commenced 
with a subscription, in £100 shares, of £47,500. Under the pro- 
visions of these acts the work has been completed ; and the fol- 
lowing are fixed as 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
For all Lime-stone, Stone for repairing Turnpike-Roads ami \ 

Highways, Dung, Compost and all SorUof Manure.except f „ _ M u 

Lime, such a Sum a« the Company shall direct, not ex- f per ,on ' v " ™ 
eecdtng 3 



HAY RAILWAY. 328 



TONNAGE BATES OONTDTUBD. 



*cr all Coal, Coke, Cuto, Stone, Cinders, Marl, Lime, Sand,. 

Clay, Feat, Iron-stone and other Minerals, Building-atone, I 

Pitching and Pavmg-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Timber, V 4 per Ton, per Mile. 

Lead inPig* or Sheets, Bar-iron, Waggon-tire, and all Gross] 

and Unmanufactured Articles, a Sam not exceeding J 

For ail other Goods, Commodities, Wares and Mnvhandire, . „.. ;„. 

whatsoever, a Sum not exceeding }• <Btt0 - <Btto - 

Fractions or a Ton to be considered as Qoartersof a Ton, and of a Mile as Quarters 
of a Mile. The Rate of Charge for small Parcels not eiccedtng Five Hundred, 
Weight, to be fixed by the Company. 

Owners sad Occupiers of Land may pass on the said Railway free ofToll, as fin- as the 
same extends through their Lands, and may drive Cattle and Sheep along the 



Lords of manors and owners of land, through which the road 
passes, may erect wharfs, &c. on the line ; and if they refuse to 
do so, then the company are authorized. In case of lords of 
manors and others erecting wharfs, &c. the following rates will be 
allowed. 

WHARFAGE AND WAREHOUSDJO RATES. 

A 

to 'Wharfage of all Goods mentioned at above 1 perTon.. 

Bur Warehousing of all Parcels not weighing more than Fifty-six Pounds 1 each. 
For ditto of all above Fifty-six Pounds, and not more than Five Hun- } a Mttn 

dredWeigbt i w ' . 

For ditto of all Packages above Five Hundred Weight 6. ditto. 

If they remain on a Wharf or in a Warehouse above Forty-eight Hours, then a further 

Charge may be made for the first Ten Days, of One Penny per Ton for Wharfage, 

and Three-pence per Ton for Warehousing ; after the Space of Ten Days, the same 

Bates for every Day till removed. 

The railroad was laid down by Mr. John Hodgkinson, who de- 
signed two lines of road, one twenty-«x miles in length, without 
a tunnel, the estimate for which was £60,375, 12*.; the other 
twenty-four miles long, with a tunnel, and on a line which does 
not rise mow than 7 inches in the chain, estimated at £52,743, 18*. 
This latter is the one adopted ; and, taking the level line from the 
wharf of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, where the road 
commences, the rises and falls thereof, are as here stated, viz. from, 
the wharf to the tunnel, (which latter is two furlongs five chains 
long,) in a distance of three miles and three quarters, a rise of 169 
feet 2 inches above the level ; from the outlet of the tunnel, which 
is 184 feet 2 inches above the level line, there is a descent in eight 
miles of 154 feet 2 inches below the same; for the next four 
miles and three quarters, the road has a further fall of 95 feet; 
from mat fall to the termination of the railroad at Eardisley vil- 
lage, being a distance of nearly seven miles and a half, there b a 
rise of 78 feet 



330 HECK AND WENTBRIDGE RAILWAY. 

The advantages of this railroad to the owners of property on 
its line are very considerable, independent of the facilities it 
affords for the transit of goods, minerals, and other produce, by 
means of its connection with the Brecknock and Abergavenny 
Canal, the Kington Railroad, and, through it, with the Leominster 
Canal, and the extended line of country to which it thereby trans- 
fers the produce carried along it 



HECK AND WENTBRIDGE RAILWAY. 

7 George IV. Cap. 46, Koyal Assent 5th May, 1826. 

8 George IV. Cap. 20, Royal Assent lith April, 1827. 

This work commences at a place called Wentbridge, adjoining 
the turnpike-road from Doncaster to Ferrybridge ; and, pursuing 
a circuitous course in a north-east direction, arrives at its termina- 
tion in the basin communicating with that part of the Aire and 
Calder Navigation called the Knottingley and Goole Canal, in the 
township of Heck, after having completed a distance of seven 
miles and thirty-five chains. 

The first proceeding in this work was under authority of an act, 
entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tram- 
1 road from Heckbridge, in the parish of Snaith, to Wentbridge, in 
' the parish of Kirksmeaton, all in the West Riding of the county 
« of York.' 

By this act it was determined that the subscribers, who were 
called " The Heck and Wentbridge Railway Company," should 
make and maintain a railway or tramroad from Far Fleet Close, 
at or near Heckbridge, in the parish of Snaith, and passing 
through the parishes of Womersley, CainpsalL, Kirksmeaton and 
Darrington, and through or into the hamlets or townships of Pol- 
lington, Heck, Whitley, Balne, Stubbs Walden, Stapleton, and 
Wentbridge, terminating in the great north road, at the last-men- 
tioned place. They are also required to make a dock or basin at 
the communication of their railway with the canal from Knotting- 
ley to Goole, for loading and unloading vessels, together with a 
bridge for haling horses to pass over the cut joining such basin or 
dock with the canal. For these and other purposes of the act, 



HBCK AND WENTBRIDOB RAILWAY. 331 

♦Jsey are empowered to raise aroongrt tfae mn etf » in shares jof 
£lOO each, a sum not exceeding £11,300; and they may, if 
n ee dful , raise a further swan of £%/&0Q, by borrowing on mart- 
gage of the rates. For paying interest of capital,, and mrmana; 
borrowed, they have authority tb demand the following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

4L 
For an Materials for repairing Roads, and for all Dung, Com. , i—tmh-ibi, 

port and Stable Manure J- ^ l v a t^F>*', 

For all Stone of era; Description, except for repairing Roads, -\ 

Lime-stone, Lime, Coal, Coke, Calm, Charcoal, Cinders, f 3 ,«.». jju- ' 

Sand, Clay, Bricks, Tiles, Earth, Timber, Staves, Deals,? w * 

Lead, Iron or other Metal 3 

For all Manufactured Goods, and all other Goods, Wares, Mer-, . .... Mt . 

cbandixe. Matters or Things whatsoever j 4 <utt0 - <att0 - 

N0T0U to be taken for Manure of any Description used on the Lands in Heck, Balne, 
Womeisle7.StubtaWaHeB.I^teSin«a*oB,iBrka«>eatoo 
from Heckbridge into these Townships. 

la Addition to the above Rates, the Proprietors are anthorized to charge Sixpence per 
Ton on all Goods, Wares, MnchanriiM*, and Things whatsoever, which shall pass 
sny Inclined Plane on the Railroad. Fractions of a Ton to be taken as Quarters 
of a Ton, and of a Quarter, as One .Quarter j Fractions of a Mile to be taken. Uj 
Quarters, snd of a Quarter as One Quarter. Small Parcels and Packages not 
exceeding Five Hundred Pounds to be charged for according to Rates determined' 
by the Company, who also have Power to reduce the Tolls, and again to advance 
them, as Circumstances may demand. 

Owners and Occupiers of Land have the usual Power of passing along the Railway 
without paying Tolls ; they may also erect Wharfs, Warehouses, ace on their 
Lands adjacent to the Railway, for Warehousing Goods; or, in Case they refuse 
so to do, the Proprietors may erect the same, paying for the Land taken for such 
Purposes. 

The company, or other persons erecting wharfs, warehouses, 
&c. are empowered to demand the following 

WHARFAGE AND WAREHOUSING RATES. 

i. 
For Coals, Culm, Lime, Limestone, Clay, Iron, Ironstone, Copper-ore, j 

or other Ores, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles, Slates, Gravel, or other I 2 per Too. 

Things J 

For every Package not exceeding Fifty-six Pounds Weight 3 each. 

For ditto exceeding Fifty-six Pounds, and not more than Three Hun- -, „..„ 

dredPounda J 3dltt0 - 

For ditto exceeding Three Hundred Pounds, and not more than Six 1 4 ,jj tta 

Hundred Pounds i 

For ditto exceeding Six Hundred Pounds, and not more than One Ton 6 ditto. 
For all Packages exceeding One Ton .1 Spar Ton. 

After remaining Forty-eight Hours on the Wharfs or in Warehouses, the Owners are 
to pay One Penny per Ton Wharfage, and Two-pence per Ton Warehousing for 
the next Seven Days, and the said Sums; respectively tor every succeeding Sevea, 
Days. 

The estimate for this work was made by Mr. Enoch Taylor, 
who omitted to calculate the expense of making the basin or dock, 
and the cut joining it to the canal, with the bridge over the same, 
and other works connected therewith; indeed the proprietors 



332 HEDON HAVEN. 

themselves, in their first scheme, had no intention of making either 
basin, cut or bridge, excepting a swivel bridge for the towing- 
path, and therefore found their original stock too small for the 
purposes of their act ; to remedy the first omission, they obtained, 
on the 12th April, 1827, another bet, entitled, * An Act to amend 
1 and enlarge the Powers and Provisions of an Act relating to the 
' Heckbridge and Wentbridge Railway' By this they were em- 
powered to purchase twenty acres of land, in addition to the six 
acres for which the former act made provision, for making the 
dock or basin, cut and bridge before-mentioned, as also coal-yards, 
warehouses, wharfs, and other buildings and conveniences; they 
may also raise a further sum of £7,600 amongst themselves, or by 
the creation of new shares, or by borrowing of the Commissioners 
of Exchequer Bills, for the purposes of the said act. 

The original object for constructing this railway, was to bring 
the stone situate at Wentbridge and Smeaton into the London 
and other distant markets. 



HEDON HAVEN. 

14 George III. Cap. 106. Royal Assent 20th May, 1774. 

The harbour of Hedon having, from the accumulation of warp, 
&c. in the bed of the River Humber for a long series of years, 
become unnavigable, an act, entitled, ' An Act for recovering, 
* improving, and maintaining the Navigation of tlie Haven of 
' Hedon, in Holdernesse, in the East Riding of the county of York,' 
was obtained in the year 1774, for the purpose of remedying this 
inconvenience, and to render the harbour again navigable from 
low-water-mark to the turnpike-road near the town of Hedon, 
leading to Patrington ; and also for making a reservoir or basin 
near the said road. For these purposes, the commissioners named 
in the act were empowered to borrow money on security of the 
tolls ; and the following were determined on as 



TONNAGE RATES. 

». d. 

Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas or Rapeseed o 6 per Quarter. 

Malt, Oats, Barley, or other Grain not before named o 4 ditto. 

For every Sack of Meal or Flour containing Five Bunheli 6 per Sack. 



HEREFORD RAIL WAT. . 333 

TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED. 

*. i. 

Coal^ Qita or Cinders, cfForty.4igtt Bushels to the Chaldbon 8 « per Chaldron. 

Brick, Stone, THe, or Lime for Building 3 SperTon. 

AB other Goods, Wares, Merchandize or Couracdities whatso- , . . .... 

ever, not before eonmented } 4 ° ditto - 

And in Proportion for lesser Weights and Quantities, 
aasedsreraajiring on the Wharfs, ice. above Twenty-four Hours, are to pay Wharfage 
Bates appointed by the Commissioners. Manure, Hay and Straw not for Sale, 
bat to be used by the Owners, are exempt from the Tolls. 

The comnuarioners appear to have proceeded in the execution 
qf the plan for which the- act was obtained ;, hat the trade of Hedon 
having greatly declined, the advantages accruing are only of a 
limited nature. 



HEREFORD RAILWAY. 

7 George IV. Cap. WD, Royal Assent ttth May, 18J& 

Wk have, in a former page,. given an account of the Crraamont 
Railway, to which the present may be properly considered an 
addition. The act for executing it was obtained in 1836, and bears 
for its title, * An Act for making and maintaining a Tramroad or 

* Railway from the End of the Grosmont Railway, at Monmouth 
' Cajfy in the parish of Llangua, in the county of Monmouth, to 
1 Wye Bridge, in the parish of Saint Martin, within the Liberties 

* of 'ike cityof Hereford? Locomotive engines are allowed by the 
act, and the following are appointed as 

TONNAGE BATES. 

i 
For ell Dong, Compost, Limestone, Manure airi Material* for, _____ „__,,. 

repairing Roads \ » per Ton, per Mile. 

For an Lime, Chalk, Marl, Peat, Ashes, Clay. Bricks and Sand. 3 ditto, ditto. 
For all Coals, Cinders, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Tin, Copper, \ 

Lead-ore, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Iron-stone or Ore, Iron in I . j,, to j jtt ^ 
Pigs, Bar-iron, Timber, Tiles, Slates, Flag-stones and other t * <ul "'- """*■ 
Stone 



ditto, ditto. 



For an other Goods, Wares, Mfrohmviisfi and Things what-, _ 
soerer i 6 

Fractions of a Ton to be taken as the Number of Quarters in the Fractions, and of a 
Quarter as a Quarter. Fraction* of a Mile as Quarters, and of a Quarter as a 
Quarter. 

For passing along the road with cattle, dtc. the following are 
the authorized tolls. 



334 HEREFORD AND GLOUCESTER CANAL. 

TOLLS. 

>. d. 
For every Hone, Mule, Ass or other Beast, (not carrying or drawing j 

Goods, ice. liable to the previously stated Rates), which shall > 3 each. 

pass any Stop-gate or Toll-house ) 

For all Cows, Horned or Neat Cattle, except Sheep and Swine ... . 2 ditto. 

For all Sheep and Swine 1 3 per Score. 

For all Waggons and Carriages carrying Persons for Hire on the , „ 

said Railway, for each Person so carried J V° ^^ 

Small Parcels under Five Hundred Weight are to be paid for according to a Rate to 
be fixed by the Company. 

The proprietors are empowered to raise £23,200 in shares of 
£100 each ; and if need be, an additional sum of £12,000 by 
mortgage. 

From an inspection of the communication with various parts of 
the kingdom, which will appear by referring to the map, it is 
evident that the execution of this railroad will prove of very great 
convenience to the owners of property on its line ; the various pro- 
ductions of the particular district through which it is designed to 
be made, will thus have a ready conveyance, while, by the same 
means, the staple commodities of other places will be as easily 
conveyed to the towns in its vicinity. 



HEREFORD AND GLOUCESTER CANAL. 

31 George 111. Cap. 89, Royal Assent llth April, 1791. 
33 George 111. Cap. 119, Royal Assent llth July, 1793. 

This useful branch of inland navigation, which is about thirty- 
five miles and a half in length from its commencement at Hereford 
to the tideway of the Severn at Gloucester, was projected under 
the superintendence of Mr. Joseph Clowes, civil engineer, in the 
latter end of 1790; and the first act obtained for the execution of 
the work, was passed in the following year, under the title of ' An 
1 Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from 
* the city of Hereford to the city of Gloucester, with a collateral Cut 
'from the same to the town ofNewent, in the county of Gloucester.' 

The act being obtained, the necessary works were soon after 
commenced ; but it having been found necessary to vary the 
original line, and to make other alterations, a second act was ob- 
tained in 1793, entitled, ' An Act to vary and extend the Line of the 
1 Canal authorized to be made by an Act passed in the Thirty-first 



HEREPOBD AND OLOUCBSTER CANAL. 335 

c Tear of $e Reign of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for 
1 making and mmntammg a navigable Cut or Caned from the city Of 

* Hereford to the city of Gloucester, with a collateral Cut from the 

* same to the town of Jfewent, in the county of Gloucester.' 

This canal pursues a northerly direction from Byster's Gate in 
Hereford, near to the banks of the Wye, till it cornea to 4he River 
Logg, near Saltan St. Michael and Sultan St Nicholas; hating 
crossed this river, it takes an easterly course to Munaiey j thence 
crossing the River Leadon,it proeeeds in a southerly direction, 131 
it again crosses the Leadon, two miles below Ledbury; after pur- 
string its course to Denimoch easterly, it crosses the same river for 
a third and fourth time at four miles from the last-mentioned place; 
proceeding onwards to its termination, It passes by -Potmtleyj 
Newent^ Radford and Lassmgton, crossing for the last time the 
Leade n , and also a branch of the Severn, in which river, alter 
going through a cut across Alney Island, it terminates opposite to 
Gloucester. 

By the first act the proprietors of this canal were authorized to 
demand the following 

TONNAGE KATES. 

4. 

For Manure, Brieks, Robbie, lime and Clay 1 per Ton, per Mile. 

For Coals 2 ditto, ditto. 

For Cam. Meal, Hewn-stone, Hops, Wool, and other Goons,, , (H „ 
Merchandize and Wares J 3 <ut,0> fflw *- 

And so on in Proportion for different Distances. 

The original sum granted by the act for completing this work 
was £25,000, with power to raise £30,000 more, if necessary ; 
shares to be £100 each. 

The advantages of the amended act are, the nearer approach 
to Hereford and the tunnel at Oxenhafl, which saves the collateral 
cut to Newent, and avoids a great deal of eircaitous navigation. 

We have stated above that the length of canal, when finished, 
vriH be thirty-five miles and a half, which is on the following 
leveh,~-from Hereford to Wkhington March, sir miles of level 
eaaal; from thence to Monkhide, (which is a sanfmit level « ad 
elevation of 195$ feet above low water of the 8evem,)there is* rise 
of 30 feet in a distance of three miles: the canal continues *nthe 
summit level for eight miles and a half to Ledbnry ; from that 



336 HERTFORD UNION CANAL. 

• place to Gloucester, where it terminates, there is a fall of 195$ feet 
in the remaining eighteen miles. The proposed cut from Newent 
to the canal has a fall into it of 10 feet in a length of three mile*. 
The total lockage is 226 feet nearly; and the number of tunnels on 
the canal three, all of considerable size; the first, near Hereford, 

1>eing four hundred and forty yards long ; the second on the high 
ground at Asperton, near Frome Cannon, the middle of the summit 
level, thirteen hundred and twenty yards ; and the third at Oxen- 
hall, two thousand one hundred and ninety-two yards. 

In 1796 the line from Newent to the Severn was completed; 
and, after two years' interval, the Oxenhall Tunnel was opened, by 
which means the navigation became practicable to Ledbury. The 
expense of cutting, &c. was very great ; but the advantages de- 
rived from this work are great in proportion ; as an instance, we 
may mention, that the opening of the Oxenhall Tunnel effected 
an immediate reduction in the price of coals at Ledbury of no less 
than 10*. 6d. per ton ; that quantity being sold for 13s. 6d., when, 
before the opening of the navigation, 24*. was the price. Nor is 
it with the coal mines alone that this canal opens a ready commu- 
nication ; lime-stone, iron, lead, and other productions of South 
Wales, as well as those of the immediate neighbourhood of Here- 
ford, may, by means of this canal, be conveyed to London, Bris- 
tol, Liverpool, Hull, and various other parts of the kingdom, 
entirely by water carriage. 

HERTFORD UNION CANAL. 

5 George IV. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 17th May, 18J4. 

This canal, designed to make a communication from the River 
Lea Navigation at White Port Bridge, in the parish of St. Mary 
Stratford Bow, with the Regent's Canal at Old Ford Lock, Beth- 
nal Green, was projected by Sir George Duckett, Bart, who, in 
1824, obtained the sanction of parliament by the following act, 
entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal 
1 from the River Lee Navigation, in the parish of St. Mary Strat- 
l ford Bow, in the county of Middlesex, to join the Regent's Canal 
' at or near a Place called Old Ford Lock, in the parish of St. 
' Matthew Bethnal Green, in the said county of Middlesex.' 



HERTFORD UNION CANAL. S37 

By this act Sir George Duckett, his heirs and assigns, may 
borrow on mortgage of the canal and rates, any sum not ex- 
ceeding £50,000; and for defraying the cost of completing the 
work, authority is given to charge all persons using the said canal 
the following 

TONNAGE BATES AND TOLLS. 

*. d. 
Wet kit Goods, Wares, Merchandise, Article*, Matteti and Things j 

whatsoerer, entering the Canal either flrom the KiTer Lea Navt- > 1 per Too. 

gation or the Regent's Canal ) 

ft* every Hone, Mule, or Ass, except those used for drawing or > - a 

haling BoatsandBarget i 

Fractions of a Ton to be taken at Quarters, and of a Quarter as a Quarter; and 

Barges or other Vessels not carrying Twenty Tons, to pay for Twenty Tons. Tolls 

for Horses and other Animals to be paid only once a Day. 

Lords of manors and proprietors of lands may erect wharfs and 
warehouses; and if not, Sir George Duckett, his heirs or assigns, 
may do so, and claim the following 

CRANAGE AND WHARFAGE RATES. 

4, 

For aB Goods, Wares, MerrhandiMandTMngawhaisoeTcr.iwtremaining » So _Tnn. 
on the Wharfs aboreForty-eigbt Hoars i ava 

tat ditto remaining more than Forty-eight Hours 6 ditto. 

If Goods are left more than Forty-eight Hours upon the Wharfs, without Permission 
of Sir George or his Agents, they may be remored into a Place of safety at the 
Owner's Expense, and detained till such Costs are discharged ; and, in Case the 
Rents and Charges for Warehousing shall not be liquidated within Two Months, 
the Goedsare to be sold to pay the same. 

The summit level of this canal is to be 6 inches above the top 
water mark of the Regent's Canal; bridges are to be erected 
over the towing-paths of the same; and a stop-lock is to be made 
within a hundred yards of the same. Various other regulations 
are made for the preservation of the Lea Navigation and the Re- 
gent's Canal, which it is unnecessary to state; we may therefore 
briefly remark, that the work is of very great utility as well to 
the vicinity of the metropolis as to other parts of the country ; 
■aire especially by connecting the Paddington Canal, through the 
Regent's Canal, with the Lea Navigation, without locking down 
ante the Thames. 



:j:js horncastle navigation. 



HORNCASTLE NAVIGATION. 

3J George HI. Cap. 107, Royal Assent llthJune, 1791 
30 k 40 George HI. Cap. 109, Royal Assent 9th July, 1800. 

The Horncastle Navigation commences in the Old Witham 
River, near Tattershall, in the county of Lincoln, and in part occu- 
pies the site of a cut formerly called the Tattershall Canal, made 
by Messrs. Dyson and Gibson, of whom the present company pur- 
chased it 

The first act obtained for the purposes of this undertaking was 
passed in 1792, and is entitled, ' An Act for enlarging and ira- 
' proving the Canal called the Tattershall Canal, from the River 
1 Witham to the town of Tattershall, and extending the same into 
' the River Bain, and for making the said River Bain navigable 
'from thence to or into the town of Horncastle, all in the county of 
1 Lincoln, and also for amending and rendering complete the Navi- 
1 gation communicating between the said River Witham, and the 
' Fosdyke Canal, through the High Bridge, in the city of Lincoln.' 

By this act the company were incorporated under the title of 
" The Company of Proprietors of the Horncastle Navigation," 
and were empowered to purchase, deepen, widen, and enlarge the 
cut made by Messrs. Dyson and Gibson ; and to make any new 
cuts on the sides of the river, to straighten the same, and to avoid 
mills or other obstructions. The commissioners of the River 
Witham, in order to render the navigable communication complete 
at all times, are authorized to make that river navigable through 
the High Bridge in Lincoln, into the Fossdike Canal. For putting 
these plans into execution, the proprietors are empowered to raise, 
in shares of £50 each, the sum of £l 5,000 ; and, in case this sum 
should not be sufficient, they are to raise £10,000 more in the 
usual way ; the expenses of the improvement of the Witham 
River are for seven years, to be borne jointly by the Witham 
Company and those of the Sleaford and Horncastle Navigations ; 
and for remunerating the latter, the following are to be their ton- 
nage rates. 



HOBNCASTLK NAVIGATION. 339 

TONNAGE RATES. 

». d. 

Vet Goods, Want, Merchandize and other Things whatsoever, navi- 1 

■■tad from above the Seventh Lock at Daiderby, downward*, i S per Ton, 
or from below to above the same Lock * 

Bar ditto ditto, or between the Seventh and Fourth Lock near Fuloyl j g ^^ 

For ditto navigated from or to below the Fourth Lock 1 3 ditto. 

For Lime, Lime-atone, Manure, or Materials for Roads, Half the above Tolls. 

The necessary preparations being made, and the plans, pro- 
jeeted in the outset of the undertaking, being completed, the com- 
pany entered upon the work, but after they had proceeded for 
some time in the execution of the powers invested in them, they 
found that the funds raised under the authority of this act were in- 
sufficient for the extent and magnitude of their scheme; they 
therefore again applied to parliament, and obtained a second act, 
which received the royal assent on the 9th July, 1800, entitled, 
' An Act far enabling the Horncastle Navigation Company to raise 
( a further Sum of Money to complete the said Navigation, and for 
< amending an Act passed in the Thirty-second Year of the Reign 
' of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining the saidNa- 
t vigation.' 

The preamble of this second act states that they have raised, 
under the first act, the sum of ,£15,000, and great part of the fur- 
ther sum of £10,000 therein directed to be raised ; all which 
monies have been expended on the works ; they are therefore au- 
thorised to raise, by subscription amongst themselves, or by the 
admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage, or on bond, the fur- 
ther sum of £20,000 for the purposes of the said act, and for re- 
<8ianentsng the subscribers for the additional contributions, the 
inflowing are granted as 

ADDITIONAL TONNAGE RATES. 

• d. 
For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Commodities, conveyed j 

from any Part above the Seventh Lock at Daiderby Ford to the V 1 » per Too. 

River Witham, or any leas Distance, and vice vena J 

Bar Goods as aforesaid, from any pert between the Seventh Lock ) 

and the Fourth at Fulby Mill to the Witham, or any less Dis- > 10 ditto. 

tance, and vies vtria * 

For the same from any part below the said Fourth Lock to the > fl d | tto _ 

Witham, and rice verta ' 

Per til Lime or Limestone used for Manure, and (br aU other Kinds of Manure or 

Materials for repairing Highways, in the various Cases as above, Half, of the said 

additional Rate* per Ton shall only be charged. 

Y 2 



340 HUODBRSPIBLD CANAL. 

In the former act it was directed, that after the payment of 
j§8 per centum to the proprietors for money advanced, the *us» 
phis of the rates should be funded, and when this fund amounted 
to £l,000, the rates should be reduced; but in the present that 
clause is repealed. 

There is a considerable basin at Homcastle, and the work was 
opened in the year 1802. The length of the canal is eleven miles, 
at no great elevation above low water mark, and the direction it 
pursues is nearly north-east. The advantages it affords, by the easy 
conveyance of agricultural produce, and the importation of coals, 
timber, and other goods through the River Trent, are of great 
consequence to a portion of the, county of Lincoln, and to Horn- 
castle and its neighbourhood in particular. 



HUDDERSFIELD CANAL. 

34 George IH. Cfep. S3, Boyml Aaent 4th April, I7S4. 
40 George m. Ckp. 39, Bojmi Aaent 30th May, ISO. 
48 George m. Cap. 13, Boyal Aaent Slit March. 1806. 

BsroBB we enter on a description of this bold, stupendous 
and useful undertaking, it may be neccessary to premise that, in 
the year 1774, Sir John Ramsden, Bart obtained an act for 
making and maintaining a navigable canal from the River Calder, 
at a certain point between a bridge called Coopers Bridge and the 
River Coke, to the King's Mill, near the town of Hoddersneid, 
in the West Riding of the county of York. Sir John was than a 
minor; but the measure met with the approbation of his trustees, 
inasmuch as it tended greatly to the convenience of the town of 
Huddersfield, whereof Sir John is nearly the sole proprietot, 
This canal was executed in due course ; and, in the year 1793, an 
act of parliament passed for making and maintaining a canal from 
Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham; and, in 
the year 1703, the work of this canal was in a great state of for- 
wardness. It was then discovered, that if a communication could 
be formed between Sir John Ramsden's Canal and the Ashton, it 
would be the most direct line of conveyance between the east and 
west seas, provided a short cut was made extending the Ashton 
Canal at Manchester to the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal, which 



HUDDEKSFIBLD CANAL. 341 

defect was obviated by the formation of the Rochdale Canal 
WHh this impression a survey was made, in the year 1703, by Mr. 
Nicholas Brown ; and the measure obtained legislative sanction in 
an act, entitled, ' An Act for making and maintaining a navigable 

* Carnal from and out of the Canal of Sir John Ramsden, Bart at 

* or near the town of Huddersfield, in the Went Riding of the 

* county of York, to join and communicate with the Canal Jfaviga- 

* tionfrorn Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, 
4 at or near the town of Ashton-under-Lyne aforesaid, in the county 

* palatine of Lancaster.' Under the above act the proprietors, who 
are incorporated by the title of the " Huddersfield Canal Com* 
" pany," are enabled to raise in shares of £100 each, the sum of 
£184,000; and in case such sum should prove insufficient, they 
may raise £90,000 in addition, amongst themselves, or by creating 
new shares, or by mortgage. By the same act the following are 
to be collected as 



T0NNA0S RATES. 

«. i. 
^»Bj^.M«imr*,Clay,Sai»da«iaraveLiK*pa**ngj o i per Too, per Milt. 

»*r«l^tlopwis3ij•'Lock^^^^^^"^^^^^^^^^^^^v.^^^^"^^'.'.'. o n ditto, ditto. 

For all lime, Stone, Coal, Cansel, or other Mineral*, not) . dilto j,,^ 
paatngaLock * ^ 

For ditto paaing a Lock OS ditto, ditto. 

For all Timber, Goods, Ware*, Mewhanditr and other Art!- > n 9 Mtt ^ Mtt 
ck», not before mentioned f " » a " w * °» u * fc 

For all Stone, lime, Coal, Cannel, Timber, Mineral*, Goods, .. 
Ware*, Merchandiie, and all other Article* panting | 
along or through the Tunnel on the Summit Level, or > 1 6 per Ton. 
any part thereof, in Addition to the above Rate* the I 
farther Sam of ' 



lofaMiletobetakenaiaMilei of a Ton a*the Quarter* of a Ton contained 
therein; and of a Quarter a* a Quarter. 
Wharfage Rate* to be demanded by the Company, or other* having Wharf* on the 
line of the Canal, shall not exceed Three-pence per Ton for the Space of Ten 
Day*, after which Time an Additional Charge may be made for every wmrdtng 
Day of One Halfpenny per Ton per Day. Veaael* of lea than Ten Ton* are not 
to pea a Lock when the Water doe* not ran over the Weir, nor of Fifteen Ton* 
when it doe*, without Leave of the Company'* Agent, to be given in Writing. 



The company are required to make reservoirs for supplying 
the canal, sufficient to contain not less than twenty thousand locks 
of water, each lock containing one liundred and eighty cubic 
yards; but none of this water, except in times of flood, is to be 
taken from rivers on the line. In case Sir John Ramsden sustain* 



342 HUDDERSP1ELD CANAL. 

any loss in the annual income of his canal, in consequence of this 
company's building of warehouses, wharfs, &c. such loss is to be 
made good by the Huddersfield Canal Company. 

As many mills are upon the streams and brooks from which the 
reservoirs of the company are to be supplied, it is provided that all 
persons concerned shall have access to the company's works, and 
that damages done shall be immediately repaired ; and as it is also 
proposed that a tunnel should be made on the summit level, under 
Pule Moss and Brunn Top, in the townships of Marsden and 
Saddleworth, whereby the waters in Brunn Clough and Red 
Brook Vallies may be diminished, such diminution shall be, from 
time to time, made up by water supplied to the streams running 
thereto, from the company's reservoirs on or above the summit 
level aforesaid. A lock not more than 8 feet wide, with a fall of 
not less than 6 feet, shall be made at the communication with Sir 
John Ramsden's Canal ; and that part of his canal between his 
navigation warehouses and the Huddersfield Canal, shall be 
cleansed and kept navigable by the said company at their will and 
pleasure, should the said Sir John Ramsden, his heirs or assigns, 
fail or refuse so to do ; and the said Sir John Ramsden is not to 
receive any tolls or rates for goods navigated from this canal to his 
warehouses. The provision respecting the supply of water to the 
streams in Brunn Clough and Pule Moss is necessary on account 
of the mills thereon. 

If the interests of Sir John Ramsden, the Aire and Calder 
Proprietors, or the Calder and Hebble Navigation, should be in- 
jured by making, at any future time, a canal to the eastward, 
communicating with this or Sir John Ramsden's, full recompense 
is to be made to the injured parties by the Huddersfield Company, 
by authorizing them to receive all rates and tolls, in proportion to 
the length of such navigation and the tonnage thereon collected. 
In 1798 the part of this canal which lies between Huddersfield and 
Marsden was completed and opened ; and also the part between 
Ashton-under-Lyne and Stayley Bridge; besides these, another 
part from Stayley Bridge towards the west end of the tunnel was 
navigable ; but, owing to the very heavy expense incurred in the 
works of the tunnel, and the deficiency arising from many of the 
subscribers not being able to pay up their calls, the canal was 



HUQDERSriELD CANAL. $43 

gse»tfy.feta/ded. Bettde* tlu» deficiency , tha oo«pany were only 
title to borrow £14,188 on mortgage, which sum, with the 
amount actually paid by thesubeeribew, had all been expended on 
the works, they therefore obtained, in I860, a second act, entitled, 
ijfijetf* enabling the £M*r*Jfetf Canal Company te jSntsk 
fam4etmpl*M tie Hnddertfteld Canal i and for amending the Aet, 
'-potted in the Thirty*fo*rtk Year of the Reign of his pretent 
^ J^eety, for makifig and maintaining the taid Hnddnrtfietd Canal* 
By thh> second act the committee are empowered to make calls, 
|op time to time, not exceeding £30 per share ki die whole, and 
they may raise, by new shares, or on promissory notes payable at 
distant times, and bearing lawful interest, any sum or sum* neces- 
sary for completing the said canal, not exceeding in the whole, the 
sum of £474,000, mentioned in the first recited act 

The work being thus supplied with funds, proceeded towards 
eoMftaties; but the cost and difficulties attendant on its execution 
were 4» much beyond calculation, that the proprietors were, six 
years afterwards, compelled to apply a third time to partiainent, 
and obtained, in 1806, another act, bearing as title, i ^n Aet to 
( enable tke Huddersfieid Canal Company to raite a further Sum of 
* Money far the V&charge of their Debts, and to faith and earn- 
1 pleU the Huddertfield Canal, and for amending the enteral Aet* 
1 patted for making and maintaining the taid Canal' 

This eanal, which is fitted for small craft of 7 feet wide, and 
such as navigate upon the Staffordshire and southern canals, and 
what jPupin calls of the narrow section, is capable of passing boats 
with twenty-four tons burthen; and, by a reference to the map, 
it will be seen that U commences on the south of the town of Hud- 
detsfield, and pursues a south-west direction, winding its course 
past glajtbwxUe, nearly parallel with one of the branches of the 
Hirer Colne, fbr the distance of seven miles and a half, which 
siver it cresses in three places by appropriate aquedueto, and, by 
an ascent of 456 feet, distributed among forty-two locks, it arrives, 
near Manden, at the summit level, which is higher than that of 
any ether canal in the kingdom, being at an elevation of 666 feet 
above the level of the sea; the summit level is thence continued 
fist nearly half a mile, when the canal enters that extensive chain 
s£ snsjBjilsJns weH known te travellers going -from Manchester to 



344 HUDDEKSFIELD CANAL. 

Huddersfield, (through which it passes under the part designated 
Pule Hill and Brunn Top, generally called Standedge,) for the 
distance of five thousand four hundred and fifty-one yards, and 
emerges therefrom into the vale of Diggle in Saddleworth, conti- 
nuing to near Wrigley Mill, making the whole summit level four 
miles; it then glides along the valley, alternately on the north and 
south sides of the River Tame, past Dobcross, Scout, and Stayley 
Bridge, to its junction with the Manchester, Ashton-under-Lyne 
and Oldham Canal, near Duckinfield Bridge, having passed a fur- 
ther distance of eight miles and a quarter, and through a descent 
of 334$ feet, which is equally divided among thirty-three locks ; 
crossing the River Tame in four different places, and making the 
whole length of canal nineteen miles and three quarters. 

In passing from the summit level to Ashton-under-Lyne, there 
are two other tunnels ; one at Scout, two hundred and four yards 
long, excavated through a strong sand rock, and the other near 
its extremity at Ashton, one hundred and ninety-eight yards long, 
cut through a complete body of fine sand. 

The principal tunnel at Standedge, or, as it is generally called, 
the Marsden Tunnel, is 9 feet wide and 17 feet high; the depth 
of water through it is 8 feet, leaving 9 feet from the surface of 
the water to the spring of the arch ; there is no towing-path in 
the tunnel; the boats are therefore haled through by manual 
labour, which is effected in about one hour and twenty minutes; 
those at Scout and Ashton have each a towing-path. 

There are now four lines of communication between the east 
and west coasts; first by way of the River Trent, and the Trent 
and Mersey ; second, by way of the Aire and Calder, and the 
Leeds and Liverpool ; third, by the Aire and Calder, Calder and 
Hebble, the Rochdale, and the Duke of Bridgewater's ; and fourth, 
by the Aire and Calder, Calder and Hebble, that of Sir John 
Ramsden, the Huddersfield, Ashton-under-Lyne, Rochdale, and 
the Duke of Bridgewater's ; which last line is the shortest by nine 
miles and three quarters. This canal passes through a very popu- 
lous and manufacturing district, full of valuable stone, but nearly 
void of every article for manufacturing purposes ; its beneficial 
effects are therefore very obvious, not only as being the shortest 
line of communication from Manchester to Hull ; but, at the same 



HUMBER AND OUZB-4DLB RIVER. 545 

time, sJbrdbg the greatest facility to the maaafmcturen in pro- 
esmg coal, lime, timber, cotton, wool, dye-wares, iron, Ac and 
that of exporting their goodi in a manufactured state. 

Mr. Outrun was the engineer who made the original estimate, 
wtieh amounted to £184,000 ; bat it appears that upwards of 
£SO0fiO0 baa been expended. Mr. Oowes, Mr. Nicholas Brown, 
tnd other engineers, have also been engaged in prosecuting the 
works; and although the proprietors have not reaped the fruits of 
their patriotic undertaking, there is a pr ospect it will eventually be 
pndaetjve, as the revenue has of late years greatly incr eas ed 

HULL, PORT OF. 

(SEE KINGSTON- UPON-HULL.) 

HULL RIVER. 

(SEE DRIFFIELD NAVIGATION.) 

HUMBER AND OUZE. 

S3 Hany VOL Op. 18, Royal Awnt 1*31-4. 

This article is merely introduced for the purpose of shewing 
that an act for keeping clear the navigation of these rivers, was 
passed as above in the reign of Henry VIII. bearing for title, 
'An Act for pulling down and avoiding of Fish-garths, Piles, 
' Stakes, Hecks, and other Engines, set in the River and Water of 
' Owe and H*mber.' 

HUMBER RIVER. 

(SEE LOUT* NAVIGATION.) 

HYTHE RIVER. 

(SEE COLNE RIVER.) 

IDLE RIVER. 

• aaorfc I Cap. SO, Royal Aseot 7th April, im 

That part of the Idle River which we have to notice, and for 

rendering which navigable, an act was passed as above, entitled, 

' An Act for making the River Idle navigable from East Retford, 



346 INVERNESS, &c. CANAL-ISLE OF DOUS CANAL. 

1 in the county of Nottingham, to Bawtry Wharf, in the county of 
1 York,' commences in the River Trent at West Stockwith, at a 
very short distance from the junction of the Chesterfield Canal 
with that river, and, pursuing a westerly direction for about ten 
miles, reaches the wharf in Bawtry by a circuitous course. There 
is nothing in this navigation worthy of much remark, save the 
sluice and locks at Misterton, half a mile from the Trent, which 
were constructed for the purpose of keeping the water of the 
Trent, in time of floods, out of the low lands through which the 
Idle passes. As an easy communication between the towns of 
East Retford and Bawtry, it may be considered an useful under- 
taking. 



INVERNESS AND FORT WILLIAM CANAL. 

(SEE CALEDONIAN CANAL.) 

ISLE OF DOGS CANAL. 

47 George III. Cap. 31, Royal Assent 1st August, 1807. 

This canal was made by government, the funds being raised 
under the authority of an act, entitled, ' An Act to authorize the 
1 Advancement of further Sums of Money out of the Consolidated 
* Fund, to be applied in completing the Canal across the Isle of 
' Dogs, Sfc. Sfc' It was then called the City Canal, and, in 1829, 
was purchased by the West India Dock Company for £120,000. 
It crosses the Isle of Dogs, entering from Black wall Reach, just 
below the communication of the Thames with the West India 
Docks, and again unites with the Thames at the upper part of 
Limehouse Reach, being three quarters of a mile long, and having 
a tide-lock at each end. 

The original object in making this canal was to facilitate the 
passage of vessels round the Isle of Dogs ; however, after it was 
completed, government found that mariners would rarely pass 
through it, on account of having a small sum to pay for dues. 
The project therefore failed to answer the original intention. 



ITCHIN NAVIGATION. 947 



ITCHIN NAVIGATION. 

M* ft Char. B.C.-1A. — 1668. 7 Geo. III. C. 87, R. A. 14th Apr. 1767. 
♦OefcW.C. W.R.A. 3o4Jun*,lT»*. «&Geo.IIt CnivR. A. 3Stli Aim, wet 
11 Geo. in. C. 903, R. A. S8th June, 1811. 1 Geo.1V. C. 73, H. A. 13th Jul;, ISO. 

. Tot fiat attempt toward* the formation of this mvigation was 
•dame m the general act of the 16th and 17th of King Charles 
IL wherein Sir Humphrey Bennet, Knight, and others, were 
an a Wwia ed to make the Itchin navigable for boats and barges; the 
gaads coxveyed by which were declared to be Sable to carriage 
rate* not exceeding one half of the expense of conveying the same 
by land, and they executed the power* entrusted to them; bat in 
lapse of time, by purchase, transfer and other means, the whole 
property of the navigation became vested in one individual, who of 
course demanded the rates he thought fit; in consequence of this, 
the inhabitants 6f Winchester applied to parliament for an act, 
whereby, in pursuance of the provisions of the first act, commit* 
skners might be appointed to determine the rates he should in 
future charge for carriage on this navigation. The Mayor, 
Recorder, and Aldermen of the city of Winchester, the Dean of 
the suae, the Warden .of Winchester College, together with the 
Jaetices of the Peace for the county of Southampton, all for the 
time being, were accordingly appointed cominiss ionrn for regn- 
letasg the rates, under an act bearing for its title, ' An Act to 
* empiain, ante*d,,and render store eflethkd an Act made m the 
'Sixteenth and Seventeenth Vettre of King Chartet the Seeona\ 
< entitled, A% Aetfor making divert Jlipert navigable, or othenem 
*-paitabiefor Boat*, Barge*, and ether. Veuelt, to fetr at lie earn 
.* niatet to the River Jtchin> running from Alretford thrtmgh Win- 
f ehetter to the Sea, user Southampton) and for better retaliating the 
5 etui Jfamgation.' By this act the extent of the navigation, is 
deekred to be from Black Bridge, near the city of Winchester, to 
Nortbam, in the parishof St Mary's, near the town of Southasnp- 
ten; and the oommisrieness apportioned the rates of carriage on 
•be eanal so much to the aatiafoction e#the parties coboemed, that 
when, on account of staking farther improvements, end fsnehsaing 
lagoeekxents with Mr. James ZHAnty assi bis tenant*, Mr. 



348 1TCHIN NAV1UATION. 

Edward Knapp, a third act, which is entitled, l An Act to explain, 
1 amend, and render more effectual the several Acts of the Sixteenth 
1 and Seventeenth of King Charles the Second, and of the Seventh 
1 of his present Majesty, relating to the Navigation of the River 
1 Itchin, in the county of Southampton, and for improving the 
' Navigation thereof, and for ascertaining the Rates of Carriage, 
' Riverage, and Wharfage payable thereon,' was obtained in 1795, 
these rates were adopted as approved of by the proprietor and 
the inhabitants of Winchester. By this act also, Mr. D'Arcy 
engaged to make the river navigable from Woodmill to the Roman 
Ditch, by widening the same, and also to render the same ditch 
navigable by diverting the river from its old bed into the Roman 
Ditch aforesaid; the navigation was also vested in Mr. D'Arcy, 
and he was authorized to demand the following 



TONNAGE RATES. 

». <*. 
For all Coals brought from Northam to the Wharf Dear Winches- j 

ter, or from thence to Northam, and in Proportion for inter. V 3 per Chsldroo. 

mediate Distances ) 

For all Culm, Stone, Coal, Scotch Coal, and all other Weighable i _ fl T 

Goods and Corn, except Oats, and so on, rateably } *P er 

For Oats brought the same Distance, and so on, rateably o 6 per Quarter. 

By this act also the navigation is declared to consist of one 
hundred and sixty equal shares or parts, any or all of which the 
said Mr. D'Arcy, his heirs or assigns, may dispose of. Persona 
purchasing the same are entitled to proportional shares of the rente 
and profits, deducting annuities and various other incumbrances on 
the same, which Mr. D'Arcy undertakes to liquidate. By this and 
the former acts, the proprietors of the river were also appointed 
sole carriers thereon; but, in the year 1801, when the property 
fell into the hands of Mr. George Hollis of Winchester, and Mr. 
Harry Baker of Westminster, these gentlemen consented to relin- 
quish the power thus vested in them ; and accordingly a fourth act 
was obtained in 1802, which is styled, ' An Act for explaining, 
' amending, and rendering more effectual several Acts of the Sixteenth 
' and Seventeenth of Charles the Second, and of the Seventh and 
1 Thirty-fifth of his present Majesty, relating to the Navigation of 
' the River Itchin, in the county of Southampton.' By this act the 
river ia declared navigable by all persons ; and the wharf at Nor- 
tham is free to the public for taking in lading or to land the same, 



ITCH1N NAVIGATION. 349 

and the caounjanooen therein named, are empowered to direct 
new whar& and storehouse*, if necessary, to be made at Northam 
by the said Mean*. Hollis and Baker, their heirs and assigns. For 
the aanender of their privileges, these gentlemen are empowered 
to .collect the following 



TONNAGE BATES. 

.. 

Vor an Onin, Coali, Corn, boo, Stcu, TbBbct, and alt othar-i 

Goods, Wans, Merchandize, or Things whatsoever, except j 

Obsflk carried down the River, In Boats or Vessels going > \ par Ton, per Mile. 

for Freight to be carried on tbeaaid River, and which shall 
• ha tree of Tonnage J 

And an on in Proportion for a greater or lest Quantity than a Ton, and a greater or less 
Distance than a Hik. 



WHARFAGE RATES. 

i. 

for Coals at the Wharf near Winchester 9 per Chaldron. 

For an other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 9 per Ton. 

Additional Charges, after the Space of Ten Days, to be made, with the Consent of the 
Commissionea, by the said Proprietors. 



The owners of boats and vessels navigating on this river are 
authorised, by this act, to take, in addition to the before-mentioned 
rates payable to the proprietors, the following 

RIVSRAGE BATES. 

«. .. 

For Coals carried or conveyed from Northam to Mansbridge or l , .__.mv.ij_-. 

West-ndMlll. „!.... J ' 'I* 01 - 1 ™- 

Fat ditto ditto from Northam to Bishops Stoke * ditto. 

Fee ditto ditto from Northam to Shawford 9 9 ditto. 

Far ditto ditto from Northam to Winchester 3 ditto. 

BorCoro or other Goods carried or conveyed from Northam) . ,__,—_ 

la Mansbridge or West End Mills 1 1 8 P« Ton - 

For ditto dittotrom Northam to Bishops Stoke. 1 9 ditto. 

For ditto ditto from Northam to Winchester 3 3 ditto. 

Foe ditto ditto from Bishops Stoke to Winchester. 1 6 ditto. 

For ditto ditto from Mansbridge or West End Hills to Win- ,.-__* 

Chester „. } 3 ditto. 

For ditto ditto from Winchester to Shawford 1 3 ditto. 

For^itto ditto from Winchester to Bishops Stoke I « ditto. 

F(»dittod1ttofromWin<J«sttrtolfai_*>ridgec»WestEiKilIil_ 9 ditto. 

Pordftto ditto from Winchester to Northam a 3 ditto. 

P*_ttoc3ttofromMansbridgeorWestEiriMiUstoNortham 1 ditto. 

For ditto ditto from Bishops Stoke to Northam 1 B ditto. 

fcr ditto ditto from Shawford to Northam 3 ditto. 

fccnatve of Tonnage, Wharfage, Porterage, Cranage, Weighing, and soehUke, Extra 

Charges. 

Ass -11 Packages or Light Articles snail be estimated and paid for, at and after the 
Rate of Thirty Tons for each Barge Load of Thirty Tons Burthen, and so in Pro- 
portion for the Space that soch Light Goods shall occupy in the Stowage Room 
thereof. 



^ 



350 IVEL RIVER. 

The river being made navigable, and the rates settled as above, 
the undertaking went forward with considerable success till the 
year 1810, when the two proprietors, in whom the work was now 
vested, petitioned parliament for an additional rate on coals; an 
act was accordingly passed in the following year, entitled, ' An 
1 Act for increasing the Rates on Coals conveyed on the River 
1 Itchin, in the county of Southampton, and for amending and 
1 rendering more effectual the several Acts relating thereto.' 

By this act the proprietors were empowered to take an addi- 
tional toll of one halfpenny per chaldron per mile on all coal 
navigated on the river, over and above their former rates. 

In 1820 Mr. Hollis, who had now become sole proprietor of 
the work, obtained a further advance by an act, entitled, ' An Act 
1 for increasing the Rates on Goods and Commodities conveyed on 
' the River Itchin, in the county of Southampton.' Under which 
act the following, over and above all former tolls, are directed to 
be paid as 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

For all Coals navigated on the said River \ per Chaldron, per Mile. 

For all Com. Salt, Iron. Timber, and all other Commo- j , _, Jiito. 

dities or Things whatsoever 5 ' ■*' lon ' ™ 

And so on in Proportion for a greater or less Quantity than a Chaldron or a Ton, 
and for a longer or shorter Distance than a Mile. 

The advantages attendant upon this navigation, which is four- 
teen miles long, in a northerly direction from the tideway in South- 
ampton Water to Winchester, at a small elevation above the sea, 
are the facility wherewith Winchester is supplied with deals, coal, 
timber, &c. and the furnishing Southampton in return with flour, 
corn, and agricultural produce. 



IVEL RIVER. 

30 George II. Cap. G2, Royal Assent nth May, 17S7. 

The Ivel River, which commences in the River Ouse, or Oum, 
at Tempsford, in the county of Bedford, and proceeds for about 
eleven miles in a southerly direction, to the town of Shefford, in the 
same county, was made navigable under the powers of an act of the 



IVBL R1VBR. S51 

90th George II. entitled, ( An Act far making the River Ivel, and the 
' Branches thereof, navigable from the River Ouze at Tempsford, 
' m the county of Bedford, to ShottKng Mill, otherwise called 
' Burnt Mill, in the parish of Hitchen, in the county of Hertford, 
* and to Black Horse Mill, in the parish of By grant, in the said 
* county of Hertford, and to the South and North Bridget in the 
' town of Shefford, in the said county of Bedford,' By this act, 
which is of considerable length, on account of the many clauses 
respecting privileges of proprietors of estates in the coarse ef the 
over, a number of commissioners are appointed to execute the 
work, to make reservoirs, collateral cuts, and ether requisite addi- 
tions which maybe deemed necessary. Theyhavealsopowertoraise 
money for defraying the expenses incurred, by mortgage of the tails 
on all goods navigated on this river ; such tolls to be determined 
by the. commissioners according to the money wanted or already 
disbursed. The powers of this aet were put in foroe soon after it 
received the royal assent, and the navigation was completed as fir 
a* Biggleswade ; the money raised being then expended, no further 
progress was made for some time. In the year 1805, Mr. B. 
Bevan surveyed the part unexecuted, between Biggleswade and 
Shefford, and estimated the cost for that part, with five locks, at 
£5,900. The distance of these two towns from each other is five 
miles and a quarter, in which there is a rise of 26 feet ; and on this 
part of the line the commissioners charge for all goods a tonnage 
rate of 1*. Od. per ton. The surplus of tolls remaining after all 
costs of repairs, &c are discharged, is reserved as a sinking fund 
for the reduction of the debt; and the Biggleswade Branch alone 
netted, for many years, £400 per annum towards this reduction. 
The sluices at the lower part of this navigation are furnished with 
separate upright planks, instead of lock gates usually employed for 
such purposes. 

The purposes for which this river was made navigable, viz. for 
supplying coals, timber, Ac. to the towns of Biggleswade and 
Shefford, and the various hamlets on the .line, and for the exporting 
of produce, have been fully answered; and, as for as this, the work 
is of considerable utility. 



352 IVELCHESTER AND LANGPORT CANAL. 

IVELCHESTER AND LANGPORT CANAL. 

35 George 111. Cap. 105, Royal Assent 22nd June, 1795. 

The act for commencing this canal is entitled, ' An Act for 

* improving and supporting the Navigation of the River Ivel, other- 

* wise Yeo, from the town of Ivelchester to Bicknell Bridge, in the 
4 parish of Huish Episcopi, in the county of Somerset ; and for 
4 making a navigable Cut from thence into a certain Drain catted 
' Portlake Rhine, in the parish of Langport, in the same county ; 
( and for making the said Drain navigable from thence to the River 
( Parrett, below Great Bow Bridge, in the town of Langport.' 

The length of this navigation is nearly seven miles from its 
commencement in the River Parrett, below the town of Lang- 
port, to Ivelchester or Ilchester, both in Somersetshire ; its direc- 
tion is nearly due east for the whole distance, with very little 
elevation throughout. By the act the proprietors are authorized 
to raise £6,000 in shares of £50 each ; and, in case this should 
not prove sufficient, a further sum of £2,000. 

TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
For all Coal, Culm, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal.Timber.Iron, and > 2 Tm peruae. 

Iron-stone ' *^ ' 

For all Lime, Dung, Manure, Stone, and Lime-stone when used) j di»» ditto. 

for Manure - f 

For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things 3 ditto. ditto. 

For all Goods, Wares or Merchandize, deposited on the Pro- j „ ^^ _, 

prietors' Wharfs, for the first Twenty-four Hours i ' *^ OT ' 

For every Week beyond that Time 6 ditto. 

And so on in Proportion for a greater or less Distance than a Mile, and for a greater 

or less Quantity than a Ton. 
Fifty Cubic Feet of Round, and Forty Cubic Feet of Square Oak, Ash, Elm, or Beech 

Timber, and Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir, Deal, Balk, Poplar, or Birch not cot into 

Scantlings, and Sixty Cubic Feet of Light Goods, to be deemed and rated as One 

Ton Weight 

The principal object for which this canal was undertaken, was 
the introducing into the different places on its line, coal and other 
articles of home consumption, and the return of corn and other 
agricultural produce. 



KENNBT AND AVON CANAL. S»3 

KENNET AND AVON CANAL. 

84 Geo. ID. C 90, R. A. nthApr. 1791 36 Geo. Ill C. 44, IT. A. 94th Iter. 1798. 

38 Geo. HI. C. 18. R. A. 7th May. 1798. 41 Geo. IU. C. S3, R. A SUt May, WOL 

4* Geo. HL C. 70, R. A. 27th June, 1805. 49 Geo. in. C. 84, R. A. 3r4 June, 1809. 

S3 Geo. Ill, C. 119. R. A. SrdJooe, 18U. 

The truly useful and highly important work which we have 
now to describe, had its first commencement in an act which re- 
ceived;the> royal assent on the 17th April, 1794, and is entitled, « An 

* Act for making a navigable Canal from the River Kennet, at or 
« near the town of Newbury, in the county of Berkshire, to the River 

* Avon, at or near the city of Bath; and alto certain navigable Cuts 
' therein described.' By this act the proprietors are incorporated 
under the title of " The Company of Proprietors of the Kennet 
u and Avon Canal Navigation," and have the usual powers granted 
on such occasions. In consequence of an agreement with the pro- 
prietors of the Wilts and Berks Canal, conformably to a clause in 
this act, the line first laid down was proposed to be altered, and 
the sanction of parliament to this alteration was obtained in the 
year 1796, in an act under the title of * An Act to vary and alter 
1 the Line of the Canal authorized to be made by an Act passed in 
1 the Thirty-fourth of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for 
1 making a navigable Canal from the River Kennet, at or near the 
1 town of Newbury, in the county of Berkshire, to the River Avon, 

* at or near the city of Bath, and 'also certain navigable Cuts 

* therein described, and to amend the said Act, and also to make a 
' certain navigable Cut therein described,' 

By the first act the company were authorised to raise £420,000, 
in three thousand five hundred shares of £ 190 each, part of which 
might be divided into half shares of £60 each, two of these to have 
one vote ; and should the above sum prove insufficient, they were 
empowered to raise £160,000 in addition. By the second act no 
further sums of money were required to be raised. In the year 
1798 the company found it necessary to make farther alterations 
in the line of canal ; and they, in consequence, obtained the requisite 
authority by a third act, entitled, ' An Act to vary the Line of the 
' Kennet and Avon Canal, authorized to be made by Two Acts 

* passed in the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-sixth of his present Ma- 
* jetty, and also to extend the Powers of, and to amend the said AeU' 



354 KENNET ANU AVON CANAL. 

Various circumstances, which it is not necessary here to enu- 
merate, having rendered an additional sum of money requisite for 
the completion of the work, by an act called ' An Act for enabling 
1 the Company of Proprietors of the Kennet and Avon Canal 
' Navigation to complete the same ; and for amending the several 
1 Acts passed for making the said Canal,' the company were em- 
powered to raise £-240,000 by creating new shares and half shares, 
making in the whole four thousand new shares; three thousand 
to be taken by the original subscribers or their friends, and the 
remaining thousand to be sold by auction ; but no interest was to 
be paid on the new shares, the tolls being directed to be applied 
towards completing the canal. 

In 1805, a further sum being still wanting to complete the 
works, an act was obtained for that purpose, under the title of ' An 
' Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Kennet and 
' Avon Canal Navigation to complete the same, and for altering 
' and enlarging the Powers of the several Acts passed for making 
' the said Canal: By this act £200,000 more was directed to 
be raised for completing the canal, and for paying off the debts 
already incurred. A deficiency, however, still existed ; and appli- 
cation was again made to parliament; and by an act, entitled, 
' An Act for enabling the Kennet and Avon Canal Company to 
1 raise a sufficient Sum of Money to complete the said Canal, and 
'for amending the several Acts for making the same,' an additional 
sum of £80,000 was directed to be raised, and to authorize the 
borrowing of £50,000 as granted by the act previously obtained in 
1805. But, to render the undertaking complete, the various sums 
already recited did not prove adequate ; the company also deter- 
mined that it would be advisable to purchase the River Kennet 
Navigation ; they, therefore, again obtained the sanction of par- 
liament to their proceedings in 1813, in an act entitled, ' An Act 
'for enabling the Kennet and Avon Canal Company to raise afur- 
' ther Sum of Money to purchase the Shares of the River Kennet 
1 Navigation, and to amend the several Acts passed for making the 
1 said Canal.' By this last enactment, £l 32,000 were to be 
raised by creating five thousand five hundred new shares of £24 
each. Power was also given to create a sinking fund ; and those 
proprietors of shares, resident within the bills of mortality, were 



KBNNET AND AVON CANAL. 355 

directed to be called " The Proprietors of the London District," 
and to elect from amongst themselves three members of the com- 
mittee of management. The following are the 



TONNAGE BATES. 

.. d. 
For all Hay, Strew, Dong, Peat, and Peat-ashes, and all \ 

other Ashes used for Manure, Chalk, Marl, Clay, and f . . _, „. 

Sand, and all other Articles used for Manure and fort ° * P" » on .P«"U*- 

the repair of Roads J 

For all Coals, Culm, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal, Iron-stone, \ 

Pig-iron, Iron-ore, Copper-ore, Lead-ore, Lime, (except f n ,!,,,„ ,,„ 

used tor Manure,) Lime-stone, and other Stone, Bricks f u l » amo - «"<>• 

and Tiles > 

For all Corn and other drain. Flour, Malt, Meal, Timber,-. 

Bar-iron, and Lead, (except such Corn, and other Grain, I 

Flour, Malt, and Meal, as shall be carried Westwards, > 3 ditto. ditto. 

on such part of the Canal as shall be situate between I 

the Town of Devizes and the City of Bath) -> 

For all Corn, and other Grain. Flour, Malt, and Meal, j 

which shaU be carried from the Town of Devizes to the > 3 per Ton. 

City of Bath J 

For all Corn and other Grain, Flour, Malt, and Meal, which -. 

shall be carried Westwards on any part of the said ] 

Canal between the Town of Derizea and the City of V l| ditto, per Mile. 

Bath, and shall not pass the whole way between Deri- 1 

sesandBath i 

Tat an other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Commodi. l 

ties whatsoever, in respect of which no Toll, Rate, or > 3$ ditto. ditto. 

Duty Is hereinbefore made payable ) 

And so on in Proportion for any Quantity greater or less than a Ton, and for any 
Distance more or less than a Mile. 



Having thus presented our readers with the leading features 
of the various acts, obtained for completing this stupendous work, 
it may be useful to add the following scale of particulars respecting 
the money subscribed, before we proceed to describe the work 
itself By the different acts obtained for this canal, the following 
stuns have been raised, viz. 



By 34 Gbo. III. c 90. 



£. 



Shares designed to be in Number 3500 

Of this Number there were lost by Failures, Ice. 514 
And by Consolidation with other Classes, 33 j .. 

Half Shares i 10 

630 

x Remaining Shares 3870 .. 

few were flrst created at.. £120 0». Od. per Share, . 

^subjected to .further , „ „, ^ i £m ^ ^ }. 407.SW 16 3 

Ctflof S . _ C perShare J 

Carried over £*uT,576 IS 3 

T 2 



356 KENNET AND AVON CANAL. 

£. «. d. 
Brought over 407,576 16 3 

By 41 Geo. III. c. 43. 

Shares created ; intended to be 3000 

Lost of these 42 

And by Consolidation with other Classes, 4 Half j 2 

Shares > 

44 

Remaining Shares 29J6 



tfWpta,} ™*» ° ° 



By 45 Geo. III. c. 70. 



Shares were created 8458 I im , m a a 

at £20 per Share, J lw ' lw 

And Optional Notes. 89 > „^ „ „ 

at £33, 6». Sd.i 3 - x " ° 

Shares 1377 » <nsto a o 

at £20 per Share, S ln ' MU ° 

By 49 Geo. III. c. 138. 

Shares were created 4000 

jained bj 
Shares. 



Gained by Consolidation from the Two first Acts, 36 Half > Jg 



96,432 

Shares 4018 

at £24 per Share, 

Capital £881,368 16 3 



The Kennet and Avon completes a circuit of navigable canals, 
which traversing the northern, midland, and south-western counties 
of England, connect together its four largest rivers, viz. the Trent, 
the Mersey, the Severn, and the Thames. Viewed in this light, 
it forms an important link in that great chain of inland navigation, 
which has been rapidly increasing in this kingdom for the last fifty 
years, and which seems to know no other boundary than what the 
rugged and mountainous parts of the country naturally present 
This canal, by uniting the Rivers Kennet and Avon, the former of 
which runs into the Itiver Thames at Reading, and the latter into 
the Severn a few miles below Bristol, becomes, in conjunction with 
the Bristol Channel and the estuary of the Thames, the central line 
of communication between the Irish Sea and German Ocean. 
The line of navigation, which thus joins these two seas, passes 
through a very fertile and populous district. Upon the banks of it 
lie not only the metropolis, but a great many large towns and 
cities, the ordinary intercourse between which must necessarily 
produce a very extensive traffic ; and if we take into consideration 



KENNET AND AVON CANAL. . 357 

the. numerous collateral branches from this grand line, the whole 
together forms a comprehensive system of water communication, 
which pervades the southern division of England, and connects the 
remotest parts of South Wales and Cornwall, with the counties of 
Essex and Kent Thus favourably circumstanced, the Kennet and 
Avon Canal is highly beneficial to the commerce, manufactures, 
and agriculture of the south-western counties of this kingdom j in 
the same manner as the Trent and Mersey and Grand Junction 
Canals have contributed to the improvement and prosperity of the 
northern and midland counties. 

The Kennet and Avon Canal commences at the head of the 
Kennet Navigation, at Newbury in Berkshire, and passes up the 
vale of the River Kennet, by Hungerford and Great Bedwin, to 
Crofton. The distance between Newbury and Crofton is sixteen 
miles and a half; and the difference of level between these two 
places is 210 feet, which is effected by means of thirty-one locks. 
The summit level begins near Crofton, and extends for two miles 
and a half to the village of Brimslade, passing j in its way, through 
a tunnel five hundred and ten yards in length, which is cut through 
the highest part of the intervening hilL 

From the western extremity of the summit level, the canal 
begins to descend to Wootten Rivers, a distance of only one mile, 
in which there is a fall of 33 feet, which is divided into four locks. 
From Wootten Rivers H is carried along the vale of Pewsey to 
Devizes, a distance of fifteen miles, upon one leveL From De- 
vizes to a place called Foxhanger, there is a fall of 939 ket, 
within the short distance of two miles and a half; along this 
abrupt descent it is carried by a flight of locks, twenty-nine in 
number. From Foxhanger the canal proceeds to the village of 
Semington, where it is joined by the Wilts and Berks Canal; the 
distance is four miles and a half; the fall 56 feet, comprehended 
in seven locks. From Semington it runs along a rich vale for 
five miles, upon one level, to Bradford ; and at the latter place it 
descends into the vale of Avon by a lock of 10 feet. After this, it 
proceeds upon one level for nine miles, along the vale, to Sidney 
Gardens, Bath. About a mile beyond these gardens, it descends 
into the Avon, near the Old Bridge, sustaining, in this short 
distance, a fall of 66$ feet, by means of seven locks. From this 



358 KENNET AND AVON CANAL. 

point that river is navigable to Bristol, as already described under 
the River Avon. Its whole length is fifty-seven miles ; its total 
rise 210 feet, effected by thirty-one locks ; and its whole fall 404| 
feet, effected by forty-eight locks. Its breadth at bottom is 24 
feet ; at the surface, 44 feet ; and the least depth of water is 5 
feet, but through a considerable length, 6 feet. The locks are 80 
feet long, and 14 feet wide; and the barges which navigate it 
carry from fifty to seventy tons. 

Few canals afford more specimens of deep cutting, aqueducts 
and tunnels, than the Rennet and Avon, and we shall proceed to 
enumerate them, according to the order in which they arise from 
Newbury to Bath. Much labour has been expended upon this 
part of the canal, to prevent its interference with the channels, 
which have been made for the purpose of conveying water to the 
meadows, (usually called Water Meadows,) between Newbury 
and Hungerford ; and the River Kennet has within the same 
distance been three times crossed by means of weirs ; once to 
avoid Hampstead Park, and twice to prevent its passing through 
the village of Kentbury. At a little distance above Hungerford 
the level of the canal has acquired a sufficient elevation to be car- 
ried over the Kennet by means of an aqueduct, consisting of three 
arches. Ascending from this aqueduct to the eastern extremity 
of the summit level, it is carried in its passage from thence to the 
western extremity through the hill at Burbage, by a great deal of 
deep cutting, and a tunnel of five hundred yards long and 16 J 
feet wide. From the extremity of this tunnel to the town of 
Devizes, no work of consequence occurs. From Devizes to Bath 
the country assumes a more hilly and rugged character. At the 
former place there has been an extensive piece of deep cutting. 
Between the locks near Foxhanger, it has been found necessary to 
make very large side ponds, in which the water is permitted to 
expand itself, after it is let out of the locks, and is thus prevented 
from running to waste. From Foxhanger, the line of the canal is 
continued through the long vale of Somerham Brook, by an 
expensive embankment On leaving this vale, it proceeds along 
the valley of the Semington River, and at Semington is conveyed 
across the river by a stone aqueduct, having an arch of 30 feet span, 
with a long embankment at each end of it From hence there U 



KENNKT AND AVON CANAL. 359 

ft considerable piece of cutting, as &r aa the River But, below 
Trowbridge; it then crosses that river over an aqueduct of the 
Mane dimensions aa that at Semingten, wkh a large embankment, 
30 feet high, on each side of it. 

From the aqueduct over the River Bias, the canal passes by 
Bradford, through a tract of country abounding vrith hills and 
Docks, to Sidney Gardens, Bath: and in its course is twice conveyed 
■cross the River Avon by handsome stone aqueducts, the centre 
arches of which are about 60 feet span each. It enters and departs 
from Sidney Gardens through tunnels, which pass under the houses 
and rides. The walks of the gardens are carried over it by two 
iaen bridges. The seven locks upon the remainder of the canal, 
between these gardens and its entrance into the Avon, have been 
made at considerable expense; several of them being so near to 
each other, that large side ponds have been required. 

This canal, at its highest elevation at the Crofton Tunnel, is 
474 feet above the level of the sea. In its course it passes within 
a short distance of Hungerford House, Tottenham Park, Wilcot 
Park, East Stowel, Hewish, New Park, Mount Pleasant, and a 
number of other seats of the nobility and gentry. The direction it 
takes, from its junction with the River Kennet Navigation, is 
nearly west It has communication with the Wilts and Berks 
Oanal at Semington; with the Frome Canal at Widbrook; and 
with the Somerset Coal Canal near Bradford, all upon its line. 
From these and many other advantages, the traffic on it in coal, 
com, stone, copper and iron, is of very considerable extent, and, 
from the almost daily addition to its communication with different 
parts of the kingdom, by connecting canals and railroads, must 
continue to increase as long as Great Britain maintains its character 
as ft commercial nation. 

Mr. Rennie was engineer for the canal, by whose abilities the 
most formidable obstacles were overcome. The aqueduct over 
the River Avon, about a mile from Limpley Stoke, and six miles 
from Bath, is greatly admired for its architectural beauty; and, 
indeed, wherever there is an aqueduct or a bridge upon the line, 
they are invariably distinguished by the excellent workmanship 
employed in their construction. The execution of the locks and 
tunnels is deserving of similar commendation. 



360 KENNET RIVER. 

Of the good effects arising from a well-regulated system of 
inland navigation there can be no doubt; but at the same time it 
should be recollected, that in most instances these effects must be 
produced by slow and gradual means. There is probably no 
canal in Great Britain to which this observation may be applied 
with greater propriety than the Kennet and Avon. The «tifl><*»L. 
ties to be encountered have sometimes been so great, as to present 
a very unpromising appearance as to its ultimate execution; but 
they have all been surmounted by the skill, perseverance and good 
management of the persons to whom its affaire have been entrusted. 
It was opened on the 28th of December, 1810, for public accom- 
modation ; and, when considered in connection with the other 
works which are now carrying on in the western counties, it pro- 
mises to continue one of the most profitable concerns of the kind 
in this part of the united kingdom. 



KENNET RIVER. 

2 George I Cap. M, Royal Aaent SUt September, WW. 
7 George L Cap. 8, Royal AaeotSSrd March, 17S0. 

3 George H. Cap. 13, Royal Aaent I jth Hay, 1730. 

As the interests of this navigation are merged in those of the 
Kennet and Avon Canal, in consequence of the provisions of an 
act obtained by that company, it will not be necessary to do more 
than recite the three acts obtained as above; the first is entitled, 

* An Act to make tke River Kennet navigable from Reading to 
« Newbury, in ike county of Berk*: The second, *An Act for 
« enlarging tke Time for making the River Kennet navigable from 

* Reading to Newbury, in tke county of Berk*: A third act was 
obtained in the 3rd of George II. entitled, * An Act for making 
' the Act* of tke Second and Seventh of hi* late Majetty'* Reign, 
i for making tke River Kennet navigable from Reading to .Afao- 
' bury, in the county of Berks, more effectual' By these acta, the 
proprietors of the Kennet River were empowered to demand & 
rate of 4*. per ton on goods of every description conveyed thereon, 
but the Kennet and Avon Canal Proprietors, since they purchased 
this work, have only charged a rate of l|d. per ton per mile. 



KENSINGTON CANAL. 361 

■ The Kedhet River Navigation, commencing from its junction 
with the Kennet and Avon Canal at Newbury, to its fall into the 
Thames a mile and a half below Reading, is twenty miles in length. 
Its elevation at the highest point is 864J feet above the level of 
the tea. From Newbury to the High Bridge at Reading, in a 
distance of eighteen miles and a half, there are twenty locks, with 
asafi of 136 feet; this constitutes the River Kennet Navigation. 
T$ese eighteen miles and a half may now be reckoned as a conti- 
attation of the Kennet and Avon CanaL 

From Reading to the Thames, about a mile and a half, the 
river is under the control of the Thames Commissioners, who have' 
made a cut and lock on this part The breadth of the water in 
the river is between 60 and 70 feet; on the cuts, 54 feet ; the 
avenge depth about 5 feet. The locks are 130 feet long, by 19 
feet broad, thus allowing the passage of vessels 100 feet long and 
17 wide, drawing 4 feet water. In its course it passes Sandlefbrd 
Priory, Padworth House and White Knights. 

Its utility for the transit of corn and other agricultural pro- 
duce, coals and various articles of home consumption is very great, 
particularly when considered in conjunction with the various 
canals of which it forms a part. The turf and peat pits between 
Reading and Newbury afford the opportunity of producing an 
abundance of peat ashes, which, by means of this navigation, is 
distributed over a large district of country, and found highly bene- 
ficial for manure. 



KENSINGTON CANAL. 

S George IV. Cap. 68, Royal Anent 39th May, 1824. 
7 George TV. Cap. 88, Royal Aatent 26th Hay, 1826. 

The first act granted for the purposes of this work was obtained 
in 1824, and bears for title, * An Act for widening, deepening, 
4 enlarging and making navigable a certain Creek called Counter's 
l ~Oreek,from, or near Counter's Bridge, on the Road from London 
* to Hammersmith, to the River Thames in the county of Middlesex, 
1 and for maintaining the same! By the preamble of this act it is 
stated, that the town and parish of St. Mary Abbot's Kensington, 



362 KENSINGTON CANAL. 

would be greatly benefited by the forming of Counter^ Creek 
into a canal, for the conveyance of goods through the same to the 
Thames, ■ Commissioners were, therefore, appointed to take 
measures for executing the same, with powers to make tunnels, 
erect steam engines, take down bridges and divert roads for this 
purpose ; and in order to meet the cost of the undertaking, the 
proprietors were to raise amongst themselves the sum of £10,000, 
in one hundred shares of £100 each. In case this should not prove 
sufficient, they may raise a further sum of £5,000, either of which 
sums may be borrowed on mortgage of the tolls, and the £5,000, 
last directed to be raised, may be obtained on promissory notes, or 
by such other means as shall appear most eligible. 

For paying interest and other expenses, the proprietors, who 
are by the act called " The Kensington Canal Navigation Com- 
" pany," are to collect the following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

it. 

For all Dung or Manure conveyed between the Thames and Fifty Yards } , ~ 
Northward of Stamford Bridge 1 * P" * 

For ditto between the Northern Extremity of the said Fifty Yards and } _ ,.., 
the Hammersmith Road J J auln 

For all Coals, Cinders, Culm, Lime, Slate, Stone, Alabaster, Potatoes, ■ 
Pig-iron, Bricks, Peat, Gravel, Sand, Clay, Marl, Timber, Deals, 
Malleable and Wrought or Manufactured Iron, Lead and other Un- 
wrought Metals, Corn, Grain, Malt, Peas and Beans, Wool, Cotton 
Wool and Yarn, Cotton Linen, and Woollen Manufactured Goods, 
Hemp, Flax, Groceries, and all other Goods, Wares and Merchan- 
dise whatsoever, carried between the Thames and Fifty Yards 
Northward of Stamford Bridge J 

For all the above-named Description of Goods carried between the J 

Northern Extremity of the said Fifty Yards and the Hammersmith > 6 ditto 
Road J 

Fractions of a Ton to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter. 

The company may erect wharfs and cranes, and charge as 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
For all Goods, Wares and Merchandize remaining on the Wharfs 1 „ _, 

Seventy.two Hours j M per ton. 

For ditto after the Seventy.two First Hours 6 ditto, per Day. 

The canal was to be completed in three years after the passing 
of this act, or the powers thereof were to cease, and the company 
was directed to pay a fine of £5, with an annual rent of the same 
sum to the Mayor and Commonalty of London, for the liberty of 
opening and enlarging the communication with the Thames. 



. I ditto. 



KENTON AND LBIOH RAILWAY. 363 

Hie work was commenced immediately ori obtaining the act; 
bat fc having been found expedient to make the canal of a greater 
width than at fint proposed, and this alteration costing more than 
was originally estimated, a second act was obtained in 1830, 
bearing the title of ' An Ad to tmtnd an Act for making a Caned 
i from Counter'* Bridge, on the Road from London to Hammer' 
t smith, to the River Thame*, in the county of Middlesex, and to 
i enabie the Kensington Canal Company to raise a further Sum for 
* the completing of the said Canal' By thb act the oompany were 
aatfaorixed to raise a farther sum of £30,000 by the usual means, 
andthe term of completing the canal was prolonged for three years. 

Mr. Thomas Hollinsworth was the engineer employed, and his 
estimate for the canal, to be 0,000 feet long, was, for completing 
the same, with 

Lock and Coffer Dam £8)000 

Draw Bridge and Lock 13,000 

£21,000 
This canal, though of limited extent, is of great service for the 
purposes which gave rise to its projection. 



KENYON AND LEIGH RAILWAY. 

10 George IV. Cap. 36, Royal Assent 14th Hay, 1839. 

Thb Kenyon and Leigh Railway was projected with a view 
to connect the Bolton and Leigh Railway with that of the Liver- 
pool and Manchester, and the act for completing the same obtained 
the sanction of the legislature as above, under the title of ' An Act 
i for making a Railway from the Bolton and Leigh Railway in 
1 the township of West Leigh, to the Liverpool and Manchester 
' Railway, in the township of Kenyon, with a Branch therefrom, 
' in the county of Lancaster. 1 By this act the company, under 
the title of " The Kenyon and Leigh Junction Railway Com- 
u pany," are empowered to make a railway from the Bolton and 
Leigh Railway, within the township of West Leigh, and extending 
to or passing through Leigh, Winwich, Pennington and Kenyon, 
or some of them, and terminating at the Liverpool and Manchester 



364 KENYON AND LEIGH RAILWAY. 

Railway, five hundred yards to the west of Broseley Lane, in the 
said township of Kenyon, together with a branch from a certain 
field in the said township of Kenyon, belonging to the Earl of 
Wilton, and extending from thence in a curved line eastwardly, 
terminating at or near the said Liverpool and Manchester Rail- 
way, four hundred yards to the eastward of the said Broseley 
Lane; and also, to make inclined planes, if necessary, on any 
part of the line. The distance between the inside edges of the 
rails of this railway to be not less than 4 feet 8 inches, and that 
between the outside edges not more than 5 feet 1 inch ; and at 
the crossings of turnpike-roads or highways, the guiding flanch 
or ledge shall not rise above or sink below the level of such road 
more than 1 inch. Bridges for carrying the same over highways, 
shall leave a clear width of 15 feet under the arch, and a height 
of 16 feet above the surface of the road ; but the bridge over the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal shall not be less than 25 feet in span; 
width of towing-path 6 feet, and breast wall of the same 12 feet 
in height above the level of the top water in the canal. The pro- 
prietors are empowered to raise ,£25,000, in shares of £100 each, 
for the purposes of this act; £22,946, being the estimate of the 
work, is to be raised before the act is put in force. But should 
the sum of £25,000 prove insufficient, the proprietors may raise 
£6,000 more in the usual way. The following are directed to be 
collected as 

TOLLS AND TONNAGE RATES. 

„ »• *■ 

For every Person passing on the Road in any Coach, Cart, Waggon, > „ „ . 
or other Carriage ....?.!... 5 ° C e **' 

Forevery Horse, Mule, Ass or other Beast of Draught' or Burthen|i ,.„ 

and for every Ox, Cow, Bull or Neat Cattle, ditto, ditto * ° 6 dlU0 

For every Calf, Sheep, Lamb, or Pig ditto, ditto o 1 ditto. 

For all Lime-stone and Lime, Coal, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, -v 

Stone, Sand, Clay, Building, Pitching and Paving-stones, Flags, f _ 

Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Dung, Compost, and all Sorts of Manure f ° 6 P" lon - 
and Materials for repairs of Roads J 

For all Sugar, Corn, Grain, Flour, Dye Wood.Timber, Staves, Deals, -j 
Lead, Iron and other Metals, Cotton and other Wool, Hides, f 
Drugs, Manufactured Goods, and all other Wares, Mercliandize, ( 1 ° dllto - 
Matters or Things J 

Fractions of a Ton to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a 

Quarter. 
The Company to fix the Rates for Parcels not exceeding Five Hundred Weight. 

This Railway is not to be used as a Foot Path, under Penalty of Forty Shillings, to 
be paid by the Offender, but Owners or Occupiers of Lands adjoining may pass 
thereon without paying TolL No carriage to carry more than Four Tons, tn. 
eluding its own Weight, except any one Piece of Timber, Block of Stone, Boiler, 
Cylinder, Bob or Single Piece of Machinery, which may, with the Carriage, 
weigh Eight Tons, and pay Four-pence per Ton per Mile. 



KETLKY CANAL-KIDWELLY CANAL. 365 

The railway must be completed in seven years, or the powers 
of the act cease. The length thereof is about four miles, in a 
southerly direction from Leigh; in its course it passes not far from 
Pennington Hall and Haydock Lodge ; and, connecting the Bolton 
and Leigh Railroad with that of the Manchester and Liverpool, it 
adds considerably to the facilities for conveying coal, iron and lead 
from various mines within reach of Bolton, Leigh, and other 
places, with which a communication is thereby opened. The 
engineering department is under the direction of Mr. Vignofles. 



KETLEY CANAL. 

(SEE SHROPSHIRE CANAL.) 



KIDWELLY CANAL. 

6 George m. Cap. OS, Boyal Aeaent 19th February, 1788. 
91 George III. Cap. 173, Royal Aaent 90th June, 1813. 
08 George IU. Cap. W, Royal Aeaent fflth May, 1818. 

The first commencement of this undertaking was an act ob- 
tained in 1706, by Thomas Kymer, Esq. to make a canal from the 
tideway in Kidwelly Harbour to his coal and lime works, about 
three miles and a half from that place. This act is entitled, ' An 

* Act to enable Thomat Kymer, Esq. to make a navigable Cut or 
1 Canal, from Little Gwendraeth River, near the town of Kidwelly, 
' to the Great Potest and Pwll Llygod, in the county of Carmar- 
< then.* It may be strictly considered a private act, as it was for 
the sole purpose of affording conveyance for the produce of Mr. 
Kymer's estate ; and the canal which was entirely cut through his 
own land was called Kymer's Canal. The utility of the work, 
however, was proved to be so great, that it was thought desirable 
to extend its benefits to the neighbourhood, and, in consequence, 
another act was obtained in 1812, entitled, ' An Act for the im- 

* proving of the Harbour of Kidwelly, and for making and main- 
i taining a navigable Canal, or Tramroads, in Kidwelly, and 
' LlaneUy and other parishes therein mentioned, in the county of 

* Carmarthen. , By this act powers were given for a company to 
improve the harbour at Kidwelly, and to make a canal and 



366 KIDWELLY CANAL. 

tramroads in Kidwelly, Llanelly, and other parishes of the vicinity. 
The company was by this act incorporated under the name of 
" The Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal and Tramroad Company," 
with the usual powers. They were also authorized to restore or 
make a cut or channel from Salmon Scarr, on the south side of the 
River Towey, to the united rivers of Great and Little Gwendraeth, 
near Bertwyn House. For all the purposes of this act the company 
may raise JgGOfiQO, in shares of £100 each; and should that 
prove insufficient, they may raise a further sum not exceeding 
£20,000 in like manner, or on mortgage. For enabling them to 
keep up the works, and to pay the interest of money advanced, the 
proprietors are authorized to demand as under for 

TONNAGE RATES. 

i. 
For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things, navi. \ 

gated, carried or conveyed on the said Canal, Collateral f . ,- „.. 

Cuts, Railways or Tramroads, except the Articles men- i ' ^ 

tioned below 3 

For all Iron Castings, navigated and carried on ditto 3 ditto. ditto. 

For all Pig-iron, ditto 2j ditto, ditto. 

For all Calcined Iron-ore, Rotten-stone, Coals, Culm, Stone. J 

coal. Cokes, Cinders, Charcoal, Timber, Deals, Stones, > I J ditto. ditto. 

Tiles, Slates and Bricks, ditto ) 

For all Iron-stone, Iron-ore, Lime-stone, Lime, Sand, Clay, j ,«.._ /attn 

and all Kinds of Manure, ditto i l m "°' ama 

And so on in Proportion for a greater or less Weight than a Ton, and for a longer or 
shorter Distance than a Mile. Parcels of less than Five Hundred Weight to be 
paid for according to Rates which shall be fixed by the Proprietors. 

Ships, Barges, and other Vessels entering and using the Harbour of Kidwelly, to pay, 
as Harbour Dues, One Penny per Ton on their registered Burthens, which Dues 
shall be appropriated solely to maintaining and improving the said Harbour. His 
Majesty's Vessels of War, Post-Oflice Packets, Transports employed on his Ma- 
jesty's Service, Vessels carrying Salt for the Fisheries, Ships carrying Stones or 
other Materials for the Works, and Custom-House Vessels are all exempt from 
paying these Dues. Vessels resorting to any Shipping Places to be hereafter 
erected by the Company, shall pay One Penny per Ton on all exported Goods, 
and One Half-penny per Ton on all imported Goods. The Company may also 
demand the following 



TOLLS. 

d. 
For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Mule or Ass, Cow or other Neat Cat- 1 

tie, travelling on the Railways or Tramroads, and not drawing > 1 each. 

any Waggon, nor passing from one Farm to another on the Line ' 
For all Sheep, Swine or Calves, except when passing from one Farm to > a ~^ 

another. S 8 P* r;>core - 

Fishing Boats, Boats or Vessels carrying Coals to other Vessels in the Harbour, or 
bringing Supplies of Flesh or Vegetables to the Town or Kidwelly, are exempt 
from Duties. Goods or Merchandize are not to remain on any Quays at Wnarft 
of the Company for a longer Time than Twenty-four Hours ; if they'do, they are 
to be charged a Wharfage Rate of One Half-penny per Ton per Day. 



KILMARNOCK RAILWAY. 387 

In 1818 a third act was obtained to alter and enlarge the 
pawers of those previously granted, and is entitled, * An Act to 
' explain and amend an Act of the Fifty-second of his present 

* Majesty, entitled. An Act for the improving of the Harbour of 
' Kidwelly, and for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, 

* or Tramroads, in Kidwelly and Llanelly, and other parishes therein 

* mentioned, in the county of Carmarthen, and to alter and enlarge 
' the Powers thereof By this act the company are enabled to 
raise the harbour does of Kidwelly, from one half-penny to one 
penny per ton, on the registered burthen of all vessels entering 
and using this harbour. 

If the works are not completed in six years from the date of 
the act, then its powers are to cease ; and if any persons, desirous 
of making any collateral cut, branch or railway, authorized by 
this or the former acts, shall advance to the company a sufficient 
sum of money for making the same, then they may call upon the 
company to complete the same, and in case of refusal, the parties 
themselves are authorized to make it, and shall be accounted pro- 
prietors of one jflOO share, for every hundred pounds bona fide ex- 
pended on the making of the said branch, cut or tramroad. There 
are two small detached tramroads, one at Machynis Pool, the 
other at the Loughor Mines. 



KILMARNOCK RAILWAY. 

48 George HI. Cap. 46, Royal Aaent 37th May, 1808. 

This railway, commencing near the town of Kilmarnock, in 
the county of Ayr in Scotland, pursues a westerly course for about 
half its length; it then turns at almost right angles to the south, 
and terminates at the Troon, having traversed between its two 
points, Kilmarnock and the Troon, a distance of nine miles and six 
furlongs, and passing, in its way, by the estates of Fairlie and 
Robertland, both belonging to the family of Sir William Cun- 
ningham. 

The design, for which it was projected, was to open a cheaper 
and easier conveyance than heretofore, for coal, lime and mi ne r als, 
as well as for the goods, wares and merchandize used and naanu- 



368 KILMARNOCK RAILWAY. 

factored by and in the large works of the county of Ayr. The 
act for executing it was passed in 1808, and has for title, ' An Act 
6 for making a Railway from or near to the town of Kilmarnock, 
' tn the county of Ayr, to a Place called the Troon, in the said 
' county.' By this act the proprietors are incorporated under the 
style of " The Company of Proprietors of the Kilmarnock and 
" Troon Railway," and are empowered to raise in shares of £500 
each, the sum of £40,000, for the purposes of the act; and should 
need be, they may raise a further sum of £l 5,000 amongst them- 
selves, or by borrowing on security of the undertaking. The 
following are also directed to be paid as 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things whatsoever 3 per Ton, per Mile. 

Fifty Cubic Feet of Round, and Forty Cubic Feet of Square Oak, Ash, Elm or Beech 
Timber, and Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir or Deal, Balk, Poplar, Birch or other Timber 
or Wood not cut into Scantling9, to be considered as One Ton Weijtht One Hun- 
dred and Twelve Pounds Avoirdupois of Coal, Coke, Lime and all other Good*, 
Commodities, Matters or Things to be rated as One Hundredweight; and Two 
Thousand Two Hundred and Forty Pounds Weight as one Ton. 
Fractions of a Ton to be reckoned as the Numbers of Quarters in it, and of a Quarter 
as a Quarter. 
Fractions of a Mile as the Quarters in it, and of a Quarter as a Quarter. 

If the yearly dividends exceed £20 per cent, on the sums ex- 
pended, for three years, the rates may be reduced by order of two 
justices of the peace ; and if, after such reduction, the dividends 
for any two years shall not amount to £20 per cent, per annum 
on the sums expended, the rates may be raised to their former 
amount, by order of two justices as aforesaid. 

Owners of land on the line may erect wharfs and warehouses, 
but if they refuse after twelve months' notice, the company may 
erect such wharfs, &c. and demand a rate for all goods left on 
their wharfs or in their warehouses above twenty-four hours ; such 
rate to be regulated at a quarter sessions of the county. 

The line of this useful undertaking was laid down by Mr. Wil- 
liam Jessop, who estimated the expense of making the same at 
£38,167, 10*. The whole length is, as we have before stated, 
nine miles and six furlongs. At a distance of seven miles, two fur- 
longs and five chains, there is a branch to Sir William Cunning- 
ham's Coal Works at Peatland, which is four furlongs and five 
chains in length. There were originally only four subscribers to 
the work, who took shares as follow, viz. 



KINGSTON-UPON-HULL-5INGTON CANAL. 369 

The Marquis of Tiehfield, seventy-four shares .. £37,000 

Lord Montgomerie, one ditto. 500 

Lord Montgomerie Eglington, one ditto 500 

John Boyle, Esq. one ditto 500 

£38,500 



KINGSTON-UPON-HULL. 

MOeo. in. CM, R. A. 20th May, 1774. S3 Geo. HL C. 55, R. A. •> 1783. 

42 Geo. in. C. 91, R. A. 22nd June, 1800. 45 Geo. in. C. 42, R. A. «th July, 1808. 
6 Geo. IV. C. 107, R. A. fftb July, 1825. 

- This article is merely inserted as serving to inform our readers, 
that the powers of demanding various dues and customs relating 
to the Hull River and the port of Kingston-upon-Hull, together 
with the building of quays, wharfe, &c for the securing the 
revenues of his Majesty's customs there, were legalized by an act 
of 14th George III. entitled, ' An Act for making and establishing 
1 public Quay* or Wharfs at Kingston-upon-Hull, for the better 
' securing his Majesty's Revenues of Customs, and for the Benefit 
1 of Commerce in the Port of Kingston-upon-Hull ; for making a 
1 Basin or Dock, with Reservoirs, Sluices, Roads and other Works 
'far the Accommodation of Vessels using the said Port; and for 
' appropriating certain Lands belonging to his Majesty, and for 
' applying certain Sums of Money out of his Majesty's Customs at 
( the said Port for those Purposes, and for establishing other neces- 
.*«wrjf Regulations within the Town and Port of Kingston-upon- 
< HulL' The other acts above-noticed relate principally to making 
a new dock and other regulations. 

For the extent of the port we refer to the map, and for the 
various dues to the acts, those particulars not coming within the 
design of a work on inland navigation. 



KINGTON CANAL. 

(SEE LEOMINSTER CANAL.) 

2 A 



370 KINGTON RAILWAY. 

KINGTON RAILWAY! 

rs George III. Cap. 63, Royal Assent 23rd May, 1818. 

This railway was projected for the purpose of opening a 
communication between the Hay Railway near Eardisley in Here- 
fordshire, to Kington in the said county, and from thence to the 
Burlinjob Lime Works, in the county of Radnor, and thereby 
facilitating and cheapening the conveyance of coal, iron and other 
commodities from the county of Brecon, to the said town and lime 
works ; and, in return, to facilitate the export from thence of lime, 
corn and other products, all which objects were not feasible by the 
turnpike and other roads, in consequence of their ruinous state. 

The necessary powers were obtained in an act, entitled, ' An 
' Act for making a Railway from the Hay Railway, near Eardis- 
' ley, in the county of Hereford, to the Lime Works near Burlinjob y 
' in the county of Radnor ;' by which the subscribers were incor- 
porated under the name of " The Kington Railway Company," 
and empowered to make the said railway from the Hay Railway 
near Eardisley, through the townships of Almeley, Lyonshall, 
Kington and Old Radnor, in the counties of Hereford and Radnor. 
For accomplishing this work, the proprietors are empowered to 
raise £18,000, in shares of £100 each; and in case that sum 
should not be sufficient, they may raise £5,000 more. Any part 
of the said £l 8,000 which was not subscribed before the passing 
of the act, or of the additional £5,000, may be raised on promis- 
sory notes under the common seal, or by mortgage. For paying 
interest and maintaining the railway, they are authorized to de- 
mand the following 



TONNAGE KATES. 

rf. 

For all Lime, Stone, Materials for the repairing of Turnpike ) 

Roads or Highway.*, ail Dur.c;, Compost ami Manor*, ex- > 3 j>erTon, per Mile. 

cept Lime ) 

For all Coal, Coke, Culm, Slont, Cinders, Marl, Sand, Linw.-j 

Clay, Pier, Iron-stone and other Minerals, BuildinK-stone, j 

Pitching and Paving -stone. Bricks, Tiles, Stales, 'limber, > 5 ditto. ditto. 

Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Bar-iron, Watrtron-tire, and all Gross 

and Unmanufactured Artieles and Building Materials ' 

For all other Goods, Commodities, Wares, and Merchandize J fi ditto ditto 

whatsoever ' 

Fractions of a Ton and a Mile as the Quarters in each respectively, and of a Quarter 
as a Quarter. 



KIRKINTILLOCH RAILWAY. 371 

The Company are toixtbe Bate for Parcels not exceeding Five Hundredweight. 

The Railway is not to be used aa a Passage for Hones or Cattle, except those crossing , 

it to the Farms on its Line. 

Wharfs and warehouses may be erected by owners of land or 
lords of manors, on their own lands ; but if such erections are not 
made within three calendar months after notice given, then the 
said company may themselves erect them, and at such wharfs 
may be taken the following 

WHARFAGE AMD WAREHOUSING BATES. 

d. 
FbraD Coals, Cuho, Lime, Litae-srene, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead or) 

other Ores, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles, Slates, Gravel or other > I per Ton. 

Tilings J 

for every Package not exceeding FRy-eix Pound* in Weight leach. 

For ditto aboTeFlftyjix Pounds and not exceeding Five Hundred Weight 2 ditto. 

All Articles remaining above Forty-eight Hours, shall pay in addition for the next 
Tea Days, for Wharfage, One Penny per Ton; for Warehousing, Three-pence per 
Tout and the like Sums of One Penny and Three-pence for every Day after the 
Expiration of the said Ten Days. 

A loan of Exchequer Bills is to be deemed equivalent to a 
subscription, as being provided for under the clauses of an act of 
the 57th George III. entitled, { An Act to authorize the Issue of 
1 Exchequer Bills, and tiie Advance of Money out of the Consoli- 
' dated Fund to a limited Amount, for the carrying on of Public 
' Works and Fisheries in the United Kingdom, and Employment of 
* the Poor in Great Britain.' 

This railway is about fourteen miles long, m a direction from 
Borlinjob to Castle Weir, west, and from thence to the Hay Rail* 
way, south. It is 506J feet above the level of the sea, and well 
calculated for the purposes for which it was projected. 



KIRKINTILLOCH, OR MONKLAND AND 
KIRKINTILLOCH RAILWAY. 

4 George IV. Cap. 48, Royal Assent nth May, ISM. 

This useful work was undertaken in the year 1824, under 
me authority of * An Act for making a Raihoay from Palace 

* Craig r in the parish of Old Monkland, in the county of Lanark, 
1 to the Forth and Clyde Canal, near Kirkintilloch, in the county of 

* Dumbarton.' The design of the projectors was to open a com- 
mnication betwe en the iron works: at Palace Craig, near Old 

2 a 2 



37% LANCASTER CANAL. 

Mont land, and the Forth and Clyde Canal, for the purpose of 
exporting the minerals and manufactures of that place and vicinity, 
and it has fully answered the end proposed. It traverses a distance 
of more than ten miles, in a northerly direction from Monkland to 
Kirkintilloch. Taking the surface water of the Forth and Clyde 
Canal as a level, there is a rise, from the basin where the railway 
communicates with that work, to its termination at Palace Craig, 
of 133 feet 11 inches. In its way it passes by Howes, at which 
place there is a branch of three quarters of a mile in length, with 
a rise, from the aforesaid level, of 161 feet 3 inches to Kipps* 
Colliery. It connects with the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway, 
and with the Ballochney Railway, and also with the Wishaw and 
Coltness Railway ; besides connecting the Monkland Canal with 
the above railroads and the Forth and Clyde Canal, thus giving 
facility to the export of immense quantities of coal, ironstone and 
limestone, with which this district abounds. 

Mr. Thomas Grainger was the engineer employed, whose 
estimate for the whole, including the basin at the Forth and Clyde 
Canal of one hundred yards square, was ^24,953, Is, 6d.; the 
necessary funds for which were raised by shares of £5Q each. 



LANCASTER CANAL. 

38 Geo. III. C. 101, R. A. 11th Jane. 1793. 33 Geo. HI. C. 107, R A. TOth Hay, 1793. 
3S Geo. HI. C. 97, B. A. 14th May, 1798. 40 Geo. III. C. SI, R. A. SOtn June, 1800. 
47 Geo. III. C. 113, R. A. 13th Aug 1807. 58 Ueo. III. C. 64, R. A. 14th June, 1819. 

This stupendous undertaking commences, at 144 feet 9 inches 
above the level of the sea, near Kirkby Kendal, to the north of 
which place it has a feeder from the Mint Beck ; it proceeds in a 
southerly direction to the tunnel at Hincaster Green; from tins 
tunnel it turns directly eastward till it crosses Stainton Beck, where 
it again bends to the south and continues a sinuous course in that 
direction past Beetholme, Milthorp and Burton-in-Kendal, near 
the division of the counties of Westmoreland and Lancaster ; it then 
locks down 75 feet by nine locks, in a place named Tewit Field; 
here a branch was intended to run off westward to the lime rocks 
of Warton Cragg, the main line proceeding in a south-easterly 
direction to Berwick, not far from which place it crosses the River 



LANCASTER CANAL. 373 

-Keer; from Berwick, passing 1 near Over Kellet, H runs south-west 
to Bolion-by-the-Sands and Heat; beading to the east from this 
place sad winding round Lancaster, where it crosses the Lone or 
Loyne by a magnificent aqueduct, it proceeds to Gaigate, leaving 
Quem Moor Park on the east From Gaigate a branch 79 feet 4 
inefcee above low water goes off westerly by Thornham to Glasson 
New Dock, locking down 91 feet to the sea lock at Glasson, the 
sill of which is 3 feet 10 inches above low-water-mark. Leaving 
the Gaigate Branch the main Ime comes to Garstang, where it 
crosses the River Wyre, a branch of which it again passes near 
Kftidand HalL From Garstang it runs easterly by Greenhalgh 
Castle past Myerscough Hall; thence making a detour westward 
it winds round the estate of Salwkk Hall, whence it runs east* 
wardly to Preston, traversing from Tewit Field to that town a 
distance of forty miles on one level, generally called the Lancaster 
Level. Here the canal is interrupted for about four miles and a 
hatf : bat a railroad crossing the Ribble, and ascending the high 
ground, connects this part of the line with the continuation thereof 
at the summit level at Thorpe Green, This railroad rises 222 
feet; at its termination, .where the head level of the canal com- 
mences, there is a commodious basin, and immediately adjoining 
commences a tunnel three hundred yards in length. From this 
junction of the railroad and canal, the latter proceeds almost due 
south to Bark Hill near Wigan, a distance of thirteen miles and a 
half. The remainder of the projected line to West Houghton 
was never executed, being rendered unnecessary by the junction 
of the Leeds and Liverpool with the Lancaster Canal, at Johnson's 
Hillock, near Shaw Hall, two miles and a half from the tunnel. 
At this place the Lancaster Company made a short branch or 
junction on which there are seven locks, with a rise of 67 feet 3 
inches, from their summit level into the Leeds and Liverpool 
Canal A communication is thus made between Kendal and 
Manchester, and all the navigations connected with that town,, 
through the Leeds and Liverpool Branch to Leigh, by way of 
Bark HtU and Wigan. The canal in its progress passes through 
a noted agricultural district, generally called the Fylde Country. 

Having thus given the route of the canal, we proceed to notice 
the acts of parliament connected with it, in their order. The first 



371 LANCASTER CANAL. 

obtained for this purpose, bearing date in 179%, is entitled, ' An 
1 Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from Kirkby 
' Kendal in the county of Westmoreland, to West Houghton in the 
1 county palatine of Lancaster, and also a navigable Branch from 
i the said intended Canal at or near Barwick, to or near Warton 
i Cragg, and also another navigable Branch, from, at or near, 
' Galemoss, by Chorley, to or near Duxbury in the said county 
' palatine of Lancaster.' It incorporates the proprietors under 
the style of " The Company of Proprietors of the Lancaster Canal 
" Navigation," and gives them power to cut the line as we have 
described to West Houghton, with branches from Barwick Hall to 
Warton Cragg, and from Galemoss in the parish of Crofton, to 
jot near Duxbury in the parish of Standish. The part to West 
Houghton was rendered unnecessary as we before stated, and the 
Duxbury Branch has also been left unexecuted. 

By this act the proprietors were empowered to raise £414,100, 
in £100 shares, £60,000 thereof to be applied solely to complete 
the Westmoreland part of the canal, with a power of raising by 
further subscription amongst themselves, or by mortgage, the ad- 
ditional sum of £200,000, if required. This act also established 
the following rates. 

TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE RATES. 

.. d. 

For Coals navigated on the Canal o li per Ton, per Mile. 

For Lime-stone, Slate, Salt-ores, Salt-rock, Bricks, Stone, 1 

Flags, Iron-stone, Coal-sleck, Black-bass, Iron-Cm- > \ ditto. ditto. 

ders, Gravel, Sand, Clay, Marl and Manure ) 

For Lime, Pig-iron, Cast-iron, and Bar-Iron I ditto. ditto. 

For Timber, Dying-woods, and all other Goods, Wares, j 

Merchandize and Commodities not before-enume- V 2 ditto. ditto. 

rated ) 

For Coals passing the Locks on the South' Side' of the j 

River Rlbble, if they do not pass more than Eighteen I 2 3 per Ton. 

Miles North of Chorley on this Canal ) 

For the Wharfage of Coal, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, } 

Iron-stone, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles, Slate or I 1 ditto. 

Gravel J 

For all other Goods or Things whatever 3 ditto. 

Coal, Iron and Lime-stone may remain on the Wharfs Twenty-one Days ; Timber, 

Clay, Lime, Iron-stone, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate and Gravel, Thirty Days ; all 

other Goods Six Days ; an additional Charge of one Penny per Ton for erery Ten 

Days after this Period. 

And so on in Proportion for more or less than a Ton or a Mile. 
Forty Feet of Round, or Fifty Feet of Square Oak, Ash or Elm Timber, and Fifty 
Feet of Fir or Deal, Balk, Poplar, Beech or Birch cut into Scantlings, and Forty 
Feet of Light Goods to be deemed One Ton. 



LANCASTER CANAL. 376 

' Is the jbUawiag year a seeond act, the title of which niffi* 
CMQtty explains its purport, was granted, as ' An Act to alter and 

* amend an Act pasted in the hut Session of Parliament, entitled, 

* An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from 
< Kirhby Kendal in the county of Westmoreland, to Wett Houghton 
' *• the county palatine of Lancaster, and also a navigable Branch 
'from the said intended Canal at or near Harwich, to or near 

* Warttm Cragg, and also another navigable Branch, from, at or 

* nearyjGhisvtose, by Charley, to or near Duxbury in the said 
f-eounty palatine of Lancaster t and also for making a navigable 
1 Branch fr&m the said Canal at or near Galgate, to Glasson Dock, 

* in the said county palatine of Lancaster.' The next act, ob- 
tamed in 1796, and entitled, ' An Act to enable hie Majesty, in 
1 Bight of his Duchy of Lancaster, to make a Grant of certain 
1 Lands, for the Purpose of carrying into Execution an Act passed 

* in the Thtrtyetcond of hie present Majesty, entitled, An Act far 

* making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from Kirkby Kendal 
' in the county of Westmoreland, to West Houghton in the county 
'palatine of Lancaster, and alto a navigable Branch from the said 
' intended Canal at or near Barvick, to or near Warton Cragg, 
' and also another navigable Branch, from, at or near, Galemoss, 
1 by Charley, to or near Duttbury in the said county palatine of 
' Lancaster,' was merely to enable his Majesty, as Duke of Lan- 
caster, to grant the company certain lands in that duchy. The 
fourth act, entitled, ' An Act for enabling the Company of Propria- 
< tort of the Lancaster Canal Navigation to complete the same,' 
WAS obtained in 1800, for the purpose of enabling the proprietors 
to raise the additional £200,000, mentioned in the first act, by 
creating new shares. 

An act* entitled, * An Act to enable the Company of Praprie- 
' tore of the Lancaster Canal Navigation, to vary the Course of the 
' said Canal, ana] to make Railways or Roads, and to amend and 
'render more effectual Two Acts relating to the said Navigation,' 
was obtained in 1807, whereby the proprietors were empowered 
to vary the line between Tewit Field in the parish of Warton 
and a place called the World's End, in the parish of Hincaster; 
also to make a railway from Farlton Knott in the parish of 
'Beetham, to communicate with the said variation in Kelnhall 



376 LANCASTER CANAL. 

Close in the township of Farlton, and another from the limestone 
rock at Kellet Seeds in the parish of Bolton-by-the-Sands to Over 
Kellet and Carnforth. By this act the power of taking water 
from the River Mint, is repealed. 

The last act received the royal assent in 1810, under the title 
of ' An Act to alter and amend the several Acts passed for making 
' and maintaining the Lancaster Canal Navigation.' It grants to 
the company the power of making reservoirs and feeders in the 
townships 6f Killington, New Hutton, Kirkby Lonsdale, and 
Kirkby-ih-Kendal, and to convey the water from Crookland's 
Beck into the said canal ; and to make a navigable branch from 
the said canal in the township of Whittle-le- Woods, at a place 
called Johnson's Hillock, to join and communicate with the present 
southern termination of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which said 
branch shall be accounted part of the said Lancaster Canal Navi- 
gation. By this act is repealed a clause of the 32nd George III. 
authorizing the proprietors to take Is. id. per ton for all coals 
passing the locks on the said canal on the south side of the Ribble. 
The proprietors are also empowered to raise £270,000, on mort- 
gage of the rates and dues of the said canal, for the purpose of 
completing the said navigation and works. The proprietors of 
the Lancaster and the Leeds and Liverpool Canals are not to take 
water either from other of these works, when the depth shall be 
reduced to 5 feet upon the sill of the upper gates of the locks on 
the said Leeds and Liverpool Canal, adjoining the said Lancaster 
Canal, which sill is not to be lower than the bottom level of the 
said Lancaster Canal. We have before mentioned, that by uniting 
the two canals at Johnson's Hillock, a length of eleven miles was 
common to both canals ; this length is actually part of the Lan- 
caster Canal, but that company is confined by a specific agree- 
ment, not to charge more for goods passing out of the Leeds and 
Liverpool on it, than they would be liable to for the same distance, 
taking it as part of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. On the line 
of this canal there are two tunnels, one at Hincaster eight hundred 
yards long; the second at the Whittle Hills, not far from the 
junction with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, three hundred yards 
long ; there is also a remarkable piece of deep cutting at Ashton, 
near Lancaster. 



LAPWORTH AND RINQWOOD CANAL— LARKB RIVER. 877 

The.Leeds and Liverpool Canal was to have itoassd this canal 
by aa aqueduct cX) feet high at Bark Mifl near Wigan; and the 
Lancaster Canal itself was to have been c on d u cted by an aqueduct 
over the Ribbk at Preston; there is one over the Wyre at Gar- 
staag, -the Beeloo near Bethom, and the Lane near Lancaster, 
the bet of which is a most wonderful piece of workmanship, being 
61 feet high above the river, having five arches of 70 feet span 
each, and is supposed to be the largest aqueduct of the kind in 



Mr. Brindley surveyed part of the line of the Lancaster Canal 
in \iJ% and Mr. Whhworth soon after completed the survey. 
But it was not till 1791, that the promoters of the scheme resumed 
the subject; when they appointed Mr. Rennie engineer to the un- 
dertaking, and this was the first great work of the kind in which 
he had taken the direction;, the magnificent aqueduct over the 
Lune- at Lancaster, and other immense worts upon this canal, 
established Ins reputation as a civil engineer. 

It would be almost impossible to enumerate all the advantages 
aceniag to the public from the execution of this undertaking. 
Tin) interchange of the coals and cannel of Wigan and the south- 
ern extremity of the line, with the stone, lime and slate of hs 
northern parts, is not amongst the least beneficial effects of its 
completion; whilst liquors and various other articles of foreign 
merchandise introduced at the port of Lancaster, are by Hs means 
conveyed with expedition and at a trifling expense to the various 
populous manufacturing places on its line. 



LAPWORTH AND RINGWOOD CANAL. 

(SEE STRATFORD-UPON-AVON CANAL.) 



LARKE RIVER. 

II k IS William m. Cap. 23, Royal Anent 11th April. 1700. 
SI George HL Cap. 71, Royal Aaaent 10th July, 1817. 

Tux navigation of the River Larke or Bum extends for the 
distance of about fourteen miles from a place called Long Com- 
mon, a little below Milden Hall Mill, to Eastgate Bridge in 



S76 LARKE RIVER. 

Eastgate Street Bury St Edmund*, in the county of Suffolk; its 
level from its situation in the fiat pert of the county is in n* part 
greatly above the tideway. 

The first step towards the rendering this river navigable, wan 
an act of parliament in the year 1700, bearing as title, * An Att 
*for making the River Lathe, alia* Burn, nangaUe.' By this act 
power was granted to Henry Ashley, Esq. of Eaton Soeon, in 
Bedfordshire, his heirs and assigns, to cleanse, enlarge or straighten 
the said river, and to construct all necessary works on the same. 
He was empowered to demand certain rates, and a number of com- 
missioners were appointed to settle disputes, which commissioners 
were from time to time to elect others on vacancies. After the 
lapse of several years, fhe property became vested in Mrs. 8u» 
sanna Palmer, and great inconvenience arose from the neglect of 
the commissioners in not filling up vacancies. A second act was 
therefore obtained in 1817, entitled, * An Act for amending and 
' rendering more effectual an Act of his late Majesty, King WU&em 
' the Third, for making the River Larke, atiat Bum, navigable;' 
by which new commissioners were appointed with the necessary 
powers, and the following determined upon to be paid to Mrs. 
Palmer, in ben of former tolls as 



TONNAGE HATES. 

«. d. 

For Coals, by Lyim Measure 4 2 per ChaWron. 

For Deals 2 7i per Half Himdaed. 

Por Timber (accounting Forty Feet to the Load) 2 7 ; per Load. 

Pot Wool, (accounting Ten Tod to the Pack) 3 3 ; per Sight Path*. 

PorSalt 3 a per Weigh. 

PorWbeatorBarley,(reckoningTenCooml»totbeLoad) a 7 per Load. 



per Last 
per Load, 
per Ton. 
ditto, 
per Thousand. 



For Oats 3 

Por Beans or Peas, (reckoning Ten Coombs to the Load) 3 

Por Grocery Wares or CommooUtio S- 

ForOilor Wine 5 

PorTurf ~ 4 

For Reed, Sedge, or Hay, (reckoning Twenty Hundred j . „ _ •„.. 
Weight tea Load) i * * per Load. 

Por Hemp, (reckoning Twenty Hundred Weight to a Load) 4 3 per ditto. 

For Malt S 3j per Last 

For Bricks, (reckoning FlTeHundred to the Load) ...... 2 7J per Load. 

For Tiles 2 11 per Thousand. 

Por all other Goods, Wares, Merchandise or Co m mod ities > „ ,•-_■>_ 
whatsoever J " T * «»**»• 

All these Rates to be considered as payable for Goods passing between the Sluice next 
abort Milden Hall Bridge and Bury St Edmunds, and in Proportion lor a greater 
or leu Weight and tor a leas Distance; and the Proprietor may lower or raise all 
or any Part of the asid Tolls from time to time. And U» flijoinjarlreati sri rsi 
now* red to raise the Tolls for the Payment of Expenses incurred by making new 
Works, application being made to thesn by the Proprietor fcr thai Purpose. 



LEA BIVBB. 370 

This is a very useful navigation, and baaenoial to the agriccu» 
.tafosts of the dirtrict about Bury, as besides the adva n t age ou s 
mode it affords of conveying their prodnce down to Lynn, by iai 
janctian with the Oaae near Littiepori^R conveys to -them in return, 
and at a much lower rate than by land carriage,. fbel and otter 
artkles of home consumption which their own neighbourhood 
Cannot supply. 



LEA RIVER. 

3 Hen. VJ- C. 5, R. A. 1435. Hen. VL C. 9, R. A. 143a 

' S Bib. C. — R. A. 1581. 13 Geo. II. C. 32, R. A. 14th Jane, 1738. 

7Gea.m.C. 81, R. A. WUi Jane, 1787. 1» Oea HL C. 48, R. A. 81* May, 1778. 

4S Geo. m. C. 69, R. A. 97th June, 1805. 5 Geo. IV. C. 47, R. A. 17th Hay, 1824. 

The Lea or Lee Navigation commeneet at the county town 
of Hertford, at 111 feet 3 inches above the level of the aea; 
rtaaring thence in an easterly direction by a bending course end 
leaving Ware Park on its northern bank, it arrives at Ware ; from 
this town it proceeds in a south-easterly direction to its junction 
with the Stort River Navigation at no great distance from Hed- 
desden. From the junction, verging a little to the west, H directs 
its way southerly to WaJtham Abbey; the line is now nearly 
abraight in the same direction to Oil Mill; here again d ive rg ing 
to the east, it comes to Temple Mills, passing on fto way Wanstead 
and Alderabrook; a little above Temple Milk there is a cut, 
making a communication between this navigation and the Regent's 
Canal; from Temple Mills it proceeds to its fall into the Thames 
at Bow Creek, not far from the Bast India Docks; at Bromley 
there is a cut from this navigation into the Thames at Limehouse, 
which is about a mile and a half in length, with a fall of 17$ feet 
Tins cut, by avoiding the circuit of the Isle of Dogs, makes a 
ready communication with the port of London. It was cut at 
the expense of the city of London, and is known by the name of 
the Lea Cut or Limehouse CaneL 

The ftrst parliamentary enactment having reference to the Lea 
or Lee, bears date in 1436, under the titks of < jin Aet for the 
* PtetmxUkm of the Rwer Lea;' another act was passed in 1480, 



380 LEA RIVER. 

entitled, < To scour and amend the River Lea.'' This, according 
to the custom at that time, is written in the Old Norman French, 
and therefore need not be recited here. 

In the 13th of Elizabeth, 1561, another act was sanctioned by 
the legislature, entitled , ' An Act for the bringing of the River Lea 
' to the North Side of the city of London,' whereby the whole 
jurisdiction, rule and government of the said river or new cut, 
mentioned to have been made by the Mayor, Commonalty and 
Citizens of London, are vested in the said persons. The next par- 
liamentary enactment which received the royal assent was obtained 
in 1739, and is designated, ' An Act for ascertaining, preserving 
' and improving the Navigation of the River Lea, from the town 
' of Hertford, to the town of Ware, in the county of Hertford; 
' and for preserving and improving the said River, from the said 
' town of Ware to the New Cut, or River, made by the Mayor, Com- 
' monalty and Citizens of London, and for enabling the Governor 
' and Company of the New River, the better to supply the cities of 
' London and Westminster, and the liberties of the suburbs thereof 
' with good and wholesome Water.' 

As the New River, which supplies the city of London with 
water, is mentioned in the last-recited act, it may be proper here 
to state that that useful work was projected and begun by Sir 
Hugh Middleton, in 1 608 ; and that in 1773 Mr. James Sharp sug- 
gested the practicability of rendering that river navigable. The 
New River has its rise in the Chalk Hills between Hertford and 
Ware, and has also a feeder near that point from the River Lea. 
By the act just recited, the governor and company of the New 
River were directed to pay the company of the Lea River £S50 
per annum, in consideration of the water supplied by that company, 
such yearly rent or fine to be applied to the improvement and pre- 
servation of the said River Lea or Lee. But it having appeared 
that the powers of this act were imperfect, and that the authority 
vested in the Mayor and Commonalty of London by the act of 
Elizabeth, interfered with the powers granted to this company, to 
the injury of both, a further act was obtained in 1767, which is de- 
signated, ' An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Lea, 
' from the town of Hertford to the River Thames, and for extending 
' the said Navigation to the Flood-Gates belonging to the Town 



LEA BIVER. 381 

i MM, w the taid town of Hertford: As there are many clauses 
in this act for directing new cuts or canals to be made on vari- 
ous parts of the line, we shall here consolidate them. The River 
Lea or Lee is to be made navigable to the Flood-gates of the 
Town Mill at Hertford ; and the proprietors are authorized to 
make at any time the following new cuts or canals, viz. one from 
tile said river at a place called The Folly, into and down part 
of Dicker Mill Stream, to return into the said river at any 
point they may think best above Dicker Mill and between Con- 
stant's Weir and Manifold Ditch; one from the lock above Ware 
Mill into the said river on the south, near Priory Orchard; one 
from above Ware Weir into the same on the south-west near 
Stansted Bridge; one from below Stansted Bridge into the said 
river above Stansted Mill ; one from above Field's or Rye Bridge 
Weir to any part between Archer's Weir and Field's Weir on 
the north-west; one from Dodo's Weir or the New Turnpike to 
the head of Brozbourn Mill; one from above Carthagena Turn- 
pike to a little below the same; one from above King's Weir over 
Cheshunt Mill Stream, into the river near the west tail stream of 
Waltbam Abbey Powder Mills; one from above Sotheby's Upper 
Weir, or Newman's Weir, to Enfield Mill Stream one hundred 
yards southwards below Enfield Lock, and thence to run through 
Enfield Mill Stream, to within three hundred and .forty yards 
northward of and above Enfield Com MSI; thence another out to 
the eastward of the said mill stream, again communicating with 
the river two hundred and four yards below Enfield Mill, from 
thence to ran through as much of the said mill tail stream as shall 
beaeeassary; one through part of Enfield and Edmonton Marshes, 
across the ditch parting Edmonton and Tottenham Marshes, and 
through part of Tottenham Marsh into and through the tail stream 
of Tottenham Mill into the said river again; one from' below 
Flander's Wharf to above the tail stream of Wanhemstow Mill; 
one from between Lea Bridge and the buildings of the Hackney 
Water Works, through part of Hackney Marsh, into the said 
river between Padding Mill Stream and Hackney Brook, on the 
east of Jones's Calico Grounds at Old Ford ; and one from between 
Bromley Lock and Bromley Hall, through the parishes and ham- 
lets of Bromley St Leonard's, BlackwaU, Poplar, St. Duostan 



382 LEA RIVER. 



Stepney and St Ann Limehouse, to the north of Limehouse Church, 
into the Thames near Limehouse Bridge Dock. The following 
are to be paid as 



TONNAGE RATES. 

». d. 
For all Coals, Culm or Cinders, carried or conveyed through > 

King's Weir or the Lock nearest thereto 5 ° 8 per Chaldron. 

For ditto conveyed through Newman's Weir or the Lock nearest j 

thereto S ° 8 <k««- 

For ditto conveyed through Lea Bridge or the Lock on the New ■. 

Cut below the said Bridge } ° 4 ™ tto - 

For ditto on the Cut from Bromley Lock into the Thames 3 ditto. 

For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize or Commodities con- > o per Ton 

veyed through King's Weir, or the Lock nearest thereto J 

Fot ditto through Newman's Weir or the Lock nearest thereto o ditto. 
For ditto through Lea Bridge, or the Lock on the New Cut , „ _ ■•„ 

below the said Bridge J ° J ai "°' 

For ditto on the Cut from Bromley Lock into the Thames 2 ditto. 

For every Pleasure Boat passing any of the above Locks or Places 1 each. 
And in Proportion for a greater or lesser Quantity than a Chaldron or Ton. 

Five Quarters of Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas and Tares to be allowed to a Ton ; Six 
Quarters of Barley to a Ton ; Eight Quarters of Malt and Oats to ditto; Eight 
Sacks of Meal or Flour, each containing Five Bushels to ditto ; and Ten Quarters 
of Bran or Pollard to a Ton. No Tonnage Rates to be demanded for any Boat, 
Barge, Lighter, or other Vessel carrying only Oil Cake, Malt Oust, Pigeon Dung 
or Manure of any Kind whatsoever. 

Money for executing the work may be raised by borrowing 
on security of the rates, or by annuities secured thereon. 

By this act also were allowed to various persons the following 
sums, viz. to the New River Company, in lieu of a toll taken by 
them for boats passing their lock at Ware Mill, at four quarterly 
payments for ever, one shilling for every boat, &c. passing the said 
lock, and also a clear annual rent of £ 40 ; to the owners of 
Sewardston Mills £45 ; to the owners of Newman's Weir £l 9, &».; 
to the owners of Parkinson's Weir £16, 15*. 6d.; to the owners 
of Enfield Mill Stream £40; to the Dean and Chapter of St. 
Pauls, or their lessee, £25 ; to Abraham Hume, Esq. £28 ; to 
John Archer, Esq. £28; to Sir William Maynard £48, and a 
wharf to be built for him ; all the above sums are annual rents. 
To Sir William Wake and Peter Floyer, Esq. one penny per ton 
on all goods, wares and merchandize whatever, conveyed on the 
said river from above King's Weir to the west tail stream of the 
Waltham Abbey Powder Mills, in lieu of five shillings toll now 
taken by them for every vessel passing the lock called Waltham 
Turnpike. 



LEA RIVER. 38J 

The next act obtained was passed in 1779, nncler the title of 
'An Act for preserving the Navigation of the River Lea, in, the 
' eounties of Hertford, Ester and Middlesex.' This act state* that 
the trustee* under the powers of the former enactments, from the 
amount of the principal money already advanced for the prosed* 
tion of the work, and from the sums to be paid yearly as annuities, 
compensations and other purposes authorized by the acts before 
granted, cannot liquidate the charges upon them without an ad- 
vance of the rates to meet the same, they are therefore empowered 
to demand in future, the following 

ADDITIONAL RATES. 

: i. 

For all Cosh, Calm or Cinders passing King* Weir or the 1 „ . M , rK „,,,^ I1 

Lock nearest thereto .„!?!?.....:. J ° 8 P<* Chaldron. 

For all Halt, ditto, ditto 1 3 per Ton. 

For ail Flour, ditto, ditto 4j ditto. 

For other Goods, Wares or Merchandize whatsoever, ditto . . 6 ditto. 

*or bU Coals, Cuba or Cinders passing Newman's Weir ori 6 „ chaldron. 

the Lock nearest thereto, not having paid at King's Weir J ^ 

For all Malt, ditto, ditto Oil perTon. 

For all Flour, ditto, ditto 4} ditto. 

For all other Goods, ditto, ditto 8 ditto. 

For all Coals, Culm or Cinders passing through Lea Bridge or > . . ,_. ,. 

the Lock in the said Cut below the same * ° 7 P" Chaldron. 

For all Malt, ditto, ditto a perTon. 

For all Flour, ditto, ditto 3 ditto. 

For all other Goods, ditto, ditto 3 ditto. 

For all Malt passing between Bromley Lock and the Thames o 2 ditto. 

For all other Goods, ditto, ditto 2 ditto. 

For every Pleasure Boat passing any of the above 1 each. . 

For every empty Lighter, kc. not having conveyed Goods that) 

have paid Does, or not having delivered any Lading liable Ho ditto. 

to the same * 

Every Load of Wood to be reckoned as Five Tons. 

The tolls to be reduced as the annuities fall in, and when the 
tonnage payable to Sir William Wake and Mr. Floyer shall not 
amount in any year to £160, the deficiency shall be made up by 
the trustees ; other regulations as to the height of water in various 
parts are made by the said act, but as they are not of general im- 
portance, k is TMsnecessary to quote them. 

Another act was obtained in 1805, entitled, ' An Act for the 
' better Preservation and further improvement of the Navigation of 
1 the Rwer Jjsa, in the counties ef Hertford, Essex and Middlesex' 
This aet applies chiefly to the regulations of the depth of water, 
the prevention of its waste and other particulars of a similar mature, 
It alio enacts that ist future no vessel using this navigation, shaH 
carry at any one time more than forty tons of goods, &c 



384 LEA RIVER. 

Here the Lea River Navigation may be properly said to end, 
as the branch to join it with the Regent's Canal is known as the 
Lea Union or Hertford Union Canal, and was constructed by Sit 
George Duckett ; it is, however, so connected with the Let, thai 
we have thought it needless to give the particulars under a i 
rate head. 

The act for forming this union was passed in May, 1824, ' 
the title of ' An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal 
'from the River Lea Navigation, tn the parish of St, Mary StrmU 
'ford Bow, in the county of Middlesex, to join the Regent $ Gno^ 
* at or near a place called Old Ford Lock, in the paritk of St. 
' Matthew Bethnal Green, in the taid county of Middletex ? 
whereby Sir George Duckett, Bart his heirs and assigns, are 
empowered to make the communication and all other works 
connected with it. They have also power to borrow money on 
the rates, or by mortgaging the canal and works, to the extent of 
£50,000. They are abo authorized to demand the following 

TONNAGE RATES AND TOLLS. 

i. 1. 

For all Goods, Want and Mrrchandtw whatever, on Vessels enter- > . n T 
ing the Canal from the Lea River or the Regent's Canal I * " F 

For all Horses, Mules or Aaees, passing on the Towing-paths, unless j n „ . 
drawing or haling Barges and other Vessels J u ° ewsn - 

Parcels not *w~m*% Five Hundred Weight, to be charged according to Rates fixed 
by Order of Justices at the Quarter Sessions. 

Wharfs may be erected, and the following demanded as 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

d. 
For all Goods, Wares and Mewhandrw remaining on the Wharf Forty. \ j^yon, 

eight Hours $ 

For every Day after that Time 6 ditto. 

The water in the summit level of this canal must be 6 inches 
above the top water mark of the Regent's Canal, and a stop-lock 
fa to be formed within one hundred yards of that canal The 
River Lea Company may, if they think fit, place a dam at the 
mouth of the canal, to prevent any but flood-water being taken 
from their navigation. The rights of the Commissioneri of Sewers 
and of the East London Water Works Company, are also secured 
by separate clauses in the act 



LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 385 

The length of the river navigation, from its commencement to 
its fall into the Thames, is about twenty-six miles; and the Hert- 
fc*d and Lea Union Canal, from Hertford to the junction with the 
Start Navigation, is abont five miks ; of the Lea Cot or Branch 
to avoid the circuit of the Isle of Dogs, one mile and a half; and 
of the cut made by Sir George Duckett, communicating with die 
Regent?* Canal, one mile. The course of this navigation runs 
southerly from near Hoddesden to the Thames, and divides Essex 
from the counties of Hertford and Middlesex; the country is very 
Bat, particularly as it approaches the Thames. 

To observe that legislative enactments took place for this navi- 
gation above four hundred years ago, fully stamps the importance 
of this water communication, which has afforded a cheap and 
ready transit for corn, malt,' wool and other agricultural produce 
to the metropolis; and in return, of coal, timber, deals, bricks, 
paving-stones, groceries, cloth, and various other articles of daily 
consumption ; and by extending the navigation of the River Stort, 
these benefits are more widely dispersed through the country. 



LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 

6 Geo. I. C. 28, R. A. 7th April, 1720. 10 Geo. Ill C. 114, R. A. 19th May, 1770. 
S3 Geo. m.C. 47, R. A 34th June, 1783. 30Geo.lU.C. 85, R. A 9th June, 1790. 
M Geo. DJ. C. 94, R. A. 9th May, 1794. 38 Geo. UL C. 105, R. A. 21st June, 1819 

A navigation between the east and west seas, by the Rivers 
Aire and Ribble, had been deemed, practicable by several public 
spirited gentlemen, residents in the counties of York and Lan- 
caster, who at various times had endeavoured to draw the public 
attention to the scheme. But while this was in contemplation, the 
Duke of Bridgewater formed a plan of making a navigable canal 
from Worsley Mill to Manchester, which was soon afterwards 
executed with great ability and amazing rapidity. 

The Duke's success drew forth the attention of Mr. Longbo- 
tham, a native of Halifax, who, after inspecting and examining 
the works on the Duke's Canal, projected the scheme of making 
a similar canal from Leeds to Liverpool, and for this purpose he 
took an actual survey of the country between those two places, 
laid down a plan and prepared an estimate of the expense, which 

2 B 



38G LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL 

he produced at sundry meetings of gentlemen and land-owners 
interested in promoting the scheme. It was unanimously resolved, 
in order to put it beyond a doubt, whether it was practicable or 
not, to call Mr. Brindley, to re-survey the line laid down by Mr. 
Longbotham ; and after surveying by himself, and Mr. Whit- 
worth, (who was engaged with him) he reported to two nume- 
rous meetings, one held at Bradford on the 5th and the odier at 
Liverpool on the 9th of December, 1768, that it was very prac- 
ticable, and might be executed for the total sum of ,£259,777, 
which he stated in detail. The canal, according to the plan and 
estimate, was one hundred and eight miles and three quarters in 
length, 42 feet wide at the top, 27 feet at the bottom, and 5 feet 
deep. 

This canal, as its name implies, proceeds from Leeds to Liver- 
pool, and is the most extensive of any in the kingdom. At that 
era of canal navigation, when first commenced, it was one of the 
boldest and most magnificent projects hitherto attempted in Great 
Britain. 

The act of the 10th George III. Is entitled, < Jin Act for 
' making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from Leeds 
' Bridge, in the county of York, to the North Lady's Walk in 
' Liverpool, in the county palatine of Lancaster, and from thence to 
' the River Mersey. 1 

In describing the line of this canal, we shall confine ourselves 
to the course of country through which it has been actually exe- 
cuted ; and afterwards mention a few of the places through which 
it was projected by the original line. Commencing at Leeds 
Bridge, where the jurisdiction of the Aire and Calder Navigation 
terminates, and where the two navigations unite, it proceeds twen- 
ty-seven chains in the River Aire, to the first lock on the Leeds 
and Liverpool Canal, where the extensive warehouses, wharfs, 
basins and docks belonging to this concern are situate ; from 
which circumstance, the lock here may be admitted as the com- 
mencement of the canal. From this place its course is north- 
westerly, passing alongside the River Aire by Armley, Kirkstall 
Bridge, Kirkstall Abbey and Forge, to near New Lewis, whence 
it makes a detour southerly to Ross Mill ; from hence it again 
takes a north-westerly course, leaving Horsforth on the north and 



LKSDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 387 

Calveriey on the south, to Woodhouse, when bending westerly to 
Apperky Bridge, it then changes its course to the north, leaving 
Idle to the south and Eaholt Hall to the north; thence proceeding 
westward by Buck Mill to Shipley, where the Bradford Canal 
branches off; having obtained a rise, from the surface water in 
the River Aire, at the tail of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal 
Lock above Leeds Bridge, of 155 feet 7 inches. From the 
junction with the Bradford Canal, it proceeds westward to New 
Mill, at which place it crosses the River Aire by an extensive 
aqueduct, and runs north-westerly to Bingley, where locking up 
88 feet 8 inches, it attains a level that continues above eighteen 
miles, without another lock. 

The Great Lock, as it is commonly called, at Bingley, consisting 
of five rises in one range of gates and masonry, and which unfor- 
tunate arrangement requires five locks full of water to pas one 
vessel from the lower to the higher level, must always cause a great 
waste of water, till remedied by dividing the fall or side ponds. 

From Bingley Great Lock the canal proceeds in a north-wes- 
terly direction, passing Rushforth Hall, Riddlesden, within a mile 
of Keighley, about the same distance from Steeton, close to Sils- 
den; thence to Kildwick, Snaygill and to Skipton. At this place, 
which is at an elevation of 272J feet above the River Aire at 
Leeds Bridge, a short branch proceeds from the canal to a lime- 
stone wharf on the north side of Skipton Castle, which .branch 
belongs to the Earl of Thanet From Skipton the canal runs 
north-west by Thorleby and Gargrave, and just above the latter 
place it again crosses the River Aire by another large aqueduct; 
it then bends south-westerly, passing Bank Newton, Marton, 
GiQchurch, Greenberfield and Rainhall Pasture, at which point, 
another branch of a quarter of a mile runs off southward to a 
limestone quarry called Rainhall Rock ; this branch is upon the 
summit level of the canal, and at an elevation of 411 feet 4 inches 
above the River Aire at Leeds, which elevation is attained in a 
distance (from Leeds Bridge to the summit lock at Greenberfield) 
of forty-one miles. The canal then proceeds by Barnoldswick and 
Salterford to Foulridge, where the great tunnel commences, whose 
height is 18 feet, width 17 feet, and the length one thousand six 
hundred and forty yards. The surface of the ground on the 

2 b 2 



388 LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 

highest part over the tunnel, is at an elevation of 60 feet above 
the water in the tunnel. Within a little distance of the tunnel, are 
two reservoirs, for the supply of the canal, which cover one hun- 
dred and four acres of land, and will contain twelve hundred thou- 
sand cubic yards of water. From Foulridge the canal proceeds 
to near Barrowford, where h locks down from the summit 70 feet 
towards Liverpool; crosses Colne Water by an aqueduct; passes 
near Carr Hall (a seat of Colonel Clayton's) and Dancer House to 
the town of Burnley, which it circumscribes on three sides, and at 
which place an embankment has been carried for one thousand 
two hundred and fifty-six yards in length, at above 60 feet high, 
and aqueducts made over the Rivers Brown and Calder, and a 
road aqueduct under the canal ; thence the canal proceeds to near 
Gannah, where there is another tunnel five hundred and fifty-nine 
yards in length ; thence by Hapten, Altham, Clayton Hall, Hen- 
field, to Church Valley, whence Messrs. Peek* short branch runs 
to their print works at Church ; now crossing the River Henburn 
by an aqueduct, the main line proceeds past Rushton and White 
Birch to the town of Blackburn, sweeping on the south side of 
this town to a place called Grimshaw Park, where by six locks 
there is a fall of 54 feet 3 inches ; thence passing over Derwent 
Water by an aqueduct, it runs by Livesey Hall, and passing Rod- 
dlesworth Water by another aqueduct, proceeds to near Chorley; 
thence to Cophurst Valley,, and here locking down 64 feet 6 
inches by seven locks into the head level of the Lancaster Canal, 
at Johnson's Hillock, At this part of the line there is an interval 
of eleven miles of the Lancaster Canal upon one level, when the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal again commences near Kirklees, at 
the head of a range of twenty-three locks, which brings the canal 
down 214 feet 6 inches from the level of the Lancaster Canal to 
the basin at Wigan. Here it may be observed, that the basin at 
Wigan is situate upon that part of the canal made under the 
powers of the River Douglas Navigation Act From this basin 
to Newburgh constitutes the Upper Douglas Navigation, a distance 
of seven miles, in which there is a fall to Newburgh of 30 feet 

In this last-mentioned distance the principal part of the coal 
carried by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal to Liverpool, is put on 
board the vessels ; as also the coal sent down to the Ribble. Com- 



LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 389 

mencing-at Newburgh and tracing the canal to Liverpool, it has 
been executed according to the original plan and act There it 
has a stretch of twenty-eight miles and a half upon the same level, 
passing Brier's Mill, Burscough, Scaresbrick, Halsall, Down- 
holland, Lidiate, Mayhull, over the Alt River, Litherland, Bootle, 
Bankhall, Vauxhall, the Gaol, and to the basin of this canal at the 
North Lady's Walk in Liverpool, being a distance from Leeds 
Bridge of one hundred and twenty-seven miles and thirteen chains, 
and containing a lockage of 844 feet 7j inches; that is from Leeds 
to the summit, a rise of 411 feet 4J inches; and from the summit 
to the basin at Liverpool a fall of 433 feet 3 inches. 

Hence it appears that the basin at Liverpool is 21 feet 10$ 
inches below the level of the River Aire at Leeds ; and the canal 
basin at Liverpool is 56 feet above low-water-mark in the River 
Mersey. 

At three miles from Newburgh, is the junction of the line of 
the Lower Douglas Navigation with the Leeds and Liverpool 
Canal; the Douglas Navigation locks into the tideway at the tail 
of Tarleton Cut, from whence to the Ribble is two miles and a 
half, and from the union with the Ribble is six miles and a half to 
the custom house at Preston. 

As the act for making the Douglas Navigation stands in 
priority of date to that for making the canal from Leeds to Liver- 
pool, we shall here recite it It was obtained in the 6th George 
I. and is entitled, * An Act for making the River Douglas, alias 
' Asland, navigable, from the River Ribble to Wigan, in the county 
1 palatine of Lancaster ;' wherein it is stated, that the making of 
this river navigable from the River Ribble to a place called Mirey 
Lane End, in the township of Wigan, will be very beneficial to 
trade, advantageous to the poor, and convenient for the carriage 
of coals, cannel, stone, slate, and other goods and merchandize. 
The only proprietors were William Squire, Esq. and Thomas 
Steeres, Gentleman, both of Liverpool, who were by the act 
nominated and appointed undertakers to make the said River 
Douglas, alias Asland, navigable; and they and their heirs and 
assigns have power to charge for goods conveyed thereon, the 
following tonnage rates. 



390 LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL 

TONNAGE RATES. 

n. d. 
For Coal, Cannel, Slate, Stone, or other Goods, Wares, Merchandize j 

or Commodities, from the River Ribble to the Town of Wigan, or > 2 6 per Ton. 

vice versa, or any intermediate Distance ) 

And so in Proportion for a greater or lesser Weight. 

But no Rates shall be charged to the Land-owners within Five Miles of the said River, 

upon Manure for Land only. 

The next act respecting the Douglas Navigation is that of the 
23rd George III. and is entitled, ' An Act for altering and varying 
' the Powers of an Act, passed in the Sixth Year of the Reign of 
' King George the First, for making the River Douglas, alias 
' Asland, navigable, from the River Ribble, to Wigan, in the 
' county palatine of Lancaster; and for enabling the Company of 
' Proprietors of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, incorporated by an 
' Act passed in the Tenth Year of his present Majesty's Reign, to 
' purchase the said River Navigation ; for amending the said last- 
' mentioned Act ; for incorporating and consolidating the said two 
' Navigations ; and for other Purposes.' By this act, as its title 
imports, the Douglas Navigation became incorporated with the 
Leeds jand Liverpool Canal; which company, in January, 1772, 
purchased twenty-eight shares out of the whole thirty-six shares of 
the Douglas Navigation, and they now have the power to purchase 
the remaining eight shares. They had already made the con- 
necting branch with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, a length of 
three miles and a half, with 12 feet lockage; but, upon becoming 
possessed of the remainder of this property, which took place in 
1780, they extended the canal, and altogether abandoned the river 
from Wigan io the low end of Tarluton Cut, which, out of a dis- 
tance of sixteen miles and three quarters, leaves only two miles and 
a half of river navigation, and that in the tideway. The Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal Company had a power to make a call of £14 per 
share upon their proprietors, for the purpose of purchasing the 
Douglas Navigation and improving the same. And by the time 
they had finished all the improvements, it had cost altogether 
about 5^74,000. 

The length from Wigan to Newburgh (now made the line of the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal, as stated before) is seven miles, and 
has a fall of 30 feet ; this part is usually called the Upper Douglas. 
From Burscough to the Ribble is nine miles and a half, and has a 
fall of 4'2 feet ; this is called the Lower Douglas Navigation. 



LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 391 

Now recurring bade to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, the 
first act relating thereto passed.in the 10th George TIL as stated 
above, and the number of subscribers when the act was obtained, 
amounted to five hundred and twenty-nine, (amongst whom 
appears only one nobleman, the Earl of Thanet) who are incor- 
porated by the name of " The Company of Proprietors of the 
* Canal Navigation from Leeds to Liverpool." Under this act the 
company were empowered to raise the sum. of £960,000, to be 
divided into two thousand six hundred shares of £100 each, and 
the said shares to be deemed personal estate; and in case the 
above sum be found insufficient, the company may raise the addi- 
tional sum of £60,000 in the same manner. The act authorizes 
the proprietors to receive five per cent interest upon the sums ad- 
vanced during the execution of the canaL Proprietors to have a 
vote for every share; but not to vote by proxy for faore than fifty 
shares. 

The estimate for this canal, as before stated, was made by the 
celebrated Mr. Brindley, and amounted to only £859,777 ; but as 
be could not attend to the execution thereof, it was put under the 
direction of Mr. Longbotham, who completed in less than seven 
yean, (commencing July, 1770,) that part from Leeds to a place 
called Holmbridge, near Gargrave, on the Yorkshire side, a distance 
of thirty-three miles and a half, at a cost of £175,000 ; and from 
Liverpool to Newburgh, on the Lancashire side, twenty-eight 
miles, at an expense of £125,000. The canal was opened for 
trade from Liverpool to Newburgh in 1775, and from Leeds to 
Holmbridge on the 4th June, 1777. At that time it appears this 
company had expended in the works and in purchasing the 
Douglas Navigation, the whole of the money they had a power to 
raise j and therefore applied for another act in the 30th year of 
George ELL for authority to raise more money and to vary the 
line ; which act is entitled, * An Act to enable the Company of 
' Proprietors of the Canal Navigation from Leeds to Liverpool, to 
' vary the Line of the said Canal Navigation; and to raise a further 
i Sum of Money for the Purpose of completing the said Canal 
' Navigation ; and for other Purposes.' This act enables the com- 
pany to vary the, original line of canal commencing at a place 
called Lomishay in the township of Marsden, through the several 



392 LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 

parishes and places called Marsden, Pendle Forest, Ighten Hill 
Park, Gawthrop, Padiham, Hapton, Altham, Clayton and Har- 
wood, in the county of Lancaster, to a place called Nut or Banks 
Wood, there to communicate again, with the original line. Under 
this act the company were authorized to borrow the further sum of 
£200,000 on the credit of the said canal and of that of the River 
Douglas Navigation, by assigning over the tolls, rates or duties ; 
the interest on which to be paid in preference to any dividend. 

There yet remained the most difficult and most expensive part 
of this canal to execute : and after an interval of near thirteen years, 
the company, on resuming the prosecution of the work, appointed 
Mr. R. Whitworth their engineer, under whose direction it re- 
commenced at Holmbridge in the year 1790. He re-surveyed 
the whole line and made an estimate for completing the same 
amounting to £169,817, 15*. 5d. ; he also recommended various im- 
provements, the most important of which was to make a tunnel at the 
summit level near Foulridge, in lieu of following the original plan, 
by which a head level of above six miles in length was obtained 
instead of one mile ; he also made this part of the canal 2 feet extra 
depth, which answers the purpose of a reservoir in dry seasons. 
The work from Holmbridge to Wanlass Banks, near Barrowford, 
a distance of fourteen miles, in which are 208 feet of lockage, cost 
£210,000, including £40,000 the expense of the tunnel at 
Foulridge. 

At this period the trade of Lancashire had become so important 
as to induce the proprietors of this canal to turn their attention to 
the accommodation of the established manufactories ; for which 
purpose they abandoned the idea of pursuing their original 
scheme of connecting the east and west sides of the island by the 
shortest route, and directed their engineer to take a survey 
through a new line of country which would embrace both the coal 
and manufacturing districts. 

Hence the company, in 1794, again applied to parliament for 
power to make the proposed deviation in the line of their canal, 
and obtained an act, entitled, < An Act to enable the Company of 
1 Proprietors of the Canal Navigation from Leeds to Liverpool, to 
' complete the said Navigation, and to vary the Line thereof, and to 
' raise a further Sum of Money for those Purposes ; and to make 



LBKDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 393 

<A basajwofc JBraaoA, titerti* imnkti, from th» tnttndtt mm 
'.I&eof tke said Carnal? The branch above-mentioned was in- 



1 to have bean cat into Ighteri Hill Park, near Burnley, fbf 
the purpose cf opening a valuable bed of coal; but thk hat not 
been done. By this act several landowners haw a power to cut 
aid*, branches in their own estates, subject to certain restrictions. 
They have also the power to make railways within one Ih o n s antf 
yards of the caoaL 

The company is authorized to borrow, or raise amongst them- 
selves, or by the admission of new subscribers, the further sum of 
£390,000, which is to be applied in paying off £101,394, being 
part of the £900,000 borrowed under the powers of tte 30* 
George III. and in completing and finishing the said canaL They 
age also restricted by this act from taking more than twenty-six yards 
in-breadth for the canal and towing-path, except in certain cases. 
The works were now prosecuted with great vigour, and in 
May, 1796, the canal was opened for trade from the east end of 
the Foulridge Tunnel to Burnley, a distance of eight miles, in 
which space there is a lockage westwards of 70 feet. Again m 
April, 1801, the canal was opened for .trade from Burnley to 
Henfield Warehouse, a distance of nine miles and thirty-seven 
chains, and leveL In this seventeen miles and a half, from Foul- 
ridge to Henfield, is embraced the most expensive, as well as the 
most difficult work on the whole navigation, having cost no less 
than. £120,000; but this sum includes for extraordmaries £40^000 
for the tunnel at Foulridge; £9,000 for reservoirs there; £32,000 
for an embankment at Burnley ; and £10^00 for another tunnel 
of five hundred and fifty-nine yards in length, at a place called 
Ridge near the last-mentioned town. 

During the succeeding nine years the execution of the canal 
proceeded slowly, but in June, 1810) another stretch of eight 
miles upon the same level, that is, from Henfield to Blackburn, 
was opened for trade. This last work and the remainder of the 
canal from Blackburn to Wigan was executed under the direc- 
tion of Mr. J, Fletcher. And lastly, having completed the re- 
mainder of the canal, it was opened for trade in October, 1810, 
between Blackburn and Wigan, when vessels could then proceed 
direct from Leeds to Liverpool. 



394 LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 

Here it may be observed, that this company abandoned their 
own line of canal for the space of eleven miles, and locked down 
64 feet 6 inches at Cophurst, into the head level of the Lancaster 
Canal ; consequently, every vessel going through the Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal, must pass eleven miles along the Lancaster 
Canal, that is, from Cophurst or Johnson's Hillock to Kirklees. 
To establish this junction, an agreement between the two com- 
panies was entered into,' stipulating that such junction should be 
made, and the same was confirmed by an act obtained by the 
Lancaster Canal Company in the 59th George III. 

This gigantic concern, which was no less than forty-six years 
in executing, and which has cost jfl ,200,000, has proved highly 
beneficial to the country through which it passes, giving facility to 
the transport of coal, limestone, lime for manure, and all agricul- 
tural produce, connecting the trade of Leeds with Liverpool and 
with Manchester, Wigan, Blackburn, Burnley, Colne, Skipton, 
Keighley, Bingley and Bradford; and by opening a communi- 
cation between the eastern and western sides of the island, which 
in a great measure was the original object of the first promoters, 
now bids fair to remunerate the proprietors for their risk and 
patient endurance through a long and difficult struggle, having 
had to borrow above £400,000, at a time when the public funds 
were very low. 

Although they only applied for tolls to remunerate them upon 
the original estimate made by Mr. Brindley, those rates have 
never been increased, and now stand the same as by the first act 
of 10th George III. which empowered them to take the following 



TONNAGE RATES. 

il. 

For Clay, Brick or Stones § per Ton, per Mile 

For Coal or Lime 1 ditto. ditto. 

For Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandize or other Commodities l\ ditto. ditto. 

For Soap Ashes, Salt, Salt Scxow, Foul Salt and Grey Salt, , 
I*igeon Dung, Rape or Cole Seed ; Dust, Raps or Tanners' j 
Bark to be used for manuring Lands of any Person whose v J ditto. ditto. 
Lands sliall be cut through, lying in the Township tlirough 1 
which the Canal passes J 

All small Rubbish, Waste Stones from Quarries, Gravel and Sand employed for re- 
pairing Roads, not being Turnpike, if not carried more than Five Miles ; abo all 
Dung, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal and Turf for the Improvement of Lands belongmi: 
to Persons tlirough whose Lands the Canal passes but not to pass any Lock 
unless the Water Bows over the Gauge, I'addle, or Niche of such Lock, are 
exempt from Toll. 



LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 395 

Fifty Feet at Round, or Forty Feet of Square Oak, Ash or Elm Timber, or Fifty Feet 

of Fix or Deal, Balk, Poplar and other Timber Wood, to be deemed One Ton 
Welgbtj and the Ton of Coals and Lime-stone to be Twenty-two Hundreds of 
One Hundred and Twelve Pounds each. 



Lords of manore or land-owners have a power to erect wharfs, 
Warehouses, &c upon their lands; and if inch lords of manors or 
•wners of land shall not do so within twelve months after notice 
given them by the company, then the company may erect die 
same. 

WHARFAGE BATES. 

d. 

For Coals, Stone or Brick, not longer than Six Days \\ per Ton. 

For Goods or Merchandize, ditto 3 ditto. 

No Charge whatever if the Articles do not lie longer than Six Hours. 
Fractions of a Mile to be reckoned as a Mile. Fractions of a Ton as the Quarters of a 
Ton, and of a Quarter as a Quarter. 
Every Vessel passing the Leeds Lock, to pay the Tonnage of Eight Miles. 
When the Canal shall communicate with the Douglas Navigation at or near toe Ware- 
houses in Wigan, the Coals, Stones, Timber, Goods, Wares and Merchandize 
passing upon any Part of it, shall be charged no more than if the same had been 
carried the like Distance on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. 



The Leeds and Liverpool Canal Company having finished 
their main line of navigation in the year 1816, they now turned 
their attention to forming a communication with the town of Man* 
Chester, a subject which had engaged their consideration prior to 
the death of the late Duke of Bridgewater ; and for this purpose 
they again applied to parliament and obtained an act, entitled, 
' An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Canal NavU 

* gatumfrom Leeds to Liverpool, to make a navigable Cut, and also 
1 a collateral Branch or Railway, from their said Canal at Hennis 

* Bridge near Wigan, to join the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal at 

* Leigh, all in the county palatine of Lancaster, and to amend the 
' several Acts relating to the said Leeds and Liverpool Canal, so far 

* as relates to certain Powers, therein given to the late Duke of 
'*• Bridgewater! This branch proceeds from the main line of the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal, at a point half a mile from die basin 
at Wigan, southward to Brin Moss, then easterly, passing between 
Piatt Bridge and Bamferlong Hall, intersecting Hindley Brook, 
and pawing Strangwood, West Leigh House, and terminates in 
that part of the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal which extentb from 



396 LEEDS AND LIVERPOOL CANAL. 

Manchester to Leigh, at the south end of the town of Leigh, being 
a distance of six miles, seven furlongs and twenty-one poles, and 
with a lockage down to the Duke's Canal of 15 feet 2 inches, by 
two locks. At the road leading from Ashton to Piatt Bridge, the 
side cut or railway branches off nearly north for about a mile in 
length. By this branch another communication by water is made 
between Liverpool and Manchester ; it also affords the first com- 
munication which had ever been made to connect Kendal, Lancaster 
and Preston, with Manchester, Rochdale and other trading towns 
in that part of the country. In the execution of this branch, which 
was completed by the end of the year 1821, above £50,000 was 
expended. The tonnage rates are the same as upon the main line 
of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, excepting the side cut or 
railway, which shall not exceed 4d. per ton for any article what- 
ever ; and the fractions of tons and miles to be reckoned as on the 
Leeds and Liverpool Main Line ; but the devisees of the late Duke 
of Bridge water have authority by this act to charge and receive, 
for articles passing into or out of the said Leigh Branch, as under. 

TONNAGE RATES. 

«. d. 

Forevery Article, except Flags 1 SperTon. 

ForFlags 2 ditto. 

Fractious of a Quarter of a Ton to be paid for as a Quarter of a Ton. 

These Bates shall exempt the above-named Articles from any Charge at the CasUefleld 

Lock, situate upon the Rochdale Canal in the Town of Manchester. 

The reservation clause in the Leeds and Liverpool Canal Acts, 
and in those for making the River Douglas navigable, which 
restrained any boat or vessel from passing locks, without tonnage 
was paid for a burthen of twenty tons, is by this act repealed; 
and in lieu thereof, it is enacted, that empty boats or vessels shall 
each pay at the first lock they shall arrive at, the sum of five 
shillings only ; provided also, that every empty boat or vessel 
passing through or returning out of the summit level upon the line 
of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, either through the Greenberfield 
Lock on the Yorkshire side, or through the Barrowford Lock on 
the Lancashire side of the said summit level, shall pay a further 
sum of five shillings. 

By this act for making the Leigh Branch the company obtained 
power to raise £30,000, either by admission of new subscribers, or 



LEEDS AND SELBT RAILWAY. S97 

by contributing amongst themselves in such manner as they may 
direct, or by mortgage of the navigations, cuts and works, conform- 
ably to any order of a general assembly of the said proprietors, 
where there shall be present, as principals or proxies, the holders of 
not less than twelve hundred shares in the said navigation. It 
may be observed, that when the first parts of the canal opened for 
business, the interest ceased on the money advanced for calls, 
which was made stock, thereby causing an original share to. 
amount, on the 1st of January, 1779, to ^139, St. 9d. 

Upon inspection of the map, it will appear that this canal con- 
nects the Irish Sea with the German Ocean, and the great ports of 
Liverpool and Hull, by which a cheap and ready transit is afforded 
to the Foreign Trade to and from the Baltic, Holland, Haoseatic 
Towns, the Netherlands, France and Germany ; also with Ireland, 
the West Indies and America. Besides, the public are greatly 
benefited by the ease with which the interior trade is carried from 
Leeds and the West Riding into the manufacturing districts of 
Lancashire and to Liverpool, and vice verta. Moreover, upon the 
banks of this canal are found immense quantities of stone for paving 
and building, limestone for repairs of roads and for burning into 
Kme for manure; inexhaustible beds of coal, which not only supply 
the neighbouring districts, but furnish an abundance for exportation 
at Liverpool ; in short no part of the kingdom is more benefited by 
a public work of this kind than the country, through which the 
Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes. 



LEEDS AND SELBY RAILWAY. 

II Geotge IV. Cap. 3), Royal Asaent 29th May, 1830. 

This railway commences from the east side of Marsh Lane, in 
Leeds, and immediately enters a tunnel, eight hundred yards in 
length, to be made through a hill the apex of which is 7% feet 
above the base of the railway. Its course is eastwardly, approach^ 
ing the Waterloo Colliery, and passing the Osmanthorp Colliery 
to Halton Dial; thence by Cross Gates, the villages of Moor 
Garforth and Church Garforth, Newthorp and South Milford ; and 
thence in nearly a straight line to the town of Selby, where it 



398 LEEDS AND SELBY RAILWAY. 

terminates at the banks of the Ouse, about two hundred and forty 
yards south of the bridge, and about three hundred and thirty 
north of the place where the Selby Canal locks down into that 
river. 

Its total length is nineteen miles and seven furlongs. Its 
commencement is at a point 38 feet 8 inches above the level of 
the surface water of the River Aire at Far Bank Ferry, from 
whence there is a gradual rise of 63 feet 4 inches in the first length 
of two miles, two furlongs and six chains; and in the next two 
miles, one furlong and nine chains there is a further rise of 76 
feet ; thence to its greatest elevation at the seven mile point, it is 
nearly level, there being in this length a rise of only 7 feet 6 
inches. 

From thence the railway descends, in one regular plane, 232 
feet in a distance of six miles, four furlongs and six chains ; and in 
the remainder of the railway there is a further descent of 10 feet 
only, although it is six miles, two furlongs and four chains to its 
termination. 

When this railway was first projected, Mr. Stephenson was 
employed to lay out the line; but previous to an application to 
parliament, James Walker, Esq. F.R.S. L.&E. was consulted, who 
designed the present course, and estimated its cost at £200,000, 
and of this sum £177,000 was subscribed at the time the bill was 
brought into parliament, though it is required that the whole sum 
shall be subscribed before any of the provisions of the act are put 
in execution. 

The act received the royal sanction on the 29th May, 1830, 
and is entitled, ' ,4n Act for making a Railway from the town 
1 of Leeds to the River Ouse, within tlie parish of Selby, in the 
' West Riding of the county of York.' The act was obtained by 
a company consisting of one hundred and five persons, amongst 
whom we find the Earl of Mexborough, Lord Reay and the 
Honorable E. R. Petre, who were incorporated by the name of 
" The Leeds and Selby Railway Company," with power to raise 
amongst themselves the sum of £210,000, in two thousand one 
hundred shares of £100 each ; and should not this prove sufficient, 
they may borrow, on mortgage of the undertaking, the further 
sum of £90,000. 



LKBDS AND SBLBY RAILWAY. 309 

TONNAGE BATES. 

d. 
For Lin* to be used as Manure, Dung, Compost or other Ma- 1 , _-.,,.„ ^»m:i«. 

nure, and for Materials for the repair of Roads S l *** lon <P aulle - 

For Coal, Lime, Lime-stone to be used otherwise than as Ma- \ 

nure, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, Stone, Sand, Clay, f , t .,,«„ ,,„,„ 

Puller'sjMrth.BnUding.PitchingandPaving-stones.Flags.f '* cutto - ama 

Bricks, Tiles and States, Pig-lead, and Pig and Old Iron. .. J 
For Sugar, Com, Grain, Flour, Dye Woods, Timber, Staves, > „, j„,„ _,,„„ 

Deals, Lead, Barton, and otherMetab!: .1 2 * *"* dttta 

For Cotton and other Wool, Hides, Drugs, Manufactured j 

Goods and for all other Wares, Merchandize, Articles, Mat- > 3 ditto, ditto. 

tea and Things J 

Where the Rates do not amount to Sixpence per Ton, by reason of passing a short 
Distance only, the Proprietors hare authority to demand it. 



TOLLS. 

». if. 
For every Person passing in or upoaany Carriage for any Distance not exceed-) „ 

ing Five Miles S ° e 

Ftr ditto not exceeding Ten Mites I n 

For ditto exceeding Ten Miles , i a 

For every Horse, Male, Ass or other Beast of Draught or Burthen, and for j 

every Ox, Cow, Bull or Neat Cattle, carried in or upon such Carriage for >o -9 

any Distance not exceeding Five Miles , J 

For ditto not exceeding Ten Miles. 1 « 

For ditto exceeding Ten Miles 2 6 

For every Calf, Sheep, Lamb or Pig carried on the same any Distance o 6 

» Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile and Quarter of a Ton. 



COMPANY'S CHARGE FOR CARRYING UPON THE RAILWAY, INCLUDING 
TONNAGE AND TOLLS. 

*. i. 

For Lime, Lime-stone, Dung, Compost and other Manure, and for J 

Materials for the repair of Roads, Stone, Sand, Clay, Building; £. .„__■», 
Pitching and Paving-stones, Tiles, Slates, Timber, Staves and \ ° « P" Jon - 
Deals ' 

For Sugar, Corn, Grain, Flour, Dye Woods, Lead, Iron and other i . _ .,,. 
Metals 5 

For Cotton and other Wool, Hides, Drugs. Groceries, and Manuny. 1 « mh„ 
turedGoods J 8 8 mno 

For Hops, Tea, Wines, Spirits, Vitriol, Glass and other hazardous 1 , 6 ,«.»„ 
Goods. 5 

And for any Distance short of the whole Length of the Railway, a rateable Proportion 
of such several Sums, according to the Distance. 

d. 
For CoaL Coke, Culm, Charcoal and Cinders s£ perToa, per Mate. 

For Persons, Cattle and other Animals, such reasonable Charge as shall from Time to 
Time be determined by the Company. 

Company not compelled to receive teas for short Distances than.. 9 perTon. 

For the Carriage of small Parcels not exceeding Five Hundred Pounds Weight, the 
Company have power to fix the Charge at any general Meeting. 

For ascertaining the Weight of Tonnage, One Hundred and Twelve Poundsis deemed 
a Hundred Weight, and Twenty Hundred Weight a Ton; Fourteen Cubic Feet of 
Stone, Forty Cubic Feet of Oak, Mahogany, Beech and Ash, and Fifty Cubic Feet 
of all other Timber, shall be deemed a Ton Weight. 



400 LEICESTER NAVIGATION. 

The act allows five years for the completion of the railway, 
and if not then made, the powers of the act are to cease, except as 
to such part as may have been executed. 

The proposed object of this railway is to facilitate the transit 
of merchandize in general, by opening a more expeditious line 
of conveyance between Leeds and the port of Hull, and vice 
versa. 



LEICESTER NAVIGATION. 

31 George III. Cap. 6.5, Royal Assent 13th May, 1791. 
37 George 111. Cap. 51, Royal Assent 3rd May, 1797. 

The first parliamentary sanction of this useful work was ob- 
tained in 1791, under the title of ' An Act for making and main- 
' taining a navigable Communication between the Loughborough 
' Canal and the town of Leicester, and for making and maintaining 
' a Communication by Railways or Stone Roads, and Water Levels, 
1 from several Places and Mines to the said Loughborough Canal, 
' and for continuing the same, by passing along the said Canal, t» 
' the said Navigation, commencing all in the county of Leicester.' 
By this act the proprietors, who are incorporated as " The Com- 
" pany of Proprietors of the Leicester Navigation," have authority 
to make a navigable canal, from the basin of the Loughborough 
Canal on the north of the town of that name to the River Soar at 
Quorndon Village ; from this point they are empowered to make 
the Rivers Soar and Wreak navigable, and to cut such branches 
and deviations therefrom as may render the water communication, 
between Loughborough and Leicester, most convenient. The 
canal and improvements have consequently been made, and the 
navigation is complete, uniting, as before-mentioned, with the 
Loughborough Canal at that town, and joining the Soar at the 
West Bridge in Leicester. There are other branches, railroads 
and water levels connected with the work, which will be mentioned 
below. For executing the powers invested in them, the pro- 
prietors were authorized to raise the sum of ,£46,000 in shares, 
and an additional sum of £20,000 should the former prove insuffi- 
cient. For paying interest and other current expenses they were 
also empowered to collect the following rates. 



LEICESTER NAVIGATION. 401 

TONNAGE BATES. 

». d. 

It* aQC^ conveyed from Ixughborongn to I/Ciceater I 3 per Too. 

For ditto any shorter Distance 1 ditto, per Mile. 

•or ditto pairing to the Hirer Wreak for Melton Mowbray... o 7 per Ton. 

FDraJUTimber,Iron,4tt.(romU>ughboroagh toLdeester... 3 6 ditto. 

For ditto any ahorter Distance 3 ditto, per Mile. 

R«dtttopaam«totheBivarWreakaiidHeltonMowbray... 1 3 per Ton. 

For all Coal conveyed on the Railroads and Water Levels j „ , Mtt ^ __ M .._ 

tern the several Placet to Loughboroogh J ° ! <"«<>. !»»»*• 

For Lime and I.trof -atone on the Railroad* 1| ditto, ditto. 

For ditto on the Water Levels ojditto. ditto. 

For all Lime, Lime-atone, Stone* for Building and Materials for making or repairing 
Beads, Half the above Tolls. 

The tolls may be lowered, if circumstances permit, and in that 
ease such goods' as pass along this line to the Melton Mowbray 
Navigation or Branch, which will be noticed in its place, are not 
to pay more than half the regulated tolls. 

The pr opr ieto r s having not only expended the sums directed to 
be raised under this act, but also contracted a debt of £14,000 
wi t h o ut completing the work ; they made another application to 
parrjejoerit and obtained a second act in 1707, entitled, ' An Act 
i for enabling the Company of Proprietor* of the Leicester Navi- 
' gatkm to finish and complete their teveral Works, and\to discharge 
1 the Debts contracted in the making thereof, and for amending an 
1 Act passed m the Thirty-first of his present Majesty, for making the 
1 said Navigation, and several other Works, m such Act mentioned.* 
By this second act they are enabled to raise a further sum of 
£lSfiOO, by an additional call on the shareholders, or by mart- 
gage OTanmmies as may aeem best; and as it appears that some of 
the proprietors had voluntarily advanced £s per share for the 
p u rpo se of making a reservoir on Chamwood Forest, it is provided 
by this act that such advance shall be accounted as part of their 
caDafbr raising the additional sum of £18,000; and if it should be 
deemed expedient not to call for an advance on the original shares, 
bat to borrow the £18,000, then the £6 per share advanced by the 
proprietors as above shall be repaid them. The company are also 
to collect the following 

ADDITIONAL TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
Far all Coals carried from the Loughborough Canal to Lady > . T 

Bridge or West Bridge, Leicester i operioo. 

For ditto a kas Distance between the same J ditto, per Mile 

For ditto when navigated bom the Loogh,borough Canal to the ) 

Junction of the Wreak and Soar and along the Wreak and > 3perTon. 
on the Navigation to Melton Mowbray ' 

2 c 



402 LEICESTER NAVIGATION. 

When this Company shall receive wfcat will produce a Nett Income of £5 per Cent 
per Annum, then the additional Rates are to be taken off Coals which pass on the 
Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal beyond Aykston Mill Coals 
passing through the Oakham Canal are also exempt from the additional Tolls. 

The Proprietors of this Navigation are directed to guarantee CifiM pet Anaomtots* 
Loughborough Canal Company, on Condition of thetr taking any Sam not more 
than One Shilling and Sixpence, nor less than Ten.pence per Ton on Coals pasting 
from Loughborough to the Trent. 



The Leioester Canal or Navigation commences, aa we haw 
before stated, at &e basin of the Loughborough Canal on tfeenotsh 
aide of that town, at an elevation of 125 feet above the sea; 
patting the town it proceeds in a sooth-west direction to near 
Barbw-npon-Soar, leaving Beanmanor Park on the west, and 
felling into the Soar at Quomdon. Here the Biver Soar baeocnea 
navigable and continues so to its junction with the Wreak River 
near Wanley Hall; the united riven being navigable to Tumwater 
Meadow. In this meadow the navigation is joined by the T«ew?est«r 
and Melton Mowbray Navigation, of which we shall hay* to speak 
below; here also a cot is made across the meadows to avoid the 
shallows, and passing through the parishes of Systen, Barkley and 
Thurmansten, and leaving Wanlip Hall and Birstal Hall on the 
east and Beaumont Lees on the west, it terminates at Lei oester b 
the Soar, thus eommuniseiing with the Leicestershire and North- 
amptonshire Union Canal. 

From the basin at the Ijougbborough end of the Hue there is a 
railway two miles and a half long, with 185 feet rise to a basin at 
Forest Lane, at the east end of the Chamwood Fewest Water 
Level This level extends to Barrow Hill, a distance of nearly nine 
miles, having a side cut of a quarter of a mile long to Taringetooe 
Bridge. At the west end of the Great Level there is a railway to 
the Clouds Hill Lime Works, effecting by these means a coaamn. 
nication with the Aahby-de-la-Zouch Canal; here alsoisa raisrasrl 
to the Barrow Hill Lime Works; the Thringstone Branch tin 
extends a mile and a half to Coal Orson, and by a diversion of half 
a mile to Swannington Common Coal Works. 

From Loughborough to its junction with the Leicester and 
Melton Mowbray Navigation, this navigation is level for three 
miles, and from that point, to its termination in the Leioessesahire 
and Northamptonshire Union Canal, the distance is eleven miles, 
with a rise of 45 feet 



LEICESTERSHIRE, ft*. UNION CANAL. 403 

At Leicester there is a basin, and on Charnwood Forest a re- 
•ervorr for supplying the water-level with a feeder for the same, to 
which water-level the company are empowered to make railways 
from coal works two thousand yards distant therefrom ; and since 
the commencement of the Asbby Canal, this company has had 
power to charge a toll of it. Qd. per ton on all coak dug in Swan- 
■ring-ton, Coal Orton or Thringstone, if carried through Blackfbrdby 
•r the last named canal 

This navigation was laid down by Mr. William Jessop, and in 
December, 179S, the Hne from Loughborough to near Mount 
Barrel was opened, the remainder not being completed till Feb- 
raary ef the succeeding year. 

The work is of considerable utility, affording an easy transit 
for the coal, limestone and granite of its neighbourhood, and sup- 
plying Leicester and other places on its line with timber, deals and 
various articles of home consumption. 

LEICESTER AND MELTON MOWBRAY 
NAVIGATION. 

(SEE WREAK AND EYE NAVIGATION) 



LEICESTERSHIRE AND NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 
UNION CANAL 

83 Qtorgt m. Ctp. ss, Royal Ammt aoOt April, ma. 

45 Geage IU. Cap. 71, Royal Aaaent 27th June, 1805. 

W» have mentioned in the preceding article, that the Leicester 
Navigation communicates with the present work at or near the 
West Bridge in the town of Leicester, and we have now to describe 
the extent of this undertaking, and the acts under which it was 
commenced. 

The first enactment, for the formation of the Leicestershire and 
Northamptonshire Union Canal, obtained the royal assent in April, 
1793, under title of 'An Act for nuking and maintaining a Jfaviga- 

* Hon from the town of Leicester to communicate with the River Nen, 

* in or near the town of Northampton) and also a certain collateral 
' Cut from the said Navigation.' By this act the proprietors were 

2 c 2 



404 LEICESTERSHIRE, &c. UNION CANAL. 

incorporated under the style of " The Company of Proprietors of 
" the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal," with 
powers to make navigable the River Soar, from the West Bridge 
in the parish of St Mary, Leicester, to Ayleston Bridge in the 
county of Leicester, and from thence to make a navigable canal 
to the parish of Hardingstone in the county of Northampton, to 
communicate with the River Nen or Northern River, and to pro- 
ceed along the said river to the town of Northampton, and from 
that town to make a navigable canal to and into another part of the 
River Nen, and after crossing the said river to communicate with 
an intended branch from the Oxford Canal at Braunston, to join the 
Thames at New Brentford ; also to make a collateral cut from the 
before-named canal in the parish of Lubenham, in Leicestershire, 
to Market Harborough. For executing these plans the sum of 
£200,000 was directed to be raised in shares of £100 each ; and 
should this prove insufficient, a further sum of £100,000. With 
these powers the proprietors commenced the work ; but after 
having rendered the River Soar navigable as far as Ayleston 
Bridge, and after completing part of the canal from that place, 
they found that great advantages would be gained by varying the 
original line of the projected cut to Market Harborough, they 
therefore applied to parliament for a second act, which was ob- 
tained in 1805, under the title of ' An Act to enable the Company 
1 of Proprietors of the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union 
' Canal, to vary the Line of the said Canal, and to alter and amend 
' the Powers of the Act passed for making the said CanaV 

The second act being obtained, the proprietors continued the 
execution of their plan as far as Foxton, and the collateral cut to 
Market Harborough was completed. The remainder of the work 
was rendered unnecessary by the junction with the Grand Union 
at Foxton as above-mentioned. By the first act the company had 
authority to collect the following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 

For all Coal and Coke i\ per Ton, per Mile 

For all Lime, Lime-stone, Dung and Manure 1^ ditto. ditto. 

For all Live Cattle, Stones, Bricks, Tiles, Sand, Iron-stone, > „ ditto. ditto- 
Pig-iron and Pig-lead i 

For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize whatever 3 ditto. ditto. 

Materials for Roads, Manure for the use of Proprietors of Lam! on the Line, Troop*, 
and Government Stores are exempt from all these Rates. 



LB1CSSTBK AND SWANN1NOTON RAILWAY. 405 

VUsravrigatkm, commencing at the junction with the Leicester 
Narrigatien at 175 feet above the level of the sea, proceeds to 
AyJsston Bridge in the 1 bed of the Soar River, in a south-westerly 
dimetkm;-at Ayleston Bridge the cot commences, and pursues die 
same crane as the river to a short distance beyond Enderby Hall, 
wkere the Soar divides into two branches ; from this point it runs 
parallel to the eastern branch as far as Wistow Hail, having that 
i en its western bank and an aqueduct opposite to it on the 
From Wistow Hall it runs in a circuitous easterly course 
of twelve miles and three quarters, with 100 feet rise to the tunnel 
at Saddington, where it is 295 feet above the level of the sea. 
Leaving Saddington Tunnel, it proceeds in a sinuous line on the 
same level to Foxton and Gumley Hall, where it falls into the 
Grand Union Canal, having completed a line of seventeen miles. 
At tiiis point also the branch to Market Harborough commences, 
namin g at first in an easterly course for about half its length and 
afterwards to the south, the whole distance being nearly four miles 
on one level 

There are warehouses and a basin at Gumley, and die tunnel 
at Saddington is eight hundred and eighty yards in length ; this 
tunnel was completed in 1800, and the line from Leicester to 
Gumley opened soon after. 

The work, which was executed under the management of Mr. 
John Varley, Sen. and Mr. C. Staveley, Jun. is of great utility in 
the supply of timber, deals, &c and the export of the agricultural 
produce of the district through which it passes. 



LEICESTER AND SWANNINGTON RAILWAY. 

i 

U George IV. Cap. SB, Royal A»ent 28th May, 1830. 

/ 

This railway commences from thai part of the River Soar near 
West Bridge, in the town of Leicester, called the Leicestershire and 
Northamptonshire Union Canal, whence it takes a northwardly 
course by Freaks Grounds, where it enters a tunnel one mile and 
three quarters in length; thence in a westwardly course, running 
parallel with and on the south side of the turnpike-road leading 



406" LKJOKSTBR AKD SWANN1NOTON RAILWAY. 

framlcioeatertoAddbjHfe-WZoBch; thcnocacrossasiaan liwili* 
north of the village of GBenfieH, along the western faenk«f wsnah 
it pursues its course by the villages of Ratby*and Newton-Uatheak 
to Deaford, where it again takes a northwardly course by Many 
Lees, Thornton and Begworth; thence by the Birch Tree Inn, am 
the above-mentioned road, and westward by the Bed House to the 
turnpike-road leading between Hinohley and Melbourne, at the 
north end of the village of Swannington, where it terminates. It 
is fifteen miles and three quarters in length, and the various inch' 
nations which are rendered necessary by reason of the uregnl asfcieo 
of the ground, over which it is intended to be made, mufclMn; 
from the Leicester end of the railway it ascends 2 feet 10 inches in 
the distance of five furlongs; in the next nix furlongs and one chain 
it rises 38 feet ft inches; there is a rise of ft feet S inches oasy, hi 
one mile, three furlongs and two chains; then along stretch of fear 
miles, five furfengs and seven chains gradually rising 79 feet, assd 
a further ascent of 57 feet a inches in the next distance of one mile, 
two furlongs and nine chains. From this point die ranWay 
gradually ascends 65 feet 7 inches in three quarters of a mile, and 
3ft feet further m the next one furlong and five .chains; then a 
rapid ascent of 73 feet 3 inches in the short distance ef three 
furlongs and seven chains. It is then level far the space of one 
furlong and three chains ; but in the next seven furlong* and two 
chains there is a rise of 49 feet; from which point H descends 43 
feet in one mile, six furlongs and four chains, and at the foot of tins 
plane is a level course of five furlongs; then a farther fell of 38 feat 
in the next one mile and two furlongs; and at the end of ***** 
another level course of two furlongs and one chain. From this 
point the line descends 133 feet in the short space of two furlongs 
and seven chains; whence, the remaining portion of the line, vis. 
one furlong and two chains, is level. 

There are four branches from the main line above described, 
via. one, in a distance of two furionge and seven chains, extending 
eastward from the 'Freaks Grounds to the River Sear, near die 
North Bridge, Leicester; another of the same length to the 
collieries belonging to Lord Viscount Maynard, at Begworth; and 
a short distance beyond which there is a third branch of one sane, 
four furlongs and eight chains in length, wituerihig- to Ifastott 



LEICESTER AND SWANNINGTON RAILWAY. 407 

Collieries; and within three quarter* of a mfle of Swannington there 
i» a fourth branch, Area farioage and two ehaim in length, ex- 
trssrtiiig westward to Long Lane Colliery. 

These proposed works were designed by Mr. Robert Stephen- 

■ son, who estimated the cost at £76,468, of which sum it appears 

that £61,950 was subscribed before the application to parliament 

The act authorizing die execution of this railway received the 

royal assent on the 29th May, 1830, and is entitled, < An Aet/or 

1 making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the River 

1 Soar near the West Bridge, in or near the borough of Leicester, to 

* Swannington, in the county of Leicester, and four Branches there- 

t fromJ The subsc rib er s were by this act incorporated as "The 

•* Leicester and Swannington Railway Company," with power to 

raise amongst themselves the sum of £90,000, in eighteen hundred 

shares of £60 each; and if this is not sufficient, they may borrow 

an mortgage the further sum of £20,000 ; but previous to com- 

meneing foe works, the amount of the original estimate is to be 

subscribed 

The distance between the inside edges of the rails to be not less 
than 4 feet 8 inches; and between foe outside edges not more than 
ofeet 1 inch. 



TONNAGE RATES. 

d. 
For all Dong, Earth, Comport, Manure and Materials for ) 

Roads, which shall he drawn or propelled and carried by > a per Ton, per Mile. 

and at the expense of the Company ) 

If only drawn or propelled at the expense of the Company. . 1 { ditto. ditto. 
If drawn or propelled by Engines or other power, and not car- > ,, .... ..,,„ 

rled in the Waggons of the Company!?. I '» dltto - dltt0 - 

For all Coal, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, Lime, Stone, -i 
Slate, Hart, Sand, Clay, Building, Pitching and Paring- 1 
stones, Flags, Bricks, TOes, Deals, Lead and Iron in Pigs, V 9 ditto. ditto, 
or other Metals, whkh shall be drawn or propelled and j 

carried by and at the expense of the Company ■> 

If only drawn or propelled at the expense of the Csmpany... 9} ditto. ditto. 
If drawn or propelled by Engines or other power, and not J . ..„_ .,,,„ 

caoWiSttiWaf^moftteftxnpairy!?. i 2 ***■ m ° 

For all Timber, Wool, Corn, Grain. Flour, Manufactured ) 

Goods, Lead in Sheets or Iron IB Bars, and aD other f . ,„, Mtt 
WaresorMercbandixewbjchshaUbedrawnorpropelledC * 

dnd carried by and at the expense of the Company. * 

UonJy d»wn or pwpelled at the expense of the Company.. 3$ ditto, ditto. 
If drawn or propelled by Engines or other power, and not i muh Mfn 

carried in Waggons belonging to tbeCasnpmy I * aaw - <HM0 ' 

For all Goods and Merchandize whatever, (except Lime) and , 
also except all such Good&in respect of which the Mile I 
Tonnage shall be paid for passing Twelve Miles at least v 6 ditto, 
on the Railway, over and above the respective Rates and I 
Tolls v J 



406 LEICESTER AND SWANN1NGTON RAILWAY. 

TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED. 

A 

For all Good*, Waxes and Commodities whatsoever, and for \ 

all Carriages which shall pass any of the Inclined f - _ 
Flanei, (by Steam Power) over and above the preceding f * *" "•■ 
Rates, upon each of the Inclined Planes J 

This last-mentioned Toll upon the Inclined Planes is not to be levied, if the other 
Bates produce £10,000 per Annum. 

TOLL FOR COACHES OR OTHER CARRIAGES, 

4. 
For every Person passing in any Carriage not drawn or propelled, and i ^ 

provided by and at the expense of the Company » "» P" 

For every Person passing in any Carriage drawn or propelled and provi-j 

ded by the Company 1 * 

For every Horse, Mule, Ass or other Beast of Draught or Burden, and) 

tor every Ox, Cow, Bull or other Cattle carried in or upon such > 2 ditto. 

Carriage, not drawn or propelled or provided by the Company. ... J 

Butif provided by the Company 3 ditto. 

For every Calf, Sheep, Lamb or Pig passing in any Carriage, not \ , ..„ 

drawn or propelled or belonging to the Company f * ™" a 

But if provided by the Company I ditto. 

Fractions to be taken a* tor a Quarter of a Mile and Quarter of a Tom. 
The Company are not compelled to receive leas than Sixpence per Too for abort Dis- 
tances, and have power to regulate and fix the Prices of small Parcels of less than 
Five Hundred Pounds Weight 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

A. 
For every Description of Goods loaded, landed or placed upon any of l 

the Wharfs of the Company, which shall not remain more than t l per Ton. 

Seventy-two Hours ) 

But tfnxre than Seventy-two Hours, the farther Sum of t dtt** 

And for the Warehousing for the next so succeeding Week 6 ditto. 

And the like Sum of One Penny and Sixpence per Ton respectively, for every further and 
subsequent Week such Articles shall remain upon the said Wharfs or Warehouses. 

CRANAGE TOLL. 

*. d. 

At one single Lift of the Crane, being less than Two Tons 6 per Ton. 

Ditto of Two Tons and leas than Three 1 ditto. 

Ditto of Three Tons and less than Four 1 6 ditto. 

And so progressively advancing Sixpence per Ton. 

Lords of manors and others may erect wharft, and charge the 
same rates as the company of proprietors. The railway to be 
completed in five years or the powers to cease. 

The object sought by the execution of this railway and branches, 
is a cheap and expeditious conveyance of tie coal, lime and other 
minerals which abound at the upper portion of the railway, to the 
town of Leicester, and thence by the canals and navigable rivers 
with which H wffl immediately communicate to other districts. 



UEOMlNST£A,*& CAHAL 400 



LEOMINSTER, OR KlNOTON AND LKOM IN8TER 
CANAL. 

31 Geo. HI. C. flB,E.A.13«tiMay. 17B1. MGeo. DL Cap. 70, R. A.MUlApfil, WW. 
« Geo. m. C. 141, K. A. Uth Aug. 1808. 7 Geo. IV. Cap. 94, R. A. 36th Max, 1828. 

Thx Leominster, or aa it has sometimes been called the King- 
ton sad.Leoinsater Canal, commences at the town of Kington, 
505£ feet above the tea, where it meets the Kington Railway;' 
from that place, pursuing an easterly direction, it passes by the 
•eataoTEywapd, Titley, Staunton Park and Shobdon Court to the 
aqueduct over the River Lugg at Kingsland, from which point it 
bends towards the south to near the town of Leominster; from 
Leominster it runs almost due north for a considerable rfwfriwft 
past Berrington House, then making a detour to the east, it con- 
tinues its course in that direction, with many windings, past Ten- 
bury to the aqueduct over the Rea River, and the adjoining tunnel 
at Sonant; from the tunnel, which is 264J feet above the level of 
the sea, it pursues an easterly direction to Stourport, where it 
unites with the Severn and the Stafford and Worcester Canal, 
having traversed a distance of forty-six miles. From Kington 
to Staunton Park it is level for four miles ; from Staunton Park to 
Milton two miles and a half with a fall of 152 feet; from that 
place to Kingsland Aqueduct three miles and a half with 37 feet 
fall; from the aqueduct to Leominster four miles and a half with 
04 feet fall; in one mile and a half from Leominster there is a 
rise of 18 feet; the next five miles and a half to Wiston is level; 
from Wiston to Letwich Brook four miles and a half with a fall of 
30 feet; from Letwich Brook to the Rea there is a level of seven 
miles; from tins point to the Sousant Tunnel there is a rise of 35 
feet in the length of a mile ; from this tunnel to the east end of 
the Great Pensax Tunnel nine miles and level; from the east end 
of this tunnel to the junction of the Severn and the Stafford and 
Worcester Canal, being above three miles,, there is a fall of 207 
feet The total length therefore, as above stated, is forty-six 
miles, and the lockage 544 feet, being 490 feet of fall and 48 of 
rise. In tite line there are two considerable tunnels; the one 



410 LEOMINSTER, 4c. CANAL. 

near Sousant is twelve hundred and fifty yards long ; the other at 
Pensax three thousand eight hundred and fifty yards. There are 
also two collateral cuts near Tenbury for the use of the milk there. 
The first act obtained for the formation of this canal, was 
passed in the year 1791, under the title of * An Act for making 
' and maintaining a navigable Canal from Kington in the county 
( of Hereford, by or through Leominster, to join the River Severn 
' near Stourport Bridge, in the county of Worcester.' By this act 
the proprietors are incorporated as " The Company of Proprie- 
" tors of the Leominster Canal Navigation," and are empowered 
to raise the sum of £l 50,000, in shares of £100 each, with the 
option of obtaining £40,000 more if needful. They are ako au- 
thorized to demand the following 

TONNAGE RATES. 

f. d. 

For all Timber, Stone, Marble, Lime, Lime-stone for Ma- -, 

- nure, Iron-stone, Raw Materials, Bricks, Brick-tiles,/ . ., __ T M ., 

Slate, Gravel, Sand, Clay, Manure and Rubbish, navi- f u » * P" i on, per imie. 

gated between the Severn and Milton Cross * 

For ditto from Milton Cross to Kington 3 ditto. ditto. 

For Coke and Charcoal 4 ditto. ditto. 

For all Coal carried on any part between the River Rea j .... 

and Leominster, or between the Teme and Leominster! 3 * <""°- 
For ditto on any part between the Severn and Rea to ) 

Leominster or between the Teme and Leominster, in > II ditto. 

addition to the above J 

For ditto conveyed out of the Severn and navigated to 1 

Leominster or between that place and the Teme in r j 2 ditto. 

addition ) 

For ditto navigated between Leominster and Milton Cross 2$ ditto, per Mile. 

For ditto between Milton Cross and Kington 6 ditto. ditto. 

For ditto between the Rea and Teme o 2j ditto, ditto. 

For ditto eastward between the Rea and Severn l 9 ditto. ditto. 

For ditto westward between the Severn and Rea o aj ditto. ditto. 

For Merchandize in general navigated between the Se- j „ „. .... .... 

vera and Milton Cross } ° 2 i ^^ dlUo - 

For ditto from Milton Cross to Kington 6 ditto. ditto. 

Slack Coal for the Purpose of burning Lime for Manure is to be charged only Half the 
usual Rates, and the Proprietors have authority to lower the Rates, when able so 
to do. 

By this act power was given for taking supplies of water from 
springs, &c. within two thousand yards of the line ; there wm 
also a power of constructing inclined planes instead of locks upon 
some parts. 

In less than five years after the passing of the first act, this 
company obtained another, entided, ' An Act to enable the Com- 
' pany of Proprietors of the Leominster Canal Navigation to finish 
' and complete the same.' 1 By this act the proprietors are authorised 



LBOMINSTSB, *c CANAL. 411 

toxajm a further ni of £180,000 by new dares of the same value 
as these crested under the former act; or if the proprieton think 
H more advisable, they may borrow the said somen mortgage of 
tkeeanal and rates. 

*S%e means of increasing their funds, thus afforded, did not 
jtkwve effectual, and accordingly ki 1809, a third act "wag obtained 
Wider the title of « <fu .dct /or mooting (A* CtajMfty o/iVonrfc- 

* tor* a/ ifc Leomiuttr Canal to taut Money, to aweAaro* ftWf 

* Ifenfr, ana* to sempfate the Canal, and for explaining andamineU 

* tmg the Aula for making and maintaining tht taid Canal, and 
*for gran t i ng to the taid Company further and other Power*/ 

From this act it appears that only £08 i 5$» had been raised 
under the hut, and thai sundry new debts had bean incurred in 
the prosecution of the work, amoun t ing to jggSyOOQand u p ward s, 
and that the canal was still unfinished; die proprietors of the new 
shares already subscribed and paid for, are therefore protected 
from any disadvantage which might happen from then- being 
liable to additional calls, by reducing the number of shares to the 
same number as the holders of the present shares, via, six hundred 
and eighty-**, and the said six hundred and eighty-six share* 
holders are hereby declared to be die company. The company 
are empowered, over and above the tolls granted by the first act, 
to. demand the following 

TONHAOE 1ATE. 

A 
For allOoal, Goods, Wares, Mercbamiijeaod Things whatsoever, pawing} 

through the Lock* intended to be m»de between the Rirer Severn > 1 pet Too. 
and the Canal Basin J 

They have also authority to make a railway from the canal at 
or near Stockton in the county of Worcester, to the basin at or 
near Stourport Bridge in the same county ; and also one from 
Milton Cross to the town of Kington. And certain commissioners 
are appointed to superintend the works from Sousant Tunnel to 
the Severn. By this act alas the proprietors have authority to 
raise by a dditi o nal calls £50,000, and by mortgage, if necessary, 
£30,000; and the select committee may, if requisite, rake a still 
former sum of £10,000 by mortgage as aforesaid. AB debts now 
due are to be secured by bonds payable with interest in five-years. 



412 LEVEN CANAL. 

Notwithstanding all these additional means of raising money, 
the funds still proved inadequate to the completion of the work, 
and the aid of parliament was again applied for in 1826, this ap- 
plication was answered by an act, entitled, ' An Act to enable the 
' Company of Proprietors of the Leominster Canal to raise further 
1 Sums of Money to discharge their Debts, and to complete the 
' Canal, and for amending the Acts for making and maintaining 
' the said Canal, and for granting to the said Company further and 
' other Powers' By this act the proprietors may raise ^60,000 
by creating six hundred new shares of £ 100 each, such sum to be 
applied to the liquidation of debts already incurred. This and one 
or two clauses relating to the election of committees, and the com- 
pensation to be made for lands, &c. taken for the use of the com- 
pany, comprize the substance of the act last obtained. 

Mr. Thomas Dadford, Jun. was the engineer, under whose 
able superintendence the work has been put into execution. The 
tunnel at Sousant was finished in 1796, and in November of the 
same year twenty miles of the canal, from Leominster to Mamble 
Coal Works, were opened ; the consequence of which was an im- 
mediate reduction of the price of coal from 1*. 6d. to 9<L per cwt. 
In 1797 the entrance into the canal from the Severn was opened 
and the work has gone on progressively since that time. 

The design for which it was projected was the transit of stone, 
lime and iron-ore, and the agricultural produce of the country on 
its line to London, Liverpool, Hull and Bristol, and also the supply 
of Leominster and its vicinity with coal and coke. These pur- 
poses, it is hardly necessary to state, have been fully answered. 



LEVEN CANAL. 

41 (itorge III. Cap. 32, Royal Asaeut 21st May, 1801. 
45 George III. Cap. 43, Royal Assent 5tl> June, lt*ii. 

This canal which is little more than three miles in length, was 
undertaken, at the sole charge of Mrs. Charlotte Bethell, of Rise, 
for the purpose of opening a communication between Leven and 
the port of Kingston-upon-Hull, and of thus affording an easier 
conveyance for goods and agricultural produce. Its direction is 



LBVBN CANAL. 413 

due west from the village of Leven to the Hull River Navigation 
near Ayke Beck Month, and the expense of making it, as estimated 
by Mr. William Jessop, was £4^)41. Mn. Bethell also consulted 
Mr. Rennie and Mr. Creassy as to the practicability of the under- 
taking. 

An act for its execution was obtained in 1801, entitled, ( An 
1 Act for enabling Charlotte Bethell, Widow, to makeatnd maintain 
( a navigable Canal from the River Hull, at a point in the parish 
1 of Leven, near the Boundary between Ethe and Leven Carre, in 
' the East Riding of the county of York, to Leven Bridge in the 
' taid Riding.' 

By this act Mrs. Bethell was authorised to demand the fol- 
lowing 



TONNAGE RATES. 

». d. 

Fer all Lime and T.imMtonr, Duns, Soot, Rape-Dust and other j . . ___ .. 

Kuare i ° 'I**™ 1 

For all Coat and Coke o 9 ditto. 

Fqrall Wheat, Rye, Bean*, Peas, Halt, Oats, Barley, R apeseed, Mm- - 



tardseed. Linseed and other Grain and Seeds of all Sorts, Bricks, 
Stones, TUea, Slate and Sand, and all other Goods, Wares, Mar 



ditto. 

ou wun \j* J0, nanv, nv t 

chandixe and Things whatsoever . 
Fractions of a Ton to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter. 



$'• 



The proprietor is also empowered to erect wharfs and quays, 
■nd to charge a wharfage rate for all goods left thereon above 
twenty-four hours ; such rate to be determined between the parties. 

The cost of this canal appears to have exceeded the estimate, 
for in 1805 Mrs. Bethell obtained a second act, entitled, * An Act 
'for altering and amending an Act passed in the Forty-first of his 
1 present Majesty for enabling Charlotte Bethell, Widow, to make 
f and maintain a navigable Canal from the River Hull to Leven 
( Bridge, in the East Riding of the county of York ;' whereby, in 
consideration of the great expense she had incurred in completing 
the same, she is empowered to receive the following additional 
tolh as 

WHARFAGE RATES. 

Forewry Barge or Boat, using the Canal and laden with Lime, Lime-stone, \ 

Dong, Soot, Rape-Dust and other Manure, Coke, Coal, Wheat, Rye, ( ^u 
wans. Peas, Malt, Oats, Barley, Rapeseed, Mustard-seed, Linseeed and f ' C ™ BU- 

• otherOrara and Seeds ofail Sorts, Stones, Bricks, Tiles, State and Sand J 



414 USKEARD AND LOOE CANAL. 

The work at far at it extends k ussfuL, and answer* the design 
for which it was projected, by supplying fine and manure, and 
c o nv eying of com and other produce of the land to HnD, Beverley, 
and other places. 



LEWES NAVIGATION. 

(SEE OUZE RIVER, SUSSEX-! 

LIDBROOK AND LYDNEY RAILWAY. 

(SEE SEVERN AND WYE RAILWAY.) 



LISKEARD AND LOOE CANAL 

6 George IV. Cap. 163, Royal Aaent Sted Jane, 182$. 

« 

Thk LUkeard and Looe Canal commences 'at Tarras PDJ, and 
proceeds from thence in a northerly direction to the parish of Lis- 
heard, terminating at Moortwater, 156 feet above the level of the 
sea. The distance which it passes over is five miles and seven far- 
longs, and in its coarse there are twenty-five locks. The estimated 
cost of completing the works, as made by Mr. John Edgecombe, 
was £14,577, 8*. There is a short branch of about a mile in length 
to Sand Place. 

An act for executing this canal was obtained in 1845, under 
the title of * An Act for making and maintaining a navigable 

* Canal from Tarras Pill, in the parish of Duloe, m the county of 

* Cornwall, to or near Moortwater, in the parish of Idskeard, in 

* the said county, and for making several Roads to c o m mu nica t e 

* therewith,' By this act the proprietors are incorporated as " The 
« Liskeard and Looe Union Canal Company," and have power to 
cut the canal, roads and other works connected therewith, to take 
water from the River Looe and Crylla Rivulet, and to use part of 
the latter as a feeder, under certain restrictions; and that no in. 
jury may be done to the navigation of the Fowey, of which river 
the Crylla is a tributary stream, two engineers are to be appointed, 
one by the company, the other by the Mayor and Corporation of 
Lostwithie], to inspect the same. The company are also empow- 



LIVERPOOL AND ■AWCITCaTBR RAIL WAV. 415 

«Ad*jatoMiler»«idki<!lfa^pkBet,aadfardig the eanal 4 
f#*t deep, with a width of 14 feet at the bottom and ft feet at 
the surface. For aeasntolishing these purposes, the act direets 
a aara of £13,000 to be rased in share* of £45 each; and in 
caw that tan shookl prove iomffieient, the company may rah* 
£l0fi0O m addition, by mortgage. For paying interest and con- 
tin g e n t fitfftmt the feih wr iag are to be received aa. 



TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE RATES. 

: d. 
tot all Lime-stone, Calm or Coal for burning Lima, Sand, v 

Oreweed, Dang or any ether Mum, except Salt and f -, __-,„_ „„.. 

Burnt Lime, Building-stone, Freestone, Granite, Clay t u n P» » ">. P« «*■ 

and Stone for making Roads J 

For Lime. ; ,. o 7 ditto, ditto. 

For all Wheat, Barley, Oats, Bran, Flour, Meal and Potatoes 10 ditto. ditto. 
Far all Tin-ece, Copper-ore, Lead-ore, iron-stone, Antt- » 

mony, Manganese, and all other Metals, Semi-Metals / . , Mt , .,,. 

and Mtaerais not smelted, Coals and Culm not used f ° 7 am - <UHOk 

(or burning Lime..., ) 

For an Tm, Copper, Lead, Iron, and all other Metals baring S 

been smelted, Bricks, Tiles, Timber, Charcoal, Deals, { 

Wood, Faggots, Bark, Seeds, Vetches, Peas.Paper, Old! . .,• .,„.. ..„ 

Junk or Rags, Salt and all other Goods, Wares, Mer. f ' '» dltto - ° ato - 

ehandize and Things whatever, Hay, Straw, Cattle, 

Calves, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts J 

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things landed on ) 

any Wharf, but not remaining more than Seventy-two > per Ton. 

Hours J 

For ditto after the Ant Seventy .two Hours 6 ditto, per Day. 

Fractions of a Ton to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter. 
Fractions of a Mile as the Quarters, and of a Quarter as a Quarter. 

Lord* of manors and others may erect wharfs and warehouses 
on the line, haying first obtained the company's consent. And 
should the work not be completed in five years from the date of 
the act, me powers thereof are to cease. 

This canal was projected for the purpose of facilitating the 
transport of coals, timber, stone, minerals and other products of 
(he mines and lands on its line and in the vicinity, and of various 
composts and manure for the use of the farmer, and it fully 
answers the intention of the projectors. 



LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY. 

TGeo.IV.C 49.R.A. Sth May, 18B8. T*8Geo.IV.aai,RA.lfthApril r I8»7. 
SGeo.IV.C. 7,R.A.38th Mar. 1808. 10 Geo. IV. C. 35, B- A. 14th May, 1838. 

After various disappointments, and at above jr?30,000 expen- 
diture, this company succeeded in their application to parliament, 



416 LIVBRPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY. 

and obtained an act in the year 1820, under the title of i A»idet 
'■far making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the 
' town of Liverpool to the town of Manchester, with cerium 
' Branches therefrom, all in the county of Lancaster.' By thai 
act, obtained for constructing this magnificent work, certain 
subscribers were incorporated as u The Liverpool and Man- 
" Chester Railway Company," with powers to make and "— -**fl & » 
a railway or tramroad with collateral branches, commencing' on 
the east side of Wapping in the town of Liverpool, and pnssiiift 
through the several parishes of Liverpool, Walton, ChildwalL 
Huyton, Prescot, Winwick, Warrington, Leigh, Eccles and Man- 
chester, in the county palatine of Lancaster; and extending to or 
passing through the townships of Liverpool, West Derby, Waver- 
tree, Much Woolton, Thingwall, Roby, &c &c to Salford and 
Manchester, terminating near the south-west side of the New 
Bailey Prison in Salford, in the parish of Manchester, near the New 
Bailey Bridge over the IrwelL The branches mentioned in the act 
are one from certain closes called the Ridings, in the parish of Prea- 
cot, running northwardly to Whiston Potteries; the other running 
southwardly from the same place and terminating in the Lower 
Houghton Hays in Whiston aforesaid. The proprietors have 
power also to make inclined planes on any part of the work ; they 
are likewise directed to make that part of the line, which shall be 
in the town of Liverpool by means of a tunnel under the same, in 
a direction laid down on the original plan, subject to the inspeo 
tion and approval of the corporation surveyor, and to purchase 
houses undermined, if the owners require it Locomotive engines 
are not to be used in the town, nor are steam engines to be set on 
certain lands therein specified. Not more than twenty-two yards 
in breadth to be taken, except in certain cases. 

For completing the work the company are authorized to raise 
£510,000, in shares of £100 each, of which the Marquis of 
Stafford shall hold one thousand, and which shall be subscribed for 
before the work commences; and should that sum prove insuffi- 
cient, they may raise £197,600 additional, on mortgage of the 
works. 

Before any dividends out of the profits are declared, the pro- 
prietors are to invest one-tenth parU>f such profits in government 



LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY. 417 

i as a fond to be used in future, instead of making additi- 
onal calls; and when such fond shall amount to £100,000, then 
the whole of the profits shall be divided, and until the fond shall 
amount to the said sum of £100,000, the dividends on the reserved 
fund shall be added thereto ; but when by these means the 
£100,000 is made up, then the nett profits of the work and the 
dividends on the fond shall both be divided amongst the subscribers. 
When the annual dividends on shares amount to £10 per share, 
the company are bound to lower their tonnage rates £5 per cent 
sad when the profits do not amount to £10 per share per annum, 
then the deficiency shall be made up from the reserved fond. The 
following are to be taken as 

TONNAGE RATES. 

rf. 

ForaULtme-stoDe 1 per Too, per Mile. 

For til Cteal, Lure, Dung, Compost, Manure, and Materials fori , „„ dttto. 

For all Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, Stone, Sand, Clay, j 

Building, Paving and Pitching-stones, Flags, Bricks, V 2 ditto. ditto. 

Tiles and States 3 

For all Sugar. Corn, Grain, Flour, Dye Woods, Timber, Staves,, „. j.„„ j i(f „ 

Desk, Lead, Iron and other Metals i ** mna 

For all Cotton and other Wool, Hides, Drugs, Manufactured j 

Goods, and all other Wares, Merchandize, Matters or t 3 ditto. ditto. 

Things _.... ) 

Where the Amount of Tolls from shortness of Distance do not amount to One Shilling 
per Ton, the Proprietors are empowered to demand that Sum. 

Chaises, Gigs, Coaches and Passengers and Cattle, may pass on the Railroads on paying 

«. d. 

For every Person travelling thereon, not more than Ten Miles, in any Vehicle I 6 

For ditto exceeding Ten JOles but not above Twenty Miles 3 • 

For ditto above Twenty Miles 4 

For every Horse, Mule, Ass or other Beast of Draught or Burthen, and for •> 

every Ox, Cow, Bull or Neat Cattle, carried in or on such Carriage, not > 2 8 

exceeding Fifteen Miles ) 

For ditto exceeding Fifteen Miles 4 

Forevery Calf, Sheep, Lamb or Pig, any Distance 9 

Fractions of a Ton and of a Mile to be reckoned as the Quarters in that Fraction, and 
of a Quarter as a Quarter. 

The proprietors may carry goods, &c. of all descriptions upon 
the said railroad, and charge for the same, including the befbre- 
mentioned rates, the following 

CARRIAGE RATES. 

». d. 
ft* »U Lime, Lime-stone, Dong, Compost, Manure and Ma- ) 

trials for Roads, Stone, Sand, Clay, Building, Pitching V 8 per Ton. 
LodPavtng-stones, Tiles, Slates, Thnbtr, Staves and Deals J 

2 » 



418 LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY. 

CARRIAGE RATES CONTINUED. 

». it. 

For all Sugar, Com, Grain, Flour, Dye Woods, Lead, Iron and } „ „ „ -„_ 

other Metal* .... J 9 "I 1 " 1 ™' 

For all Cotton and other Wools, Hides, Drugs, Groceries and 1 , , n .... 

Manufactured Goods ! u " m " a 

For all Wines, Spirits, Vitriol, Glass and other hazardous Goods 14 ditto. 

For all Coal, Coke, Culm, Charcoal and Cinders 2\ ditto, per Mile. 

All shorter Distances in Proportion. 

For all Persons, Cattle and other Animals, such Rates as the Company may decide upon. 

The Company are not, however, compelled to receive less than Two Shillings per 
Ton, for short Distances; they may also fix the Rates for Parcels not exceeding 
Five Hundredweight, and may from time to time vary and repeal the said Rates. 

This act, which is very long, comprising not less than two 
hundred clauses, contains nothing more of interest to general 
readers, the parts not mentioned being for the protection of private 
individuals. 

In 1827 another act was obtained under the designation of 
' An Act far amending and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of 
( an Act, relating to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway ;' by 
which the former act was amended and enlarged, and leave was 
given to the company to borrow £ 100,000 of the Exchequer Bill 
Commissioners, or of other persons ; and it is provided that subscri- 
bers who do not pay their calls at the appointed time, shall pay 
interest on the sums due ; it is also provided that the subscribers 
shall receive interest at five per cent, upon the amount of their 
subscriptions, besides the £10 per share dividend, without making 
any deduction from their maximum tonnage rates. 

Another act was obtained in 1 828, having for title, ' An Act to 
' enable the Company of Proprietors of the Liverpooland Manchester 
4 Railway to alter the Line of the said Railway, and for amending 
1 and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of the several Acts 
' relating thereto.' 1 By this act alterations were made in the line of 
the railway originally laid down ; one of the deviations is in the 
township of Sutton ; another alteration from a field in that town- 
ship to a field in Burtonwood ; another in the townships of Newton 
and Culcheth ; and the same was now directed to be made 
according to an amended plan, the details of which it is unnecessary 
to enter into. 

However, the company still found that their line might be 
improved, for in the following year a fourth act was passed, as 
' An Act for enabling the Liverpool and Manchester Railway 



LIVERPOOL AND MANCHB8TEB RAILWAY. 410 

1 Coimfany to make an Alteration in the Line of the said RaHway, 
* and for attending and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of 
1 the several Ads relating thereto.' 

By this act the line was varied again, so as to pass from Oldfiekl 
Road across Ordsall Lane and the River Irwell to Water Street, 
instead •( pasting over the Bolton, Bury and Manchester Canal to 
irwell Street, near the New Bailey Prison ; and the proprietors 
wore authorised to build bridges over the Irwell and Water Street 
fa Manchester. The estimate for this part of the line, abandoned 
fcr the one substituted by tins act, was £l 1,802, of which £10,216, 
Ms. was for land purchased. Mr. George Stevenson calculated the 
expenses ef the present line to be £10,229, 10*. in which sum 
£600 is considered as two years' rent of the land on the line, which, 
being already contracted for at an annual chief rent, would not be 
paid for in a gross sum ; and die cost of building the bridges at 
£9,000, leaving together a balance of £729, 10*. for contingent 
easts. In the former part of this de s criptio n of the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway, we have quoted the carriage rates which the 
company are empowered to take. 

In making the estimates of the cost of this work, no contem- 
plation was had of the expense of forming an establishment for the 
carriage of goods; by this act, therefore, it is provided that a fund 
of £127,500 shall be raised for that purpose, in shares of £25 each, 
either amongst themselves or by the admission of new members. 
The accounts of this department are to be kept separate, and 
separate dividends are to be made in respect thereof. The raising 
of this fund is not to prejudice the power of borrowing money for 
completing the railroad, granted by the first act The length of 
the deviated line, as stated by Mr. G. Stevenson, and Mr. Joseph 
Lock his assistant, according to the plan adopted by the act of 1828, 
is eleven miles and nine hundred and seventy yards, and the 
estimate of the deviation £167,009, 4*. 4d. 

The whole length of the railway, including the tunnel under 
Liverpool, is thirty miles and three quarters, in which distance 
there are three inclined planes, viz. at Sutton, Rainhill and the 
tunnel at Liverpool. The rise at the tunnel is 110 feet in one 
thousand nine hundred and seventy yards; the next one thousand 
yards is level; then in five miles and one furlong, there is a fall of 

2 d 2 



420 LIVERPOOL DOCKS AND HARBOUR 

24 feet 7 inches ; then in one mile and a half up the Rainhill 
Inclined Plane, there is a rise of 82^ feet ; and from Rainhill to 
Sutton, a distance of one mile and seven furlongs, is level ; then a 
fall of 82j feet in one mile and a half; in the next two miles and 
a half there is a fall of 5 feet ; and in the following six miles and a 
half there is a fall of 37 feet ; this is the lowest point on the railway ; 
from whence, in the next five miles and a half, is a rise of 21 feet 
l£ inches; the last four miles and a half to Manchester, are leveL 
Adjoining the great tunnel at Liverpool there is also constructed 
another short one, for the accommodation of carriages taking 
passengers. Mr. George Stevenson has been the engineer to this 
undertaking, under whose superintendence the work has been ably 
conducted ; Messrs. G. and J. Rennie were also called in upon 
particular occasions by the promoters of the undertaking. 

The utility of the work cannot yet be fairly estimated ; but if it 
should answer the high expectations now entertained, it will be one 
of the most lucrative concerns in the kingdom, and of the utmost 
importance to the great trading towns of Liverpool and Man- 
chester, as well as to the district of country through which it passes. 



LIVERPOOL DOCKS AND HARBOUR. 

8 Anne, C. 12, R. A. 1710. 3 Geo. I. C. 1, R. A. 1716. 

II Geo. II. C. 32, R. A. 1737. 2 Geo. III. C. 80, R. A. 17«. 

25 Geo. III. C. IS, R. A. 1785. 39 Geo. III. C. 59, R. A. 21st June, 179ft 

51 Geo. HI. C. 143, R. A. 10th June. 1811. 59 Geo. III. C. 30, R. A I9th May, 181* 

6 Geo. IV. C. 187, R. A. 27th June, 1825. 9 Geo. IV. C. 114, R. A. 27th June, 18*8. 

The acts for improving the port of Liverpool and for com- 
pleting and maintaining the docks, quays, basins, works and 
buildings erected and made there, are of too general a nature to 
be stated at large in these pages, particularly as they do not form 
an essential part of a work exclusively on inland navigation. It 
may therefore suffice to remark, that trustees for the management 
of these works are incorporated under the title of " The Trustees 
" of the Liverpool Docks," and have powers to purchase land, 
enlarge such docks as are necessary, to make others with their 
accompanying buildings, and to raise monies for the execution of 
the trusts confided to them. To enter more particularly into the 
precise terms of these acts and the sums of money each directs to 



LLANKLLY RAILWAY AND DOCK. 431 

betsised, woald not be of general interest ; the works are executed 
with doe regard to the trade and interests of that flourishing town, 
and the whole are of the most magnificent description. The har- 
bour here, as may be seen from the map, is entirely artificial, 
being formed within the town and communicating with the river. 
Few ports in Europe can vie with these works, or with the con- 
veniences for loading and unloading of vessels. There are both 
wet and dry docks, with graving docks and other requisites for 
repairing vessels. The warehouses are of uncommon size, com- 
prising several stories, with cranes, &c to each. Government has 
here a large warehouse for tobacco, and each part of the docks and 
buildings is eminently adapted to the purpose for which H is 
designed. 



LLANELLY RAILWAY AND DOCK. 

9 George IV. Cap. 91, Royal Ajeent 19th June, 1818. 

This work was projected for the purpose of conveying the 
minerals and other productions of the country near its line to the 
sea, and the dock was for the readier shipment and landing of the 
exports and imports to be conveyed thereon. 

The scheme met with the approbation of parliament in an act, 
entitled, * An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tram- 
' road from Gelly Gillie Farm, m the parish of IAanelty, in the 
1 county of Carmarthen, to Machynis Pool in the same parish and 
' county ; and for making and maintaining a Wet Dock at the 
* Termination of the said Railway or Tramroad at Maehynis Pool 
' aforesaid.' By this act the proprietors are incorporated under 
*e style of " The Ltenelly Railroad and Dock Company," and 
have authority to complete the projected railway and dock, the 
cost of which is estimated at the sum of £14,000, to be raised in 
Aares of £100 each ; and in case the said £14,000 should prove 
to be insufficient for the completion of the works, they are empow- 
ered to raise, on mortgage or by annuity, a further sum of £8,000. 
13te dock to be so constructed as to be large enough for ships of 
*ree hundred tons burthen, with slips, poles, beacons, warping and 



422 LLANELLV RAILWAY AND DOCK. 

mooring buoys, chains and capsterns, and the company are to build 
wharfs, warehouses and other works necessary for the purposes of 
the act. The following are to be taken as 

DOCK, WHARFAGE, WAREHOUSING AND TONNAGE RATES. 

«. d. 

For all Ships or Vessels entering the Dock or Basin, and not ) _ 

continuing therein above Twenty-one Days J P 3 n ' 

Above that Time, per Week additional o 1 ditto. 

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things, navi- 1 

gated into or out of the Dock or Basin ' ' ' ditto. 

For all Sand, Lime-stone and Lime for Manure, Dung, Com- "i 

post and other Manures and Materials for Roads, con- f 1 ditto, per Mile. 

veyed on the Railway ) 

For all Copper, Tin, Lead and other Ores, and all Matters, 

containing Ore, Copper, Lead, Iron and other Metals ; I 

Timber, Coal, Coke, Culm, Cinders, Stone, Bricks, > 0$ ditto. ditto. 

Earth, Clay, Chalk, Marl, Lime and Sand, not used for f 

Manure J 

For Parcels or Packages lying Seven Days in the Company's > 

Warehouses, if not exceeding One Hundred Weight J ° * ea ch- 

Above that Weight 4 per CwU 

Coarse Goods not in Packages 3 eperTon. 

For every Horse, Mule and Ass, not drawing Goods nor » 

going from Farm to Farm or to the Commons 5 2 each. 

The Rates of small Parcels, not weighing more than Five Hundred Weight, are to be 

regulated by the Company. 
Fractions of a Ton and a Mile to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as 

a Quarter. 
All Vessels belonging to his Majesty, or conveying Soldiers, Arms and Baggage, or 
belonging the Ordnance, Customs, Excise or Post-Offlce, are exempted from 
these Rates; as are also Owners of Lands on the Line and their Servants and 
Cattle. 

The length of the railway is two miles and three hundred 
yards, in which distance there is a rise of 68 feet above high- 
water-mark ; the dock is two hundred yards by fifty-five at the 
bottom, calculated lo hold twenty-one vessels of three hundred tow 
as mentioned above ; the depth is 16 feet below high- water-mark 
of the highest spring tides, and the flood-gates at the entrance are 
36 feet wide. Mr. F. Foster estimated the whole at £11,736, 3*. 
4d. including £8,074, 10*. the cost of the dock and other conveni- 
ences. The engineer's estimate was subscribed for in equal 
portions by Messrs. D. T. Shears, J. H. Shears, T. Margrave and 
W. Ellwood, Juu. 

The work is completed and is found useful for the intended 
objects of its projection. 



LLANLLYFIN AND CARNARVON RAILWAY. 

(SEE NANTLLE RAILWAY.) 



LLANFIHANGEL RAILWAY. 433 

LLANFIHANGEL RAILWAY. 

SI George UI. Cap. 133, Royal Ascot 2Sth May, 1811. 

This railway commences at a level of 447 feet above the sea, 
on the banks of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, with which 
it communicates, and proceeds from thence in a circuitous course 
nearly north-east to its junction with the Grosmont or Llanfihangel 
Crucomey Railroad at Llanfihangel Crucorney Court, in the 
county of Monmouth. 

The act for this work was passed in 1811, under the title of 
' An Act for making a Railway from the Brecknock and Aberga- 
' vexny Canal, in the parish of Llanwenarth, to or near to Llanfi- 
' hangel Crucorney in the county of Monmouth,' whereby the 
proprietors are incorporated as " The Llanfihangel Railway 
" Company," and empowered to make a railway from the coal 
wharf of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, in the parish of 
Llanwenarth, to the village of Llanfihangel Crucorney, in the 
county of Monmouth, by or near the Cadvor, Penyr Worlod, 
Lanfbrst, and Maerdy, across the Usk, by or through the town of 
Abergavenny and other places, and to make inclined planes on the 
fine. For the purposes of this act it is directed that £20,000 shall 
be raised in shares of £200 each, and if that sum should prove 
■sufficient, they may obtain an addition of £15,000 by borrowing 
on mortgage of the work. 

TONNAGE AND OTHER RATES. 

4. 
For all Dune, Comport, Lime-atone, Manure and Material* for > „ „ _. __ ui . 

Roads f 2P«Tou,perMile. 

For aULtae, Chalk, Marl, Ashes, Peat, Clay, Bricks and Sand 3 ditto. ditto. 
For all Coals, Cinders, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Tin, Copper, ■> 

Les4-ore,I«ad in Pigs or Sheets, Iron-stone or Ore, Iron in V 4 ditto. ditto. 

Pigs and Bars, Tiles, Slates, Flag-stones and other Stones J 
For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever 6 ditto. ditto. 
For Hones, Colts, Mules or Asses, not drawing any Goods > 

liable to Toll, and for Cows, and Horned or Neat Cattle, V 1 each. 

asgapt Swine or Sheep ) 

For all Swine and Sheep 8 per Score. 

For Persons travelling In all privileged Waggons, carrying « . m . e ^^ 

Passengers for Hire J " ' 

Parcels under Five Hundred Weight to be paid for according to a Rate fixed by the 

Proprietors. 

Tickets to be delivered by the Collector of Tolls, and no Toll to be paid for the same 

Horse or other Animal more than once in the Day. 



444 LONDON AND CAMBRIDGE JUNCTION CANAL. 

Lords of manors or the company may erect wharfs and 
houses on the line, for using which they shall charge the following 

WHARFAGE AND WAREHOUSING RATES. 

<L 
For Coal, Cuim, lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, IroiiJtone, Lead or other i , B _ qv _ 
Ores, Timber, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Gravel or other Things..} 'P**"^ 

For Packages of not more tbsn Fifty-six Pounds 1 each. 

For ditto above Fifty-six Pounds and not exceeding Five Hundred Weight X ditto. 
For ditto exceeding Five Hundred Weight SperToa. 

But if the same shall remain on any Wharf or in any Warehouse fora longer Time.than 
Forty-eight Hours, then the Proprietors may charge, in addition, One Penny per 
Ton lor Wharfage and Three-pence per Ton for Warehousing, for the next Tea 
Days, and the same Sums respectively for every Day the said Goods shall remain 
on the Wharfs or in the Warehouses, 

There are other clauses, but of no general interest Mr. William 
Croasley made the estimate of this railroad in 1810, and stated 
that a single railroad would cost £13,390, 12*. and a double one 
£17,862. The length of the road is eleven thousand six hundred 
and six yards, and the money originally subscribed £l 5,400. 



LONDON AND CAMBRIDGE JUNCTION CANAL. 

St George in. Cap. 141, Royal Assent Mh June, ISO. 
94 George UI. Cap. 188, Royal Assent 90th June, 1814. 

As far back as the year 1778 Mr. Whitworth pointed oat to 
die Common Council of the City of London, the public advantage 
which would accrue by making a canal from Bishop's Stortfbrd to 
Cambridge ; and that body gave him orders, as their engineer, to 
make a survey of the country between th